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THE 



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THE 



USEFUL PLANTS OF INDIA; 



WITH NOTICES OF 



THEIR CHIEF VALUE IN COMMERCE, 
MEDICINE, AND THE ARTS. 



BY 
COLONEL HEBER DRURY, 

AUTHOB OF THE 'HANDBOOK OF THB INDIAN FLOBA.' 



" Simul etjueunda ei Idonea dicere vitce." 

—Hob. 



SECOND EDITION. 

WITH ADDITIONS AND CORBBOTIONS. 



LONDON: 
WILLIAM a ALLEN & CO. 

13 WATERLOO PLACE, S.W. 
1873. 



CONTENTS. 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION, . 

.. SECOND EDITION, 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS, 
PLANTS DESCRIBED, 



APPENDIX, 



TABLE OP EXPORTS AND THEIR VALUE, 
INDEX OF HINDOSTANEE AND BENGALEE 



It 



ti 



»i 



TAMIL SYNONYMS, . 
TELOOGOO SYNONYMS, 
MALAYALAH SYNONYMS, 



GENERAL INDEX, . 



PAOB 

» 

Tl 

X 
XIU 



460 



481 



SYNONYMS, 482 

492 
496 
499 
503 



PEEFACE TO THE FIEST EDITION. 



An increasing demand for everything relating to the vegetable 
productions of India has of late years been the means of 
eliciting from various quarters much useful information, tend- 
ing to a more extensive acquaintance with, ad well as improve- 
meht of, the natural resources of the country. The idea that 
a collection of ascertained facts regarding the uses of Indian 
plants is still a desideratum, led to the compilation of the 
following pages. A vast quantity of miscellaneous matter is 
scattered throughout the pages of Eheede, Ainslie, Roxburgh, 
Wallich, Wight, Eoyle, and others who have written on the 
subject of Indian botany; and it frequently occurred to me, 
that were an attempt made to collect in a single volume the 
various notices on the chief uses of plants as recorded in their 
works, it would form a somewhat useful and desirable hand- 
book to a knowledge of our botanical resources. Undoubtedly, 
many of the so-called uses of Indian plants are now either 
entirely obsolete, or, owing to the advancement of science and 
more extended investigations in the departments of medical 
and economical botany, have been tested and corrected by 
recent observers; while numerous doubts and errors have been 
either cleared up or exploded. 

The reports of the juries on the timber, vegetable oils, drugs, 
&c., submitted to the Madras Exhibition in 1855, are so many 
evidences of the richness and variety in these important sec- 
tions of the natural products of the Indian Peninsula; and 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION, Vll 

fuiiher show how well that exhibition was calculated for the 
attaininent of the best results, the development to a great 
degree of resources hitherto so little known. 

With a view to render more familiar the knowledge of 
subjects so replete with interest and utility, I undertook the 
present compilation. I have not aimed at the production of a 
scientific work, for which I do not- consider myself qualified ; 
but have merely endeavoured to offer a guide to the amateur, 
especially to those sojourners and residents in India whose 
leisure hours may induce them to foUow a pursuit than which 
few are more attractive or delightful 

The short descriptions, which it is hoped are sufficient 
to identify the plants enumerated, are taken from the best 
authorities; and in this, as in every other instance, I have 
acknowledged the sources from whence I have drawn my 
varied information. At the same time, it will be found that 
some new faets have been adduced, drawn from personal 
observation or inquiry, especially regarding plants growing 
in Travancore. Furthermore, whenever practicable, I have 
been particular in making references to the works of Indian 
botanists ; and in regard to the plants of this Presidency, no 
one could desire more sure or safe companions than Drs 
Boxburgh and Wight. 

It required both patience and consideration to arrange much 
contradictory and useless matter, without hastily rejecting any- 
thing that might be of importance ; while I laboured under 
great disadvantage, from the want of access to any public 
library or collection of botanical works and treatises — for 
numerous isolated notices on botanical subjects are scattered 
in various periodicals, which would not only have assisted me 
with increased information, but have enabled me to remedy 
the many omissions and defects which, I fear, will be detected 
in these pages. When I first commenced the undertaking, I 
was little aware of the obstacles I had to encounter, and soon 
had reason to see how extremely difficult it was to render a 
book of the kind so complete as the title would lead one 
to expect. Feeling the impossibility of gathering the facts 



Viii PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. 

■ 

requisite for the purpose, I had the alternative of relinquish- 
ing my labours at the commencement, or of collecting such 
information as I was able from the scanty materials at my 
disposal. 

To determine those limits which should constitute the 7i« 
pltis ultra of Indian plants was not the least difficult portion 
of my labours. I could not in a small volume embrace the 
varied flora of the Himalaya; yet there are some plants grow- 
ing in those regions, the uses of which are so important in a 
commercial point of view in this country, that I could hardly 
omit them, — ^viz., the Aconites, the Berberries, and others. I 
resolved, therefore, to make my plan so far arbitrary as to in- 
clude those plants of the Himalaya, Silhet, Assam, and other 
countries bordering on India, which have special and acknow- 
ledged uses, and whose importance and commercial value are 
recognised in Hindostan and the Lower Provinces. Again, 
with respect to naturalised plants, if I determined to mention 
only those which were in point of fact indigenous to India, I 
must have omitted many which have in course of time become 
naturalised, and cannot with propriety be separated from the 
Indian flora. Of these I may mention Linum usitcUissimum, 
Coesalpinia coriaria, Panicum, Itcdicum, IpomoRa batatas, and 
otliers which have been introduced, though perhaps from 
remote times, but, independently of position, soil, and culture, 
have so adapted themselves to the climate as to have become 
as it were Indian plants. Not so TJieohroma cacao, Caryo^ 
phyllus aromaiicus, and others, which only thrive under certain 
conditions of soil and climate, and therefore <»nnot strictly 
be included in a work professing to deal almost exclusively 
with the flora of India. 

Those who have never considered the subject are little aware 
how much the appearance and habit of a plant become altered 
by the influence of its position. It requires much observation 
to speak authoritatively on the distinction in point of stature 
between many trees and shrubs. Shrubs in the low country, 
small and stunted in growth, become handsome and goodly 
trees on higher lands, and to an inexperienced eye they appear 



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. IX 

to be different plants. The Jairopha curcas grows to a tree 
some 15 or 20 feet on the Neilgherries, while the Datura alba 
is three or four times the size x>n the hills that it is on the 
plains. It is therefore with much diffidence that I have 
occasionally presumed to insert the height of a tree or shrub. 
The same remark may be applied to flowers and the flowering 
seasons^ especially the latter. I have seen the Lagerstrosmia 
JSegiruB, whose proper time of flowering is March and April, 
previous to the commencement of the rains, in blossom more 
or less all the year in gardens in Travancore. I have endea- 
voured to give the real or natural flowering seasons, in con- 
tradistinction to the chance ones, but, I am afraid, with little 
success ; and it should be recollected that to aim at precision 
in such a part of the description of plants is almost hopeless, 
without that prolonged study of their local habits for which a 
lifetime would scarcely suffice. 

I gladly take this opportunity of recording my grateful sense 
of the assistance I received from Gleneral CuUen, British Besi- 

■ 

dent in Travancore and Cochin, who, with his usual liberality, 
permitted me free access to the valuable botanical works in 
his library,— an advantage, the importance of which was in- 
valuable, and which I might in vain have sought elsewhere in 
any private collection in this country. My best acknowledg- 
ments are due to the Honourable Walter Elliot and Dr Hugh 
Cleghorn, who kindly undertook the labour of revising the work 
during its progress through the press, my distance from the 
Presidency not admitting of personal superintendence. I am 
also indebted to Surgeon Edward Balfour, of the Madras Army, 
who kindly placed at my disposal a list drawn up by him of 
the commercial products of the Presidency, with reference to 
their exports and imports, to which I have made firequent 
reference in the following pages. 

H.D. 

Treyakdrttm, Sqfiember 1858. 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



Twelve years have elapsed since this work was first published, 
and during that time many important advances have been 
made in the knowledge of the vegetable treasures of our Indian 
possessions. Among the principal causes which have tended 
to develop an inquiry in the resources of the Forests of India 
have been the several local Exhibitions, which have probably 
done more than anything eLse to foster and maintain an interest 
in the acquisition of all information bearing on the uses of 
plants available for domestic or commercial purposes. At the 
satne time, the attention of the local governments was called to 
the neglected state of the forests, and under the able superin- 
tendence of Dr Hugh Cleghorn of the Madras Medical Depflirt- 
ment, the Forest Depeirtment sprang into existence, and rapidly 
became one of the most usefully organised institutions of the 
State. The preservation of the valuable timber-trees, hitherto 
so recklessly neglected and destroyed, became at once an 
object of paramount importance, and especially since the 
adoption of the railway system into the country, which neces- 
sitated the constant and unvarying supply of timber. Side by 
side with this determination to preserve our valuable resources 
of timber and fuel, Government resolved to stimulate and en- 
courage the introduction of such products of foreign growth as 
appeared most capable of being turned to good account in a 
social and economic point of view. Chief among these was 
the Cinchona experiment, which has been so successfully 



PBEFAGE TO THE SECOND EDITION. XI 

carried out under the original designs and guidance of Mr 
Clements Markham^ and which now promises the happiest 
results in producing and manufacturings in a country where it 
is so much needed, an abundant supply of excellent quinine at 
a very reasonable cost. 

To the above important measures — Forest Conservancy and 
the introduction of the Cinchona plant — ^may be added the 
encouragement given by Government to the extension and 
opening of new tea-plantations, especially in the North- Western 
I^ovinces and the Assam territories. European capital is now 
being largely ^employed in reclaiming vast tracts of waste 
forest-land, and, at the present rate of progress, it would be 
difficult to estimate the conmiercial advantages which must 
accrue some years hence from the continued application of 
labour, energy, and wealth by the British capitalist to these 
plantations. 

The Author trusts that this volume may show to some 
extent what are the chief resources of India in the above 
respect, and how they may be made available with the best 
effect; and, furthermore, what advantage has hitherto been 
taken of them. A work like the present, to be of any value, 
must keep pace with the discoveries of the day ; and however 
imperfect and meagre in detail some of the articles unavoid- 
ably are, yet the Author has spared no pains to render the in- 
formation on each subject as full and complete as the materials 
at his disposal admitted of. 

In the present edition a wider range has been given to 
plants of foreign origin introduced and nqw largely cultivated 
in the country, the omission of which, inasmuch as they yearly 
become of more commercial importance, would have been in- 
excusable. Among these may be mentioned Cinchona, Tea, 
Cacao, Tobacco, the Australian Eucalyptus, and others which 
may reasonably be admitted, as they are now so extensively 
cultivated in the country. 

It would have given the Author more satisfaction if he could 
have given a more uniform nomenclature of the native names 
of the plants described, but the subject is one of difficulty; and 



Xll PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

as complete unifonnity is not — at present^ at least — attainable, 
it has been considered best to defer so desirable an end until 
some future time, when perhaps a better result may be 
secured. 

It only remains for the Author to record his thanks to those 
who have assisted him in the collection of materials made use 
of. Among those he would particularly mention Dr Hugh 
Cleghom, so happily designated the 'Father of Forest Con- 
servancy in India/ and Dr E. J. Waring, the able editor of 
the 'Pharmacopoeia of India^^ a work replete with valuable 
information, which has frequently been laid, under contribution 
in these pages. 

Monmouth, October iS72. 



PRINGIPAL ABBREVIATIONS 

EMPLOYED IN THIS VOLUME. 



Aind. Ainslie's Materia Indica. 2 vols. 

Ait. Alton's HortoB Kewensis. 

And. Bot. jS<^. ...Andrew's Botanical Repositorj. 

AvhL Anblet, a French traveller and botanist 

Beauv. Beanyoir, Essai d'nne nouvelle Agrostographie. 

Beddomej Flora Sylvatica. 

Beng. Disp Bengal Dispensatory, by Dr W. O'Shanghnessy. 

Benth. Bentham, Labiatanun genera et species — Schrophula- 

rineso IndicsB. 

BL Blume (C. L.), Flora JavanensiB. 

Bot Mag. Curtis's Botanical Magazine. 

BoL Misc. Hooker's Botanical Miscellany. 

Buck, Dr Francis Hamilton, formerly Buchanan, whose 

'Journey/ MSS., and Herbarium are well known 

among botanists. 

Burm. Ind. Burmanni Flora Indica. 

Burnt. Zeyl. Burmanni Thesaurus Zeylanicus. 

Cav. le. Cavamlles (A. J.), Icones et descriptiones plantarum, 

qu88 aut sponte in Hispanift crescunt aut in hortis 
hospitantur. 6 vols. foL 1791— -1800. 

Cav. Dita. CayaniLles's MonadelphisB classis dissertationes decern. 

Choisyf A Swiss botanist who elaborated seyeral of the Natural 

Orders for De Candolle's Prodromus. 

Cleghornj Forests and Qardens of S. India. 

Comnu Prod. ...Commercial Products of the Madras Fresidency^as shown 

by its Exports and Imports. 

Corr. Oorrea (F.) de Serra. A botanical writer. 

Dtc De Candolle (A« P.), Prodromus Systematia Natnralis 

Regni V egetabilis. 
Deless. Icon. Delessert, Icones selectn plantarum, quas in systemate 

naturali descripsit De Candolle. 



XIV LIST OP ABBREVIATIONS. 

Demntss, Desrouflseaiix. An eminent botanical writer in 

Lamarck's Encjclop^e. 
Desv. Desvaux (N. A.) A French botanist, editor of 

the Journal Botanique. 

Don (Z>.) Prodromus florse Nepalensis. 

Drury, Handbook of the Indian Flora. 3 vols. 

Bndl, Endlicher, Qenera plantarum. 

For$k. ...■ Forskal (Peter). A famous Swedish naturalist ; 

author of Flora iElgyptiaco- Arabica, and other 
works. 

Gixrtn. Qoertner (J.), Defructibus et seminibus planta- 
rum. 2 vols. 4to, 1788. 
Grah. Cat Qraham's (J.) Catalogue of Bombay Plants. 

ffam Dr Francis Hamilton (formerly Buchanan). 

Author of a Journey to Mysore, and several 
papers in the transactions of the Tiinniiwn 
Society. 

Herb. Mad, Herbarium Maderaspatense formed by Drs 

Klein, Heyne, and Bottler. 

H. B. Kth Humboldt, Bonpland, and Eunth ; authors of 

Nova genera, et species plantarum ssquinoc- 
tialium orbis novL 

Hook. Bot, Misc Hooker's Botanical Miscellany. Also his Jour- 
nal of Botany. 

Jacq Jacquini icones plantarum rariorum. 3 yoIa. 

1781. 
Jv/ry, Rep, Mad. £xh..„J\uj Reports of the Madras Exhibition, 1855. 

Juss, Jussieu (Bernard de), Genera plantarum. 

Jtm, Jussieu (Adrien de). A celebrated botanist 

Kth, Eunth. An eminent Prussian botanist 

Koeru Eoenig, a Dfmish botanist Physician to the 

Tranquebar Mission in 1768. 

Lam Lamarck (J. B.) Editor to the botanical por- 
tion of the Encyclop^e M^thodique {Enc 
Meth.) Paris, 1783. 

Lesch, Leschenault de la Tour. A French botanist 

who travelled in the Moluccas, Java, and 
Sumatra. He was director of the Botanical 
Gardens at Pondicherry. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. XV 

LHerit. L'Heritier (C. L.) A French botanist, author of a 

work entitled Stirpes novae aut minus cognitss. 

Lindl. .., Lindley (Dr J.) A celebrated English botanist, author 

of the Vegetable Kingdom, Flora Medica {Flor, 
Med.)j and other works. 

Linn Linnseus. The founder of botanical science. His 

principal works are Species plantarum {Linn. Sp.), 
Mantissa plantarum {Idnn, Mont.), Flora Zeylanica 
(Fl, ZeyL) His son published a Supplementum 
plantarum. 

Lour, Loureiro, Flora Cochinchinensis. 1 vol. 1790. 

Pers, Persoon (C. H.), Synopsis plantarum. 

Pers, Obs. Personal Observation and Inquiry. 

PAorm. q^/nc^... Pharmacopoeia of India. Edited by E. J. Waring, 

M.D. 
Pluk. Plukenet (L.), an eminent botanical writer. His works 

are published in 4 vols. 4to, Lond. 1696-1705. 
Pair, Poiret (J. L. M.) A writer in Lamarck's Encyclo- 

pMie. 
Powell, Baden-Powell's Punjaub Products. 2 vols. 

JR. Br. Robert Brown. The most famous of living English 

botanists. 

Betz, Observationes botanic®, 1774. 

Mkeede, Author of the Hortus Malabaricus, 1 2 vols. foL, 1686- 

1703. 

Bich, Richard (L. C), and his son, AchiUe Richard, two 

eminent French botanists. 

Boem. et SchttU...^oemeT (J. J.) and Schultes (J. A.), authors of Linnssi 

systema veeetabilium. 

Bothy (A. W.) Author of Nov89 plantarum species prsBser- 

tim Indin orientalis. 

BotU. Rottler (Dr). An Indian botanist, for a long time re- 
siding at Tranquebar. 

Bo:^ Roxburgh (Dr W.) One of the most indefatigable of 

Indian botanists. His principal works are Flora 
Indica {Fl. Ind.), 3 vols. An edition was published 
by Carey and N. Wallich at Serampore {Fd. Car.) 
Plants of the Coromandel Coast {Cor.) Hortus 
Benghalensis. He left behind him also drawings of 
plants in the East India Company's Miiseum {F. I, 
C. Mus.) 

Boyle Fib. Plants,.Boyle on the Fibrous Plants of India. He also wrote 

on the cultivation of Cotton in India. 

Bumph. Rumphii Herbarium Amboinense. 



XVI LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 

RuizePav Ruiz (H.) and PaTon (J.) Authors of Flora Pero- 

viana et CMLensis. 

Simmonds, Commercial Products of the Vegetable Kingdom. 

Sim*$ Bot, Mag. ...Sim's Botanical Magazine. 

Stewartj ... .« Plants of the Punjaub. 

Swz. Swartz, Flora IndisD occidentalis. 3 vols., 1797. 

Thurib Thunbeig (C. P.), Flora Japonica. 

Tovm Toumefort, Institutiones rei herbariee. 

Vahl iSymb Yahl (M.), Symbolsa botanica. Enumeratio planta- 

rum. 

Veg. SvhsL Vegetable Substances. 3 vols. 12mo. 

Vent Ventenat (S. P.) A fjEonous French botanist 

WalL Wallich (N.), Planted Ajsiaticss rariores. Tentamen 

Floree Nepalensis. 
W. <k A Wight & Amott's Prodromus Florso PeninsulaB India 

orientalifl. 
Wight* 8 CorUrQ), ..Wight's Contributions to Indian Botany. 

Wights III. Wight's Illustrations of Indian Botany. 

WigMs Icon. Wight's Icones plantarum India orientalis. 

WUld, Willdenow (C. L.), Linnssi species plantarum. 



THE 



USEFUL PLANTS OF INDIA. 



A l^oun^ iuLnriX^L 




(1) AbelmoBchns escnlen^iM (TT. & il.) K 0. Malvace^. 

Esculent Okro, Eno. Bhindi, Ramturi. Hind. Bhondi, DuK. Venday, Tam. 
Benda, Tkl. Vendali, Mal. Dhenrooa, Beno. 

Description. — Biennial; stem herbaceous, hairy, without 
prickles; leaves on longish petioles, cordate, with 3-5 obtuse 
lobes, strongly toothed, scabrous on both sides, with short, 
appressed rigid hairs ; pedicels very short ; involucel-leaves 
10, deciduous ; capsule pyramidal, furrowed, elongated, acu- 
minated ; petals pale yellow, dark crimson at the base. FL 
All the year. — TT. & A. Prod. L 53. — Hibiscus esculentus, 

Linn. — H. longifolius, Roxb. Fl. Ind, iii. 210. Cultivated 

in gardens. 

Medical Uses. — ^Yaluable as an emollient and demulcent, also 
diuretic. Used in catarrh, dysuria, and other cases requiring demul- 
cent remedies. A decoction of the fresh immature capsules is in- 
haled with good effect in hoarseness and other affections of the 
throat The dried capsule may be used when the fresh ones are not 
procurable. The fresh capsules bruised, as well as the leaves, form 
good emollient poultices. — Phami. of India, Dr Gibson, 

EoONOMic Uses. — Though indigenous to the West Indies, this 
plant has long been naturalised in India. The capsule known 
fjEuniliarly as the Bendi-Kai is an excellent vegetable, and much 
esteemed for imparting a mucilaginous thickening to soups. The 
young pods are often gathered green, and pickled like capers. The 
stem yields a strong, silky, pliant fibre, well suited for the manu- 
facture of ropes, string, gunny- bags, and paper. They are exported 
to a slight extent as hemp, to which they bear considerable resem- 
blance. A bundle of them tested by Dr Eoxburgh bore a weight of 
79 lb. when dry, and 95 lb. when wet. — Roxb, Royle, Jury 
Rep, Mad, Exhib, 

1 



ABELMOSCHUS — ABROMA. 



(2) AbelmoBchuB moscliatas (MoeneJi). Do. 

Husk-mallow, Enq. Mashk-bhendi, DuK. Kiisturi-Venday, KAthe-Easturi, 
Tam. Kasturi-bendA^ Tel. Katta-Kasturi, Mal. Mushak-dana, BsNO. 

Description. — Stem herbaceous, hispid with spreading 
hairs, not prickly ; leaves, and long petioles, hispid with rigid 
hairs, but otherwise glabrous, unequally and coarsely toothed, 
deeply 5-7 lobed ; lobes all spreading, oblong or lanceolate ; 
pedicels harshly pubescent, axillary, about as long as the 
petioles ; involucel-leaves 6-10, linear, hairy ; capsule oblong, 
acuminated, hairy ; petals sulphur-coloured, dark crimson at 
the base. FL July — September. — W. <fc A. Prod, i 63. — 
Hibiscus abelmoschus, Linn. — H. longifolius, WiUd, — Bheede 
Mal. ii. t. 38. — Wight Icon. t. 399. Bengal. Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — The highly-scented seeds are cordial and 
stomachic. When bruised, they have been given for the purpose 
of counteracting the effects of the bites of venomous reptiles, being 
applied both externally and internally. In the West Indies they 
are first reduced to powder, and then steeped in rum, and in this 
state are administered in snake-bites. 

Economic Uses. — The plant abounds in mucilage, and is used in 
Upper India to clarify sugar. The seeds are used in Arabia for 
giving a perfume to coffee, and are also used in Europe as a substi- 
tute for animal musk in scenting powders and pomatums. The 
stem yields a strong fibre. Dr Eoxburgh cut the stems while in 
flower, and immediately steeped them in water ; these broke at an 
average weight of 107 lb., both when dry and wet. Among other 
fibre-yielding plants of this family may be mentioned the A. ficul- 
neiis (W. & A.), the bark of which contains a large proportion of 
very strong white fibre. — Royle. Jury Rep. Mad. Exhih. 

(3) Abroma augustnm (Linn.) N. O. BYTTNERiACEiE. 

Oolut-kmnbul, Beno. 

Debcription. — Small tree, 10-12 feet; branches soft, 
velvety; adult leaves ovate - oblong, semilate, under side 
tomentose, or scabrous with stellate pubescence ; lower leaves 
roundish-cordate, 3-5 angled ; calyx 5-partite ; petals five, 
with dilated claws ; flowers darkish purple, drooping ; wings 
of the fruit truncated at the apex, with the exterior angle 
acute ; peduncles terminal, leaf-opposed. FL Aug. — W. & A. 
Prod, i. 65. — Roocb. Fl. Ind. iii. 156. Interior of the Pen- 
insula. 



ABRUS. 3 

Economic Uses. — This plant, known familiarly as the " Devil's 
Cotton," is a doubtful native of India, though the above locality is 
given on the authority of Roxburgh. The bark yields a tough 
iibrous tissue, firom which cordage is manufactured, and is considered 
a good substitute for hemp. The tree succeeds well in most parts 
of the country, and grows quickly, yielding three or four crops 
annually fit for peeling. Dr Hoxburgh called special attention to 
the plants inasmuch as it was more easy of cultivation than Sunn 
{OrotcUaria ju7ieea), and the average produce almost three times 
greater. To prepare the fibres, the bark is steeped in water for 
about a week, beyond which they require no further cleaning ; and 
in this state, without any subsequent preparation, they are one-tenth 
stronger than Sunn, and not liable to become weaJi^ened through 
exposure to wet. A cord made from these fibres bore a weight of 
74 lb., that of Sunn only 68 \h,—Roxh. Royle's Fib, Plants, 

(4) Abnu iHrecatorins (lAnn,) N. 0. Leouminosje. 

wad or country Uqnorice, Enq. Ghungchi, Ounj, Hind. Gumchi, DuK. 
Gunda-mani, KuDri-mani, Tah. Gnri-ginja, Guru-venda, Tel. Kunni-kuru, Mal. 
Knnch, Gunj, Bbng. 

Description. — Twining ; young shoots with a few ad- 
pressed hairs at the apex; leaves alternate, abruptly pin- 
nated; leaflets 8-20 pair, linear-oval> obtuse at both ends, 
glabrous or slightly hairy; calyx campanulate, obsoletely 
4-lobed, upper lobe broadest; racemes axillaiy, peduncled, 
many-flowered ; flowers pale purple or rose-coloured ; legumes 
oblong, compressed, 4-6 seeded; seeds roundish, distinct. 
Fl. April— October.— TT. <fc A, Prod, L 236.— Boa*. Flor. Irul, 
iii. 258. — Glycine abrus, Linn. — Rheede Mal, viii. t. 39. 
Southern Peninsula. Mysore. Hindostan. Assam. 

Medical Uses. — ^The root yields an extract similar in medicinal 
properties to Liquorice, though somewhat bitterish. The leaves 
yield even, more than the root. The latter, mixed up with honey, 
are applied externally to swellings; and, pulverised and chewcti 
with sugar, are given to mitigate coughs. Liinan states that in 
Jamaica they are used instead of tea In Java the roots are con- 
sidered demulcent, and the mucilage is there combined with some 
bitter. The seeds are occasionally employed externally in ophthalmia. 
The white seeds are considered to act as a poison, producing vomit- 
ing and convulsions, but not unusually fatal to man. The smallest 
fatal dose is one tolah. The expressed juice of the leaves is said to 
be useful in aphthae. — Ainslic, PowelVa Punj, Prod, 

Economic Uses. — There are five varieties of this creeper, with 
scarlet, black, white, yellow, and blue seeds. The scarlet are mosrt 
common. These, which have a jet-black spot at the top, are n8(?d 



4 ABUTILON — ^ACACIA. 

^y jewellers and druggists as weights, each weighing almost uni- 
formly one grain. The goldsmiths reduce them to a fine powder, 
and in this state use them to increase adhesion in the more delicate 
parts of manufactured ornaments. They are also used for beads and 
rosaries, whence the specific name. The Hindoos prize them for 
necklaces and other ornaments. In Hindoostan they are known as 
the Hetti weights. — Lindley. Ainslie. 

(5) Abatilon Indicum {O. Don). N. 0. Malvacks. 



Coantry mallow, Eno. Eaoghi, Hind. Kangoi, Dijk. Tutti, Penm-tutti, 1 
Tuttura-benda, Kugu-benda, Tuttiri-chettu, Tbl, Pettaka-putti, Tutta, Ui 



Tam. 

- „ , , . . . ^ram. 

Mal. 



Description. — Shrub, 2-3 feet; leaves cordate, somewhat 
lobed, soft, shortly tomentose, iinequally toothed ; calyx 5-cleft, 
without an involucel ; pedicels erect, axillary, longer than the 
petioles, jointed near the flowers ; corolla spreading ; capsules 
truncated ; carpels 11-20, acute, not awned, hairy ; flowers 
longish, orange-coloured. FL July. — TT. & A, Prod. L56. — 
Sida Indica, lAnn, — S. populifolia, Lam, — Wight Icon, t 12. 

Bengal Southern Provinces. Common in most parts of 

the country. 

Medical Use& — The leaves contain a great deal of mucUage, and 
are used in the same manner as the marsh-mallows in Europe. A 
decoction of them is used both by European and native practitioners 
as an emollient fomentation ; and an infusion of the roots is given 
as a cooling drink in fevers. — Ainslie. 

Economic Uses. — ^The stem yields a strongish fibre, fit for the 
manufacture of ropes. Wight remarks that there is no character of 
any importance to separate this species from A, Asiaticum, Another 
species, the A, polyandrum (W. & A.), found on the Neilgherries 
and about Nundidroog, yields a long silky fibre resembling hemp, 
also fit for making ropes ; and samples of it were submitted to the 
Madras Exhibition. — JRoxb. Jury Rep. Mad, Exhih, 

(6) Acacift Arabica {Willd,) N. O. Leouminosa. 

Babool, Eikar, Hind. EAli-kikar, Dns. Kura-veylam, Karu-yel, Tam. Nalla- 
tumma, Barburamu, Tummachettu, Tel. Kani-velakam, Mal. Bab^l, Bxng. 

Description. — ^Tree, 30-40 feet, armed with stipulary thorns; 
leaves bipinnated; pinnae about five pair ; leaflets 15-20 pair, 
glabrous ; peduncles aggregated, axillary or forming a raceme 
by the abortion of the leaves ; heads of flowers globose ; sta- 
mens distinct ; legumes stalked, thickish, contracted on both 
sutures between the seeds; flowers small, bright yellow. 



ACACIA. 5 

fragrant. FL May — Oct. — W. A A, Prod, i 277. — Mimosa 
Arabica^ Lam, Roxb, Fl. Ind. iL 557. Cor. ii t 149. 
Bengal. Coromandel, Deccan. 

Medioal Uses. — ^This tree, like oiheis of the same genus, yields 
a transparent gum, which is used as a substitute for real gum-Arabic, 
which is the produce of A, vera. The gum is procured by making 
incisions in the bark, and the sap running out hardens in lumps of 
yarious sizes and figures. It exudes principally in March and April 
The red kind is the most efficacious. It is used in coughs, rheuma- 
tism, and mucous discharges, and is also a useful food in diabetes. 
The bark is used as a tonic in infusion, and a strong decoction of it 
is employed as a wash for ulcers ; and finely powdered and mixed 
with Gingely oil, is recommended as an external application to 
cancerous affections. It may be used as a substitute for oak-bark, 
and especially as a local astringent in special diseases. Poultices made 
of the bruised tender leaves are an excellent astringent and stimu- 
lant application to ulcers attended with sauious discharge. The 
leaves are also used in mucous discharges. The pods are used in 
coughs. — Ainslie. Pharm. of India. PoiodVs Punj. Prod. 

EooNOMio UsEa — Mixed with the seeds of Sesamum, the gum is 
an article of food with the natives. The seeds and pods are of great 
value to the shepherd in the hot season, as food for his flocks when 
grass is scarce. A decoction of the bark makes a good substitute 
for soap, and is used to a great extent for tanning leather and dyeing 
various shades of brown ; and, moreover, is employed in Mysore in 
the process of distilling arrack. The timber is useful for various 
purposes, such as wheels and tent-pegs, and in some districts is 
made into charcoal for gunpowder. The tree grows rapidly, and 
requires no water. There is a variety or distinct species in Candeish 
called Ram-kantay and another in the Buglana districts which 
abounds more in gum than the common Babool, and differs from 
it in the form and colour of its legumes. Dr Balfour mentions in his 
' Gydopsedia ' the A. cineraria^ the rind of whose fruit, known as 
Babbak or Keb-neb, is used as a substitute for the more expensive 
dye-stuffs, and for communicating shades of drab to cotton. It is a 
native of Senegal and the East Indies. — Roxb, Gibson. Ainslie. 
Balfour's Cyd. 

In Sind, the Babool is the chief yielder of lac. The ^' Coccus 
Indica'' attaches itself to the smaller and half- dried branches 
of the trees. The branches, when thoroughly punctured by 
the insect, lose all vitality, and are then cut off from the 
parent tree, and the lac gathered. Other trees, when suffering 
from drought, may yield it; but in Sind, as a rule, it is 
only gathered from the Babool. The product in its raw state 
realises about 10 to 12 rupees a maund. Fine Babool timber is 
annually sent from Sind to Bombay for the use of the gun-carriage 
manu&ctory. — {Fermefi's Report to Bomb. Govt., 1862.) The Babool 



6 ACACIA. 

has frequently been recommended as a good roadside tree. It is of 
quick growth, and would speedily form a shelter for travellers. The 
young trees would require but little care at first, and after a few 
years of pruning would often more than cover the cost of looking 
after them. After the cuttings begin to throw out young shoots, 
tliey should be carefully pruned, two or three of the strongest near 
the top being selected as leading shoots to form the future tree. 
They require water regularly in the hot and dry weather. To raise 
the trees from seed is a slower process, but is the best and most 
natural method. The trees are more regular in their growth, and 
last thrice as long as the cuttings. The Babool is a very hard wood. 
It is used extensively all over India, but more particularly in Ben- 
gal. The timber is only large enough for small purposes. In Sind 
it is found to be well fitted for railway-sleepers. — (CleghorrCs Forests 
of India,) It has been recommended to Government that more 
attention should be paid to the despised BabooL K suitable locali- 
ties be enclosed, the growth of this tree is almost 8ix)ntaneous, 
and most rapid ; its timber is very useful for all ordinary purposes, 
and it makes excellent firewood. — {B&if, Comnf. Report to Bomb, 
Govt,, Feb, 1868.) With respect to firewood, several Australian 
Acacias have been thickly sown and planted in the neighbourhood 
of Ootacamund, where fresh supplies of fuel have become so great a 
desideratum. Among these are the A, stricta and A, moUiasima, 
It is a curious iajci that hares rarely touch the latter, whereas they 
destroy the A. stricta by hundreds. The reason is supposed to be 
that the one is more bitter than the other, the roots of the A. 
vwllissima emitting a powerfully unpleasant odour. The bark of 
this latter is useful for tanning, and a tar has been obtained from the 
wood. — Major Morgan! s Report to Madras Govt, 1861. 

(7) Acacia Oatechn (Willd.) Do. 

Khair-babiil, Khair, K&th-kliair, Hind. Katth^-ki-Kikar, DuK. Vodalai, 
Vodalam, Tah. Podali-manu, Khadirama, Tel. Kadaram, Mal. 

Description. — Tree, 30-40 feet ; branches armed with stipu- 
lary thorns, occasionally unarmed ; leaves bipinnated ; pinnae 
10-30 pair ; leaflets numerous ; young shoots, petioles, and 
peduncles more or less pubescent ; petioles sometimes armed 
below with a row of prickles ; spikes axillary, 1-4 together, 
shorter than the leaves; corolla 5-cleft ; petals united; stamens 
distinct; legumes thin, flat, glabrous, 4-8 seeded; flowers small, 
white, or pale yellow. Fl. June — Oct. — W. & A, Prod, i 
272. — -A. Wallichiana, Dec. — Mimosa catechu, Linn, Suppl. 

Roxb, FL Ind. iL 562. Cor. t 175. Malabar. Various 

parts of the Peninsula. Bengal. Delhi 






ACACIA. 7 

Medical Uses. — ^The substance formerly knov^n as Terra Ja- 
ponica is yielded by this tree. It is now better understood as one 
of the kinds of Catechu prepared in India — the word being derived 
from eate, a tree, and chu, juice. It is extracted from the unripe pods 
and old hjgh-coloured wood, and the mode of preparation in some 
of the northern parts of India is minutely described by Dr Royle. 
The chips of the inner wood are put into an earthen pot over the 
fire; they are then boiled, and the clean liquor is strained off; 
when of suj^cient consistence it is poured into clay moulds. This 
is usually of a pale-red colour, and in quadrangular pieces. 'Catechu 
has been successfully used in cases of intermittent fever in conjunc- 
tion with infusion of Chiretta, in doses from, ten to twelve grains. 
Dr A. Eoss found it very useful in scurvy, both locally applied to 
the gums, as well as on the constitution. Finely-powdered Catechu 
has also been successfully used in ointments, mixed with other 
ingredients, in the treatment of obstinate ulcers and leprous affec- 
tions. — Ainslie, Pharm, of India, 

Economic Uses. — Catechu is used in Berar in the process of dye- 
ing chintz and other cloths. It is occasionally mixed with plaster 
to increase its adhesion, and is also, in conjunction with certain 
oils, applied to beams, to preserve them against the white ants. The 
most cdebrated Catechu is that obtained from Pegu, and this brings 
^4 or £5 ar-ton more than other astringent extracts. Catechu con- 
tains a greater proportion of tannin than other astringent substances, 
and it has been found that 1 lb. of this is equal to 7 or 8 lb. of oak- 
bark for tanning purposea The manufactured article is brought 
down in considerable quantities from Berar and Kepaul, and thence 
to Calcutta, from whence it is exported to Europe. Other kinds of 
Catechu are prepared in India, the commonest of which is that from 
the nut of the Areca palm (F. Areca Catechu), As a timber, the 
wood of the tree is less hard and durable than that of other species 
of Acacia. It is of a red colour, heavy, close-grained, and brittle. 
It polishes well, and resists the attacks of white ants. It is used for 
agricultural purposes, sugar-mills, and pestles. — Roxh, PowdVa 
Punj, Prod, 

(8) Acacia concinna (Dec) Do. 

Siki, DuK. Shika^ Tam. Sliikaya, T£L. Chinik, Mal. Kochai, BsNO. 

Description. — Climbing; branches irregularly angled, to- 
mentose, armed with numerous recurved prickles ; leaves bipin- 
nated ; piimse 6-8 pair ; leaflets numerous, linear, somewhat 
semi-hastate, mucronate; petioles with hooked prickles below ; 
panicles terminal and axillary, with globular heads of flowers 
3-5 together in the axils of a small bract or leaf, peduncled ; 
stamens distinct ; legumes large, succulent, contracted between 



8 ACACIA. 

the seeds ; valves wrinkled on the surface when dry ; flowers 
small, white. Fl July — October. — W. & A, Prod. i. 277. — 
Mimosa concinna, Willd, Bengal. Assam. Mysore. 

Economic Uses. — ^A considerable trade is carried on ia some parts 
of the country in the pods of this shrub, which resemble the soap- 
nut, and are used, like it, for washing the head. The Hindoos also 
use them for marking the forehead. The leaves are acid, and are 
used in cookery as a substitute for tamarinds. — Roxb. Ninvmo, 

(9) Acacia Famesiaiia {Willd,) Do. 

Guh-babool, HiKD. and Beno. Gii-kikar, DuK. Piy-vOam, Tam. Piyi-tomma, 
Kampu-tumma, Naga-tumma, TsL. Pivelam, Mal. 

Description. — Shrub or small tree, armed with stipulary 
thorns; calyx 5-toothed; corolla tubular; stamens distinct; 
leaves bipinnated ; pinnsB 4-8 pair ; leaflets linear, 10-20 pair, 
nearly glabrous ; petioles and peduncles more or less pubes- 
cent ; legumes cylindrical, fitted with pulp and two rows of 
seeds; flowers globular, 2-3 together, each on an axillary 
peduncle, small, yellow, fragrant. FL Dec. — Jan. — TT. <fe A. 
Prod. i. 272 (under Vachellia), — Mimosa Famesiana, Linn. — 
Roxb, Fl. Ind. ii 557. Bengal Assam. Peninsula. 

Economic Uses. — This small tree exudes a considerable quantity 
of useful gum. The wood is very hard and tough, and is much 
used for ship-knees, tent-pegs, and similar purposes. The flowers 
distilled yield a delicious perfume. — W. 4" A. Eoxb. 

(10) Acacia fermginea (Z)ec.) Do. 

Sbimai-yelyel, Tail Vunf, Anasandn, TsL. 

Description. — ^Tree, 20-25 feet, armed with conical stipu- 
lary thorns, occasionally unarmed; leaves bipinnated, glab- 
rous; pinnae 3-6 p«dr; leaflets 10-20 pair, oblong-linear; 
spikes of flowers axillary, usually in pairs, many-flowered ; 
corolla 5-cleft ; stamens slightly united at the base ; legumes 
flat, lanceolate, rusty-coloured, 2-6 seeded ; flowers small, pale 
yellow. — Fl. April — May. — W. & A. Prod. L 273. — ^Mimosa 

ferruginea, Roxb, Fl, Ind. iL 561. Coromandel Coast 

Courtallum. N. Circars. 

Economic Uses. — ^The bark steeped in jaggery water is distilled 
as an iiitoxicating liquor. It is very astringent. A decoction of 



ACACIA. 9 

the same, in conjunction with ginger and other ingredients, is fre- 
quently employed as an astringent wash for the teet^ The wood is 
Yery hard and useful — Airnlie, lAndL 

(11) Acacia lencophtoa {WUld,) Do. 

Panided Acacia. Eno. Bufed-kikar, Hnn>. Ujlee-kikar. Duk. Vel-yel, Vel- 
veylam. Tax. Tella-tamma, Tel. Vel-yeylam, Mal. Bapnaid-b4bal, Bxno. 

Desckiption. — Tree, armed with stipulary thorns; leaves 
bipinnated; pinnaB 7-12 pair; leaflets numerous, oblong-linear, 
slightly pubescent ; panicles terminal or from the upper axils ; 
branches and peduncles shortly tomentose; corolla 5-cleft; 
stamens distinct ; legumes narrow, long, curved, shortly tomen- 
tose when young ; heads of flowers globose ; flowers small, 
pale yellow. Fl, June — Sept. — W. & A. Prod, i 227. — Mimosa 
leucophlsea, Roxb. Cor, ii 15. Fl. Ind. ii. 68. — A. alba, 
WUld. Sholapore. Woods and hills on Coromandel coast. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — The natives distil a kind of ardent spirit &om 
the bark, mixed with palm-wine and sugar. A fibre is also pre- 
pared from the bark by maceration after four or five days' beating. 
It is used for large fishing-nets and coarse kinds of cordage, being 
tough and strong. The timber of the tree is hard and dark-coloured. 
— LincU. Rep. Mad. Exhih. 

(12) Acacia snndra (J96c.) Do. 

Karangall, Tail Sandra, Tel. 

Description. — Tree, 20-30 feet; branches armed with re- 
curved stipulary prickles, sometimes unarmed ; leaves bipin- 
nated; pinnsB 15-20 pair; leaflets numerous, small, linear; 
spikes 1-3 together, axillary, peduncled, shorter than the 
leaves, many-flowered ; corolla 5-cleft ; stamens distinct ; 
flowers small, yellow; legumes thin, flat, lanceolate; seeds 
few. Fl. July — ^Aug. — W. <b A. Prod. i. 273. — Mimosa sundra, 

JBoa*. Cor. iii t. 225.— Bedd. Flor. Sylv. t. 50. Travan- 

core. N. Circars. Bombay Presidency. Mysore. 

EooNOMio Uses. — ^A resin similar to that yielded by A. Catechu 
is procured from this tree. In fact, the two species are much alike. 
This one principally diifers in being perfectly glabrous. The timber 
is close-grained, very hard and durable, very heavy, and of a dark- 
red colour. It is excellent for piles and sleepers ; and the natives 
prefer it for posts in house-building, though, owing to the unyielding 



10 ACALYPHA. 

nature of the wood, it is apt to split when nails are driven into it. 
The tree is abundant, and grows to a fair size. — Wight Bedd. Flor, 
8ylv, Rep, Mad, Exldh, 

(13) Acalyplia finticosa (Forsk,) N. 0. Euphorbiace^ 

Birch-leaved Acalypha, Eng. Sinnie, Tam. Chizmie, DuK. Tsiimie, Tkl. 

Description. — Shrub, pubescent, with sessile, waxy, golden- 
yellowish glands; leaves rhomb-ovate, acute at both ends, 
serrated, beneath covered and shining with golden glands; 
spikes unisexual, very shortly peduncled, or androgynous and 
males ; males commonly shorter than the leaves, erect, hoary ; 
androgynous ones increased at the base by 1-4 female bracts ; 
female spikes lax-flowered, 5-8 bracteate; female bracts 
1-flowered, exceeding the capsule; male calyx externally 
pubeiscent ; ovary densely hairy ; capsules hoary tomentose ; 
seeds smooth; flowers greenish. — Forsk. Descr. 161. — Dec. 
Prod, XV. 5. 2, p. 822. — A. betulina, Retz. — ^A. amentacea, Boadb, 
Fl, ItiA. iii. 676. Peninsula. Mysore. 

Medical Uses. — The leaves are prescribed by the native doctors 
as a stomachic in dyspeptic a£fections and cholera. They are also 
reckoned attenuant and alterative. The dose of the infusion is 
half a teacupful twice daily. — AiiisUe, 

(14) Acalyplia Indica (Ldnn,) Do. 

Indian Acalyplia, Eko. Eoopa-mani, Mal. Cupamani, Tam. Eoopl, DuK. 
Mukto-juri, Benq. 

Description. — ^Annual, 1 -2 feet ; leaves ovate-cordate, ser- 
rated, on long petioles ; spikes axillary, as long as the leaves, 
male flowers uppermost, enclosed in a cup-shaped involucre 
opening on the inner side, striated, serrated; stamens 8-16; 
styles 3 ; capsules tricoccous, 3-celled, 1 -seeded ; flowers small, 
greenish. Fl, April — June. — Eoxb, Fl. Ind, iii. 675. — Wight 
Icon, t, S77,^Iiheede, x. t 81-83. Bengal Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — ^The root, bruised and steeped in hot water, is 
used as a cathartic, and the leaves as a laxative, in decoction. 
Mixed with common salt, the latter are applied externally in scabies. 
A decoction of the whole plant mixed with oil is antarthritic ; and 
mixed with chunam, forms a good external application in cutaneous 
diseases. A simple decoction of the leaves is given in ear-ache. — 
{Boxb, Ainslie,) The expressed juice of the leaves is a safe and 



ACHYRANTHES — ACONITUM. 11 

certain emetic for children. It has also been usefully administered 
as an expectorant, and in bronchitis in children. A cataplasm of 
the leaves is applied as a local application to syphilitic ulcers, and as 
a means of reHeving the pain attendant on the bites of venomous 
insects.— PAarm. of India, 

(15) Acliyrantlies aspera (Linn,) N. O. AMARANXAOEiE. 

(Jhirchirii, Chikrti, Hnm. Ag&^, Duk. Na-.yiirioi, Tam. Utta-i*ni, Antisha, 
Apa-margamu, Fiatyak-pushpi, Tel. EataUti, Mal. Opang, Bjssq, 

Description. — Shrub about 6 feet; branches somewhat 
4-sided; stem erect, pubescent; leaves on short petioles, 
obovate-rotund, abruptly attenuated at the base, pubescent; 
spikes virgate, acute, at first horizontal, afterwards reflexcd ; 
flowers purplish-green; bracts at first soft, soon becoming 
rigid and prickle-like ; capsules 5-seeded, reddish. FL nearly 
all the yeax.—RoxK FL Ind, i. 672.— Wight Icon, t 1777.— 
Rheede, x. t 78. — ^A. obtusifolia, Lam. Bengal Peninsula. 

Medical UsEa — ^The seeds are given in hydrophobia, and in 
cases of snake-bites, as well as in ophthalmia and cutaneous diseases. 
The flowering-spikes rubbed with a little sugar are made into pills, 
and given internally to people bitten by mad dogs. The leaves 
taken &esh and rubbed to a pulp are considered a good remedy 
applied externally to the bites of scorpions. The ashes of the burnt 
plant mixed with conjee is a native remedy in dropsical cases. 
Astringent and diuretic properties are assigned to this plant, and 
Dr Cornish states having employed it largely in dropsy with favour- 
able results. The whole plant, when incinerated, yields a consider^ 
able quantity of potash. These ashes, in conjunction with infusion 
of ginger, are likewise esteemed in dropsical affections. The flower- 
ing-spike has the repute in Oude and other parts of India of being 
a safeguard against scorpions, which it is believed to paralyse. It 
has also been used successfully as a local application in scorpion- 
stings and in snake-bites. — Pharm, of India, Long in Joum, of 
Agri. Hort. Soe, of India, 1858, x. 31. Madras Quart, Joum, of 
Med. Sc., 1862, iv. 10. — Wight. Ainslie, Hamilton. 

(16) Aeonitnm feroz {Wall) K. O. Eanungulace^. 

Bustnab-bish, Bish, Beno. Mahoor, Hind. Bacbnag, Duk. Vasha-navi, Tam. 
Vafu-nabhi, Valsa-nabhi, TSL. 

Description. — Stem erect, 2-3 feet, slightly downy above ; 
tubers 2-3, blackish, white inside; branches villous; leaves 
roundish-cordate, deeply 5-parted; lobes pinnatifid, cuneate 
at the base, hairy on the brim beneath; racemes terminal. 



12 ACONITUM. 

downy; flowers large, deep blue, hoary; helmet gibbous, 
semi-circular, slightly acuminated in front; cucullate petals 
slightly incurved. — Dec. Prod. i. 64. — Lindl. Flor. Med. 12. 
Himalaya. Kumaon. 

Medical TJsbs. — ^This plant is found at high elevations in the 
Himalaya and Kepaul, sometimes at 10,000 f^t above the sea. 
I)r Wight asserts that wherever within the tropics we meet her- 
baceous forms of BanuncuLace89, we may feel assured of having 
attained an elevation sufficient to place us beyond the influence of 
jungle fever. The root of this species of Aconite is highly poisonous, 
equally fatal whether taken internally or applied to wounds. By 
Indian practitioners it is used in cases of chronic rheumatism. Dr 
Pereira found that a drop of the spirituous infusion applied to the 
tongue produced numbness, which lasted eighteen hours. Its action 
appears to be similar to that of A. napelltia, which is found in moun- 
tainous parts of Europe. 

" Although," says Dr Royle, " the acrid principle existing in most 
of the plants of the Eanunculaceous order is very volatile, yet the 
effects attendant on the roots of the A. ferox after it has been pre- 
served for ten years was remarkable, as showing that it is more per- 
manent than has been supposed." In the Taleef-shireef it is directed 
never to be given alone ; but mixed with several other drugs, it is 
recommended in a variety of diseases, as cholera, intermittent fevers, 
toothache, snake-bites, and especially in rheumatism externally 
applied. The root is imported in considerable quantities into the 
plains, and sold at the rate of one rupee the seer. — Wallich. Boyle, 
Hamilton's Nepaul. 

Dr Fleming's experiments prove that the roots are more active 
immediately sdter the period of flovrering than at any other time, 
and that the leaves lose their power when the seeds begin to form. 
The seeds themselves are comparatively weak {Lindl. E. B.) The 
terms Bish, Bikh, or Vish, merely mean poison. In Dr Playfair's 
translation of the Taleef-shireef tiie names Sindia and Bechnak are 
applied to poisonous medicines, undoubtedly the Aconite. 

In Dr Pereira's experiments the effects were tried by introducing 
the extract into the jugular vein, by placing it in the cavity of the 
peritoneum, by applying it to the cellular tissue of the back, and by 
introducing it into the stomach. In all these cases, except the last, 
the effects were very similar — viz., difficulty of breathing, weakness 
and subsequent paralysis, which generally commenced in the pos- 
terior extremities, vertigo, convulsions, dilatation of the pupils, and 
death apparently from asphyxia, — Wallich, PI. As. Bar., i 36. 

(17) Aconitnm heterophyllnm {Wall.) Do. 

' Atls, HiKD. AtYika, Yajjd-tiirki, Duk. AtivadAyam, Tam. Ativasa, Tel. 

Description. — Shrub ; stem obscurely angled, smooth 



ACORUS. 13 

below, pubescent above ; tubers oblong-oval ; fibres numerous, 
spreading; lower leaves long-petioled, round or sagittate- 
cordate, acuminated, 5 - ribbed or more ; helmet arched, 
slightly acuminate ; wings equal to the helmet in size, 
obliquely triangular ; lower sepals lanceolate, smooth ; flowers 
blue. — Royle 111. t 13. Himalaya. 

Medical Uses. — ^The root of this species of Aconite, known by 
the name of Atees, has long been celebrated as a tonic and valuable 
febrifuge. It is generally sold in the bazaars as a fine white powder, 
but is somewhat expensive. There is a spurious substance called by 
the same name, which is only the root of the Asparagus sarmentosus. 
The true Atees is intensely bitter and slightly astringent, with 
abundant fjEoina, which is free horn any noxious qualities. It is 
probably not so injurious a poison as the Bish, as it is attacked by 
insects, while the other is not. There are two kinds, one black and 
one white, both bitter and astringent, pungent and heating, aiding 
digestion, useful as tonic medicines and aphrodisiac. The present 
species is found also on the Himalaya at elevations from 9000 to 
10,000 feet. — Royle, Annals of Med, Science^ 1866. 

The roots are about an inch long, of an oblong-oval pointed form, 
light grey externally, white inside, and of a pure bitter taste. 

Modem experience confirms the value of Atees as an antiperiodic. 
Dr BaKoor was eminently successful in many cases of fever which 
came under his treatment with its employment. He, however, stated 
in his reports the necessity of selecting the best specimens, as much 
of inferior quality is sold in the bazaars. He advises that every root 
should be broken across, and all which are not pure white be dis- 
carded. The other species of Aconite found on the Himalaya, and 
yielding similar properties, are. A, palmatum (Don) and A. luridum 
(H. & T.) — Pharm, of India. Indian Annals of Med. Science, 
V. 648. 

(18) AcoruB calamus (Linn,) N. 0. ORONTiAcsiE. 

Sweet-flagy Eng. Bach, Hnn>. Vach, Duic Vaahambu, Tam. Vaas, Vadaja, X 
TcL. Vashampo, Mal. Bach, Saphed-bach, Beng. ^ 

Dksceiption. — Perennial, semi-aquatic ; rhizome thick, 
with long roots ; leaves erect, 2-3 feet, sword-shaped ; stalk 
leaf-like, but thicker below the spadix ; spadix a foot above 
the root, spreading, 2-3 inches long, covered with a mass of 
numerous thick-set pale-green flowers, fragrant when bruised ; 
petals six ; capsules 3-ceUed. FL May— June. — Boxb. Flor. 

Ind. iL 169. — ^A. odoratus. Lam. — Rheede, xi. t. 60. Damp 

marshy placea Malabar. 






14 ACROCARPUS ADANSONIA. 

Medical Uses. — An aromatic bitter principle exists in the 
rhizomes, for which reason they are regarded as usefol additions to 
tonic and purgative medicines, being much given to children in cases 
of dyspepsia, especially when attended with looseness of bowels. 
Bendicially employed also in chronic catarrh and asthmatic com- 
plaints. Dr Pereira has remarked that the rhizomes might be 
substituted for more expensive spices or aromatics. The flavour is 
greatly improved by drying. In Constantinople they are made into 
a confection, which is considelred a good stomachic, and is eaten 
freely during the prevalence of epidemic disease. They are supposed, 
moreover, to be an^tidote for several poisons.— (Pere/ra. Thomson. 
Ainslie,) In low fevers they are considered an excellent stimulant 
diaphoretic, and also very serviceable in atonic and choleraic diarrhoea, 
and as a useful external application in chronic rheumatism, the 
powdered rhizome being rubbed up with Cashew spirit Dr A. T. 
Thomson notices the root-stock favourably as an antiperiodic, and 
Dr Royle employed it successfully in intermittent fevers. It is also 
highly useful for destroying and keeping away insects. — Pharm. of 
India. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — The leaves contain an essential oil, to which 
they owe their fragrance, and which in England is used by the 
perfumers, mixed with the farina of the rhizomes, in the manufac- 
ture of hair-powders. They are also used for tanning leather and 
perfuming various substances. — Ainslie. 

(19) AcrocarpuB frazinifolinB (Wight). K 0. Leouminos^. 

Shingle-tree, Pink or Red Cedar, Eno. Mallay-Kone, Tam. 

Description. — Large tree, deciduous, often having large 
buttresses, bark light grey, young parts golden pubescent ; 
leaves glabrous, bipinnate ; pinnae 3 pairs with a terminal one ; 
leaflets equally pinnate, 4-6, opposite pair ovate, acuminate ; 
racemes many-flowered ; flowers dull greenish-red ; calyx and 
corolla minutely golden-pubescent outside. — Wight Icon, t 

254 — Bedd. Flor. Syl. t. 44. Travancore Mountains and 

Western Ghauts. South Canara. 

Economic Uses. — A tree of rapid growth and worthy of cidtiva- 
tion. The timber is flesh-coloured and light. It is much used by 
the planters at Conoor and Wynaad for building purposes and fur- 
niture, and in Coorg is largely used for shingles. It is known by 
the Burghers on the I^eilgherries as the Kilingi. — Bedd. 

(20) Adansonia digitata {Linn.) K O. Bombacrb. 

Baobab or monkey bread-tree, Eno. Gorak Amll, Hind. Hathl-Khatiyan, Bara- 
Khat-yan, Duk. Anai-puliyamarara, Papparap-puli, Purl-maram, Tam. 

Description. — Tree of moderate height ; trunk enonnous, 



ADANSONIA. 15 

30-40 feet in circumference ; leaves digitate, quinate, glabrous, (! 

petioled ; leaflets elliptical, slightly acuminated ; petioles and 1 

peduncles pubescent ; calyx 5-partite, pubescent, silky inside ; • | 

petals 5, spreading, at length deflexed; flowers axillary, soli- / 

tary on long pedicels ; stamen tube adhering to the base of the I 

petals ; fruit a large oblong downy pericarp 8-10 celled, cells 
filled with farinaceous pulp ; flowers large, white, with purplish 

anthers. FL July — W. & A, Prod. i. 60. Naturalised in 

India. Negapatam. Madras. ^r^riAi i ;^ iC «^ 

Medical Uses. — The fruit is somewhat acid, but makes a cool- 
ing and refreshing drink in fevers. The acid farinaceous pulp 
suiTOunding the seeds is used in dysentery and diarrhoea ; failing 
this, the rind of the fruit beaten into a paste and mixed with 
water may be substituted. Adanson found the fruit a great preserva- 
tive against the epidemic fevers of the western coast of Africa, and 
especially beneficial in promoting perspiration, and attempering the 
heat of the blood. In Guadaloupe the planters use the bark and leaves 
as a febrifuga Among other uses in Africa, the leaves are made 
into fomentations and poultices for rheumatic eiffections of the limbs 
and irritable inflammatory ulcers. Dr Hutchinson considers that the 
action of the pulp is not due to any astringent properties, but to its 
virtues as a refrigerant and diuretic. Duchassaing {Pharm, Joum,, 
1845, p. 89) proposes the bark as a substitute for quinine in low 
intermittent fevers. He prescribed it in decoction, and found it 
effectual in cases where quinine had failed. — Pharm, of India, 
Graham^ Bomb. Flora. Adanson. 

EooNOMio Uses. — This tree is a native of the western coast of 
-Africa^ about Senegal and Sierra Leone. It has, however, long been 
naturalised in India, and from its many uses is deserving of a place 
among the more useful plants of this country. The large fruit re- 
sembles a gourd, and contains many black seeds. In Senegal the 
negroes use the bark and leaves powdered as we do pepper and salt. 
The fruit supplies the natives of Africa with an excellent soap by 
boiling the ashes with rancid palm-oil. It is in the hollowed trunks 
of these trees that the negroes bury their dead ; and it is a remark- 
able fact, that shut up in these, the bodies become perfectly dry, 
without the necessity of the process of embalmment. Humboldt, in 
his ' Aspects of l^ature,' remarks that the Baobab or monkey bread- 
tree is the oldest organic monument of our planet. The earliest 
description of these trees is that of Aloysius Cadamosto, a Venetian, 
in 1454, who found one growing at the mouth of the Senegal river, 
whose trunk in circumference was 112 feet. Adanson himself saw 
them at 29 feet in diameter and 70 feet in height, and remarks that 
other travellers had found trunks of 32 feet diameter. As a timber- 
tree it is quite useless, the wood being soft and spongy. Dr Hooker 



16 ADENANTHERA — ADHATODA. 

says, 'Hhe tree is emollient and mucilaginous in all its parts/' Along 
the sea-coast of Guzerat the fisherman use the large fruit as a float 
for their nets. The leaves are eaten with their food, and are con- 
sidered cooling, and useful in restraining excessive perspiratioiL M. 
Mollien, in his Travels in Africa, states that to the negroes the Baobab 
is perhaps the most valuable of vegetables. Its leaves are used for 
leaven, its bark furnishes indestructible cordage, and a coarse thread 
used for doth and ropes. Eopes made from the bark are said to be 
very strong, and there is in Bei^ a saying, "As secure as an elephant 
bound witii a Baobab rope." — Hooker, Humboldt Lindley, 

(21) Adenanthera pavonina (Linn,) N. 0. LEGUMmosjE. 

Anai-kundamnnie, Tak. Bandi gooroovinza, Tbl. Bukta-chunduiy TtAngnna^ 
Beno. Mu^jatie, Mal. Eifchun-doona, Hind. 

Dbscription. — Large tree, unarmed; leaves bipinnated; 
pinnae 4-6 pair ; leaflets oval, obtuse, glabrous, 10-12 pair, on 
short petioles ; calyx 5-toothed ; petals 5 ; racemes terminal or 
from the upper axils, spike-like; legumes somewhat falcate, 
twisted, 10-12 seeded; flowers numerous, small, yellow and 
white mixed, fragrant. FL June — ^Aug. — Boodb. FL Irtd. ii 

370.— F. A A Prod. L 211.-— Rheede, vL t 14. Peninsula. 

Northern Circars. Travancore. Bengal. 

EooNOMio Uses. — ^Although this tree is called Eukta-ehundun, 
which means Bed Sandal, yet the real red sandal- wood is the pro- 
duce of the Pteivcarpus Santalinua. It is to be met with in most 
forests in India. The timber is valued for its solidity. The inner 
wood of the larger specimens is of a deep-red colour, very hard and 
durable. It yields a dye which the Brahmins use after bathing for 
marking their foreheads. They procure it by merely rubbing the 
wood on a wet stone. The seeds, which are of a shining scarlet 
colour with a circular streak in their centre, are used as weights by 
the jewellers, each of them weighing four graina The natives in 
Travancore assert that they are poisonous if taken internally, espe- 
cially when in a powdered state. A cement is made by beating them 
up with borax and water. — Eoxb. Aimlie, 

(22) Adhatoda TrananebarienBifl {Nees), N. 0. Aoanthacejc. 

Tavashd-moorangie, Poonakoo-poondoo, Tam. Pindi-konda, Tel. 

Description. — Fruticulose, hoary-pubescent ; leaves small, 
roundish; bracts orbiculate, retuse, bracteoles equalling the 
calyx, linear ; flowers axillary, solitary, ascending on a terminal 
spike, yellowish, purple-dotted. FL Feb. — March. — Dec Prod, 
XL 399. — Gendarussa Tranquebariensis, Nees ap. Wall. PL As. 



ADHATODA — ^GLE. 17 

Ear. iii. 105. — Justicia Tranquebariensis, Linn, — J. parvifolia, 
Lam. — Wight Icon. t. 462. Eastern coastg of Peninsula. 

Medical Usbs. — ^The juice of the leaves is reckoned cooling and 
aperient, and is given to children in small-pox. The bruised leaves 
are applied to blows and other external injuries. — Aiiialie. 

(23) Adhatoda Vasica {Neea). Do. 

Malabar nut, Eno. Adalsa, Anisa, Adarsa, Hind, and DuK. Adatodai, Tah. 
Adasaram, Tel. Atalotakam, Mal. Arosa, Bbnq. 

Description. — Shrub, 8-10 feet; leaves opposite, lanceolate ; 
corolla monopetalous,irregular; stem much branched; flowers on 
short spikes, terminal; flower whitish, spotted, sulphur-coloured 
at the throat, and at the limb with dark purple lines. Fl. Feb. 
— April — Justicia Adhatoda, Linn. — Roxb. FL Ind. i. 126. 
Peninsula Bengal Nepaul. 

Medical Uses. — The juice of the leaves is given in a dose of two 
drams with one dram of the juice of &esh ginger as an expectorant 
in coughs, asthma, and ague. They are bitterish and subaromatic, 
and are administered in illusion and electuary. — (Joum. Agri. Hart. 
Soc. of India, x. 28.' Ainalie). The leaves, flowers, and root, especially 
the flowers, are considered antispasmodic, and are given in cases of 
asthma and intermittent fever. They have also been successfully 
employed in chronic bronchitis, and other pulmonary and catarrhal 
aflections when not attended with fever. — (Pharm. of India. Ind. 
Annals of Med. Science, x. 156.) The leaves are given to cattle 
as medicine, and to man for rheumatism. The fresh flowers are 
bound over the eyes in cases of ophthalmia — (Stewarfs Punj. Plants.) 
The leaves are given in conjunction with other remedies by the 
native doctors internally in decoction, as anthelmintic. — Ainslie. 
Roxh. 

(24) iBgle marmelos {Corr.) N. 0. AuRANxiACEiE. 

Bad or Bel tree, Eno. Bel, Siri-phul, Hind. Vilva, Tam. Maredoo, Bllva- 
pandu, Tel. Knvalam, Mal. Bel, Shri-phul, Beno. 

Description. — Tree, middling size, armed with sharp spines; 
leaves pinnate ; leaflets oblong or broad-lanceolate, crenulated, 
unequal, middle one petiolate, lateral ones almost sessile; 
petals 4-5, spreading; stamens distinct; style short, thick; 
flowers in panicles, axillary, on long pedicels, large, greenish 
white, fragrant ; berry with a hard rind, smooth, many-celled, 
many-seeded; seeds covered with a transparent glutinous 
matter. Fl. May.— TT. & A. Prod. i. 9&.—Roxh. Fl. Ind. ii. 

2 



18 iESCHYNOMENE. 

579. Cor, ii. 143. — Cratoeva marmelos, Linn.-^Wiglvt Icon, 
t 16. — Eheede, iiL t. 37. Peninsula. Bengal 

Medioal Ubbs. — ^The fruit of this tree is somewhat like an oiange. 
The cells contain, besides the seeds, a large quantity of tenacious 
transparent gluten, which becomes hard on drying, but continues 
transparent. The firuit is nutritious, and occasionally employed as 
an alterative. It is very palatable; and its aperient qualities in 
the removal of habitual costiveness have been well ascertained. The 
root, bark, and leaves are reckoned refrigerant in Malabar. The bark 
of the root especially is given in compound decoctions in intermittent 
fevers, and the leaves made into poultices in ophthalmia. When 
dried before it is ripe the fruit is used in decoction in diarrhoea and 
dysentery ; and when ripe and mixed with juice of tamarinds, forms 
an agreeable drink. A water distilled £rom the flowers is reputed 
to be alezipharmic A decoction of the bark of the tree is given in 
palpitation of the heart, and of the leaves in asthma. — (Roxb. Aintiie, 
Rheede.) According to Br Green, a sherbet of the ripe fruit taken 
every morning proves serviceable in moderate cases of dyspepsia. 
He further adds that the unripe fruit baked for six hours is a 
powerful astringent — (Jnd, Ann, Med, Se., ii. 224.) The fullest 
accounts of the properties and uses of the Bael are given in the papers 
by Grant and Cleghom in ' Indian Annals of Med. Science,' ii. 222- 
234. 

EcoNOHio Uses. — The mucus of the seeds is used as an excellent 
addition to mortar, especially in the construction of wells. A 
yellow dye is procured from the astringent rind of the fruit — Boxb, 

(25) JEschynomene aspera (Linn,) N. 0. Lbouminosa. 

Sbola, Tola, Hind. Phool-solay Benq. Attekudass, Mal. Attoonette, Tam. 

Description. — ^Perennial, floating, erect, sometimes branched; 
leaves unequally pinnated ; leaflets numerous, linear, obtuse ; 
racemes axillary, few-flowered; calyx 5-cleft, 2-lipped, bibrac- 
teolate ; peduncles and pedicels rough with hairs ; legumes 
4-7 jointed, on long stalks, with prickly tubercles on the middle 
of each joint, margins striated, crenulated ; flowers brownish 
orange. Fl, June — ^Aug. — W. Jk A, Prod, i. 219. — Wight Icon, 

t, 299. — Hedysarum lagenarium, Eoxb, Fl. Ind. iiL 365. 

Peninsula. Bengal In tanks and lakes. 

Economic Uses. — ^The pith is much used for the manufacture of 
hats, bottle-cases, and similar articles, it being a bad conductor of 
heat. It is cut from the thick stems and made up into artificial 
flowers, models of temples, and fishing - floats. The plants are 
gathered for this purpose in April and May, being abundant in the 



AGATHOTES. 10 

marsbes in Bengal, and the borders of jbeels and lakes between Cal- 
cutta and Hurdwar. — Eoxb. 

(26) Agathotes cUrayta (Don). K. 0. Gentianacb^. 

Chirajit Qentian, ENa Sbayraet, Tam. Chiraeta, DuK. and Hun). Sheelas- 
settoo, Tel. Eiriyatha, Mal. 

Description. — ^Annual, 3 feet ; steins single, round, jointed ; 
branches decussated, occasionally angulai* at the extremities ; 
leaves opposite, amplexicaul, lanceolate, very acute, entire, 3-5 
nerved; flowers numerous, stalked, the whole upper part of 
the plant forming an oblong decussated panicle ; calyx 4-cleft ; 
petals spreading, 4-parted, divisions equal to those of the 
calyx; capsules 1-celled, 2-valved, slightly opening at the 
apex ; seeds numerous ; flowers yellow. — Soxib. Fl, Ind, ii 71. 
^Nepaul. KumaoiL Northern India. 

Medical Uses. — ^This is one of the most esteemed of Indian 
medicinal plants, being especially valuable as a tonic and febrifbge. 
The whole plant is pulled up at the time the flowers begin to decay, 
and is thus dried for use. Its febrifugal properties are in high esti- 
mation with European practitioners in India, who use it instead of 
Cinchona when the latter is not to be procured ; and in most cases 
wherein Gentian is prescribed, this is recommended as a good sub- 
stitute. The root is the bitterest part of the plant, and the bitter 
principle is easily imparted to water or alcohol. According to 
Battiey's analysis of its chemical properties, '' it contains a free acid, 
a bitter resinous extractive with much gum, and chlorates, with sul- 
phates of potass and lime. 'No alkaloid has been detected in it;, 
what is therefore sold as a sulphate of chiraytine is well known to 
be only the disulphate of quinia." It is best recommended in pre- 
paration as an infusion or watery extract, or a tincture, but not in 
decoction ; even infusion made with warm water is denounced as 
producing violent headache. To form a cold infusion, a pint of 
water should not stand more than twenty minutes on half an ounce 
of the bruised plant. Chirayta possesses the general properties oi 
bitter tonics, but has at the same time some peculiar to itself which 
fit it well for certain forms and complications of disease. Unlike 
most other tonics, it does not constipate the bowels, but teads to 
produce a regular action of the alimentary canal, even in those sub- 
ject to habitual constipation. During its use the bile becomes more 
abundant and healthy in character. The tendency to excess of 
acidity in the stomach, with disengagement of flatus, is much re- 
strained by its use. These qualities fit it in a most peculiar degree 
for the kind of indigestion which occurs in gouty persons. It may, 
when necessary, be associated with alkaline preparations or with 



20 AGATl. 

acids ; the latter are generally preferable. The same remark applies 
to its employment in the treatment of scrofula. As a remedy against 
the languor and debility which affect many persons in summer and 
autumn, nothing is equial to the cold infusion of this plant It may 
be taken twice or even more frequently daily for a considerable time ; 
then discontinued, and afterwards resumed. Children take it more 
readily than most other bitters. It is found to be a very efficacious 
remedy in India against intermittents, particularly when associated 
with Ouilandina, Bonduc, or Caranga nuts. The debility which is 
apt to end in dropsy is often speedily removed by infusion of Chi- 
rayta ; to which is added the tincture formed of it with orange-peel 
and cardamoms. Its efficacy in worm-cases has procured for it the 
name of worm-seed plant. The extract is given with great benefit 
in some forms of diarrhosa and dysentery, particularly if combined 
with Ipecacuan, the emetic tendency of which it very markedly con- 
trols. In Dr Fleming's Kotes on 'Indian Medicinal Plants/ as 
quoted by Wallich, it is stated, '* The dried herb is to be met with 
in every bazaar of Kindoostan, being a medicine in the highest re- 
pute with both the Hindu and European practitioners. It possesses 
aU the stomachic, tonic, febrifuge, and antarthritic virtues which are 
ascribed to the Gentiana lutea, and in a greater degree than they 
are generally found in that root in the state in which it comes to us 
from Europe. It may therefore on every occasion be advantageously 
substituted for it. The efficacy of the Chirayta, when combined 
with the Caranga nut, in curing intermittents, has been already men- 
tioned. For restoring the tone and activity of the moving fibre in 
general debility, and in that kind of cachexy which is liable to ter- 
minate in dropsy, the Chirayta will be found one of the most useful 
and effectual remedies which we can employ. The parts of the plant 
that are used in medicine are the dried stalks with pieces of root 
Attached. A decoction of these, or, which is better, an infusion of 
them in hot water, is the form usually administered." — Don in Lm, 
and Edin. Phil Mag. Wdllich, PlanUe As. Rarim: 

(27) A|;ati grandiflora {Desv.) N. 0. Lbguminosii!. 

Agathee, Tam. Anisay, Tel. Agati. Mal. Buko, Beno. 

Desckiption. — Tree, 30-35 feet ; leaves abruptly pinnated, 
leaflets numerous ; calyx campanulate, slightly 2-lipped ; co- 
rolla papilionaceous, vexillum oval, oblong, keel large, falcate, 
with petals free at the base and apex ; racemes axillary, 2-4 
flowered ; flowers large, scarlet or white ; legumes pendulous, 
very long, many-seeded, contracted between the seeds. Fl. March 
— April. — W. & A, Prod. i. 215. — -^chynomene coccinea, 
Linn.'^JE. grandiflora, Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 331. Rheede, i. t 51. 
^Travancore and elsewhere in the Peninsula in gardens. 



AGAVE. 21 

Medical Uses. — ^The bark is very bitter, and is used as a tonic, 
and an infusion of the leaves is a useful cathartic. The natives put 
the juice of the leaves in the nostrils in bad fevers on the day of the 
paroxysm. The juice of the flowers is squeezed into the eyes for 
expelling dimness of vision. — Lindley. Pharm, of India, 

(28) Agave Americana (Linn,) N. 0. Amabyllidacea. 

Bokas-pattah. H&M-fienmr, Bari-kanvar, Janffli-kanvar^ Hind. Rakkas-pattah^ 
DuK. Anaik-katrazhai, Tait. Rakashi-mattalu, Tel. Panani-katrazha, Mel. 
Jungli-ananash, Bilatipat, Beho. 

Description. — Stem very thick, scaly at the bases of the 
leaves, very fibrous ; scape erect, tapering, thick ; scales alter- 
nate, sublanceolate, half stem - clasping, lower ones longer, 
approximated, upper ones more remote ; radical leaves incum- 
bent by turns, lanceolate, channelled, smooth, dentately spin- 
ous at the edge, glaucous, mucronate, stiff, 6 feet and more, 
juicy, outer ones reflexed, intermediate ones spreading, inner 
ones obvolute into a straight very acute cone ; leaf-spines 
straight, chestnut, marginal ones incurved of the same colour ; 
panicles very large, nodding, composite ; peduncles recurved, 
bent inwards, decompound, many-flowered ; flowers peduncled, 
greenish-yellow. — Kunth Enum, pi. v. 819. — Linn, Spec, 461. 

— Andr. Repos, t, 438. — Wight Icon, t, 2024. Naturalised 

in India. 

Medical Uses. — ^The roots are diuretic and anti-syphilitic, and 
are brought to Europe mixed with sarsaparilla (Lindley). Diuretic 
and alterative properties are assigned to the roots by the Mexicans. 
A thin slice of the large fleshy leaves makes a good poultice. — 
Pharm. of India. 

Economic Uses. — The common American Aloe, although not in- 
digenous, is now common in every part of India. It is a native of 
America within the tropics from the plains to elevations of 10,000 
feet, and is now naturalised in the South of Europe. It is much 
valued as a hedge plant, but its chief importance arises &om the ex- 
cellent fibres which it yields. Not only are these procured from the 
leaves, but a ligneous fibre is contained in the root, familiarly known 
as the Pita thread. This is much used in the Madras Presidency. 
It is manufactured at a very sHght expense, the mode of preparation 
being usuedly to cut the leaves and throw them into ponds for three 
or more days, when they are taken out, macerated and scraped with 
a bluntish instrument. It has been found that the leaf fibres are 
liable to rot owing to a milky viscid juice contained in them. This 
defect has, however, been considerably obviated by very hard crush- 
ing, or pressure between heavy cylinders, which, by getting rid of 



22 AGAVE. 

all the moisture, renders them more pliable for weaving and other 
purposes. In Calcutta, the fibres being submitted to experiments, 
were found equal to the best Kussian hemp. They are much used 
for lashing bales of calico. As log-lines for ships they are found to 
be very durable, and far superior to ropes of hemp. In several ex- 
periments that have been made, especially by Drs Eoyle and Wight, 
Aloe-fibre rope has been found to be more powerful than either coir, 
country hemp, or j ate. A bundle of the Agave fibre bore 270 lb., 
that of Eussian hemp only 160 lb. Dr Wight found some cord of 
it bore 362 lb. In Tinnevelly it sells from 20 to 40 rupees the candy 
of 500 lb., and at Madras for 7 rupees a maund. There is no 
doubt that these Aloe fibres deserve more particular notice. They 
are admirably suited for cordage, mats, ropes, &c., and the tow 
might be advantageously used in the manufiftcture of paper. In 
Mexico they prepare a fermented liquor from the stem by incision, 
called Pulque, and from this they distil an ardent spirit In that 
country, too, the dried flowering-stems are used as impenetrable 
thatch. An extract of the leaves is used to make a lather, like soap, 
and the leaves, split longitudinally, are employed to sharpen razors on, 
performing the duties of a strop owing to the particles of silica they 
contain. — {Boyl^e Fibrous Plants. Jury Rep, Mad. Exhih. Ldndley. ) 
An important discovery has recently been made, that plaster impreg- 
nated with the juice and pulp of the Aloe leaves will save walls from 
being attacked by white ants. The experiment was made in jails, 
and other buildings where white ants abounded, and those parts 
of the buildings where the Aloe juice was mixed with the plaster were 
free £rom the depredations of those destructive insects. — Corresp. in 
Agri. Hart. Soc. Jour., Jime 1864. 



(29) Agave vlvipara (Linn.) Do. 

Bastard Aloe, Enq. Eathalai, Tam. Peetha kalabantha» Tel. 

DESCRiFnoN. — Stemless ; leaves ovate-oblong, acute, stiff, 
thick, recurved, spreading, pale green, hoary, prickly at the 
edges ; prickles collected, veiy small, orange brown ; scape 
branched, bulbiferous. — Linn. Spec. 461. — Kunth Enum. pL 
v. 822.— Ait. Kew, i. 471. North-West Provinces. 

EooNOMio UsBS. — ^A good flbre, which is long in. the staple, is 
procured &om the leaves. The latter are allowed to rot in water for 
twenty days, and then beat on a plank, and again thoroughly washed. 
A strong and useful cordage is made from them, as well as mats and 
ropes. In South Arcot these fibres sell at 30 rupees the candy. 
Generally they And a ready sale in this country, and pay the expense 
of manufacture. — Jury Rep. M. E. 



AILANTHUS. 23 

(30) Ailanthus ezcelsa (Boxb.) K. O. Xanthoxtlagejs. 

Peroomamm, Tam. PeramAnmiy Mal. Peddaxnanoo, Tel. 

Descbiption. — Large tree ; leaves abruptly pinnated, tomen- 
tose when young, afterwards glabrous; leaflets 10-14 pair, 
coarsely toothed at the base ; petals 5, almost glabrous in the 
inside ; filaments glabrous, shorter than the anthers ; calyx 5- 
clefl ; samarse linear-oblong, 3-5, one-seeded ; panicles termi- 
nal ; flowers fascicled, green. FL Aug. — W. & A. Prod. i. 150. 

— Roxb. FL Ind, ii. 454, Cor. i. t. 23. Northern Circars. 

Coimbatora 

Medical Uses. — ^The aromatic bark is used by the natives in dys- 
pepsia. Dr Wight mentions that in the Gircais the bark is regarded 
as a powerful febrifuge, and as a tonic in cases of debility. — Aindie. 
Wight 111. I. 

EooNOMio Uses. — ^The wood is light and not durable, but is used 
for catamaians and made into sword-handles and sheaths for spears 
in Western India. — Roxb. 



(31) AilanthuB Malabarica {Dec.) Do. 

Peroomamm, Mal. Peromanun, Tel. 

Description. — Tree, leaves abruptly pinnated ; leaflets quite 
entire, ovate^lanceolate, unequal-sided, oblique at the base; 
panicles large, terminal ; peduncles and calyx pubescent ; 
petals glabrous, obovate, much longer than the calyx ; samara3 
oval, oblong, obtuse at both ends. — Wight Icon. t. 1604. — W. & 
A. Prod, i 150. — Eheede, vi. t. 15. Travancore. Malabar. 

Medical Uses. — ^The bark has a pleasant and slightly bitter 
taste, and is given in cases of dyspepsia, and moreover considered a 
valuable tonic and febrifuge. It yields a fragrant resinous juice 
known as MiUte&-palf which was fiist noticed by Buchanan, who 
found the tree in the Annamullay forests. The resin reduced to 
powder mixed with milk and strained is given in small doses in 
dysentery, and also in bronchitis, and reputed to be an excellent 
remedy, owing chiefly to the balsamic properties of the resin. The 
fruit triturated with mango and mixed with rice is reckoned useftd 
in cases of ophthalmia. Wight states that the. bark is rough and 
very thick, studded with bright garnet-looking grains appaientiy of a 
resinous nature, which do not dissolve either in spirit or water. 
— {Ainalie, Wight. Qihaon.) Mr Broughton, Quinologist to Gov- 
ernment, reported upon the resin as follows : '^ This resin, as com- 



24 ALANGIUM ALBIZZIA. 

monly met with, is dark brown or grey in colour, is plastic, opaque, 
and has an agreeable smell. It contains much impurity. The pure 
resin is very soft, having the consistence of thick treacle ; and this 
is doubtless the reason why it is always mixed with fragments of 
wood and earth, which make it more easy to handle. The sample 
which I examined contained but 77 per cent of resin, the remainder 
being adulterations. Alcohol readily dissolves the resin, and on 
evaporation leaves it as a very viscous, transparent, light-brown, 
semi-liquid, which does not solidify by many days' exposure to a 
steam heat ; when burnt it gives out a fragrance, and hence it is 
sometimes used for incense. Its perfume is, however, inferior to 
that produced by many other resins employed in the concoction of 
the incense employed in Christian and heathen worship. The pecu- 
liar consistency of the resin would enable it to substitute Venice 
turpentine for many purposes, though its price (6 rupees for 25 lb. 
in the crude state) forbids an extensive employment." 



(32) Alanginm decapetalnm (Lam.) K 0. Alangiageje. 

Sa^e-leaved Alangium, Eng. Alingie-maruni, Tail Angolaxn, Mal. Akola^ 
Akarkanta, Hu(D. Bagh-ankra, Binq. 

Description. — Tree, leaves alternate, narrow-oblong ; petals 
6-10 ; branches occasionally spinescent ; stamens twice the 
number of the petals ; filaments hairy at the base ; flowers 
solitary or aggregate in the axils of the leaves, whitish yellow, 
fragrant ; drupe tomentose, 1-seeded. Fl, April and May. — 
W, & A. Prod. i. Z25,—Eheede, iv. t 17,— Wight Icon, t 194. 

— ^A. tomentosum, Dec. — A. hexapetalum, Boxb. ^Eocky 

places in Malabar. Coromandel. Assam. 

Medical Uses. — The juice of the root is reckoned anthelmintic 
and purgative. It is also employed in dropsical cases ; and, pulver- 
ised, is a reputed antidote in snake-bitea — Jtoxb. 

Economic Uses. — The timber is very beautiful and strong, accord- 
ing to Dr Wight sustaining a weight of 310 lb. The wood of the 
A. hexapetalum is also considered valuable. This latter is called .^^ 
Kara-angolam in Malayalum, and Wooduga in Telugu. It is a 
native of Bengal and Malabar. — Wight 

(33) Albizzia amara {Willd.) K O. LEGUMiNoSiE. 

Nalla-eenga, Nalla-eegoo, Narlinjie, Tel. Wooiya, Tam. 

Description. — Tree, unarmed; branches terete; young shoots, 
petioles, and peduncles, and under side of the leaflets clothed 
with yellowish tomentum ; leaves bipinnate ; pinnae 8-10 pair, 



ALBIZZIA. 25 

with a gland on the petiole and between the last pair ; leaflets 
20-30 pair ; stipules lanceolate ; peduncles solitary or aggre- 
gat-ed, long and filiform in the axils of the upper leaves, and 
racemose from the abortion of the leaves ; flowers small in 
globular heads ; corolla 5-cleft ; stamens long, numerous, mon- 
adelphous; legumes flat, thin, broadly linear, 3-6 seeded. — 
Bedd, Flor. Sylv. t 61. — Acacia amara, WUld. — W. & A. Prod. 

i. 274 — ^Mimosa amara, Roxh, Mysore. Bombay. Madras 

Presidency. 

Economic Uses. — A tolerably large tree, with a maximmn height 
of about 30 feet. The wood is dark brown, mottled, and very hand- 
some, strong, fibrous, stiff, close-grained, hard, and durable, superior 
to Sal and Teak in transverse strength and cohesive power. It is 
much used by the natives for building purposes, and in the construc- 
tion of carts, ploughs, and beams. It also makes excellent fuel, and 
for this purpose is extensively used for the railways in Southern In- 
dia. The natives use the leaves for washing the hair. — Beddome, 

(34) Albizzia Lebbek {Benth.) Do. 

Sirissa tree, Enq. Stris, Hiio). Eattavagal, Tam. Dirisana, Tel. Veln-v&ke, 
Mel. Siris-gachh, Beng. 

Description. — Tree, 30-40 feet, unarmed ; young branches 
flexuose ; leaves bipinnated ; pinnse 1-4 pair ; leaflets 4-9 pair, 
obtuse, oval, glabrous, unequal ; peduncles axillary, each with 
a globular head of flowers on short pedicels, 1-4 together; 
calyx long, tubular ; petals 5, united to beyond the calyx ; 
stamens very long, monadelphous ; legumes flat and thin, 
remotely 8-10 seeded ; flowers small, white, fragrant. FL 
Aug. — Sept. — ^Acacia speciosa WUld, — W. & A. Prod. i. 275. — 
M. Sirissa, Boxb, FL Ind. ii. 554. Travancore. Coromandel. 

Medical Uses. — ^The seeds are used by the natives in the treat- 
ment of piles, and as an astringent in diarrhoea. The flowers are 
employed in the cure of boils, eruptions, and swellings, and act as 
antidotes to poisons. The leaves are useful in ophthalmia, and the 
powdered bark in ulcers, and especially in snake-wounds. The oil 
extracted from the seeds is given in cases of white leprosy. — PowdVs 
Punj, Prod, 

Economic Uses. — A considerable quantity of gum is yielded by 
this tree, valuable for many ordinary purposes. The timber is very 
durable, hard, and close-grained, and is employed for furnitine. It 
is of a light colour, and is well adapted for picture-frames and 
similar work. In Northern India it is considered unlucky to 



26 ALBIZZIA. 

employ the timber in houBe-boilding. — (Roxh. Rep. Mad, Exhih.) 
It is a frequent tree by roadsides, and has a laige and umbrageous 
head. The tree is pollarded, and the cuttings used as firewood. It 
is now extensively planted on the Ganges CanaL It is of rapid 
growth, and flourishes in almost any soil. The leayes afford good 
fodder for cattle. — Bomb, Govt Rep,, 1863. 

(35) Albiziiaodorati88ima(Prt7^.) Do. 

Earinthakara, Mal. Eurroo-vaga, Tam. Shindnga, Tel. 

Description. — Tree, 80-40 feet, unarmed ; leaves bipinnated; 
piiiii8e3-4pair; leafletslO-40 pair,narrow,oval,oblique,glabrous, 
pale on the under side ; panicles terminal and axillary, the ulti- 
mate divisions cymose, or somewhat umbellate ; heads of flowers 
small, globose; stamens monadelphous ; legume flat, thin, thick- 
margined, about 10-seeded ; flowers pale yellow, very fragrant. 
FL May — June. — Acacia odoratissima, Willd, — W. Jk A. Prod. 
i. 275. — ^A. lomatocarpa, Dec. — Mimosa odoratissima, Roab. 

FL Ind, ii. 546. Cor. ii. t 120. — Rheede, vi t 5. ^Malabar 

and CoromandeL Common everyiyhere. 

Economic Uses. — The timber of this large and handsome tree is 
particularly hard and strong, and is well suited for naves and fellies 
of wheels. The tree is very abundant, and grows in almost any 
solL It is one of the most valuable jungle timbers. — (Roxh. Jury 
Rep, Mad. Exhih.) It attains a large size at Vellore, Arcot, and in 
the Camatic generally, and in the ghauts running towards SaTem. 
The tree grows rapidly, and the wood is hard, heavy, and dark- 
coloured. It is excellent for all purposes requiring strength and 
durability, and should be planted where required to remain. — Beefs 
Rep. to Bomb. Govt., 1863. 

(36) Albizzia stipolata {Dec.) Do. 

Eonda-chiragu, Tel. Amiooki, Beno. 

Description. — ^Tree, 40-50 feet, unarmed; leaves bipinnated ; 
young shoots irregularly angled ; pinnae 6-20 pair ; petioles 
tomentose; leaflets numerous, semi-hastate, sides very un- 
equal; peduncles aggregated; panicles terminal and in the 
upper axils ; heads of flowers globose ; corolla tubular, 5-cleft ; 
stamens very long, monadelphous at the base ; legumes thin, 
flat, glabrous ; seeds 6-12 ; flowers white and rose-coloured. 
FL April — June. — Acacia stipulata, Dec. — W. & A. Prod. i. 

274. — M. stipulacea, Roxh. FL Ind. ii. 649. Travancore. 

Courtallum. Bengal. 



ALEURITES — ALOE. 27 

Economic Uses. — ^This is one of the largest trees of the genus. 
The timber is close-grained and strong, rendering it valuable for 
furniture and other purposes. It is a native of the mountains north 
of Bengal, but it is to be met with in most parts of the Peninsula. 
— Roacb. 

(37) Alenrites triloba {Ford.) N. 0. EuPHORsucEiE. 

Belgaum walnut, Eno. ' Jimgli-akhioty Duk. Natta*akrotu, Tam. Natn-akrota, 
Tkl. Bangla-akrot, Beno. 

Descrifhon. — Large tree ; leaves petioled, very large, cor- 
date, with entire or scalloped margins, 3-5 lobed; panicles 
terminal ; flowers small, white ; fruit roundish, somewhat com- 
pressed, pointed, very hard, 2-celled; cells 1-seeded. FL 

May. — J, Ordh, Roai>. FL Ind. iii 629. Belgaum. Travan- 

core. Mysore. Northern Circars. Bengal. 

Medical Uses. — An oil is extracted firom the kernel of the nut, 
which is employed medicinally as a sure and mild purgative, ap- 
proximating nearer in its effects to castor-oil. It has neither taste 
nor smell, nor does it produce nausea, either administered pure or in 
emulsion. It has been pronounced superior to linseed-oil, especially 
for purposes connected with the arts. It is easily extracted, being 
separated from the kernel with less labour and simpler machinery 
than the oil from the Cocoa-nut, which requires great pressure. — 
Pharm, of India, CfRorke, Ann, TJierap.y 117. 

Economic Uses. — ^This is a large tree, the newly-formed parts of 
which are covered with a farinaceous substance. The natives are 
fond of the nut, which is palatable, and something like our English 
Walnut. In the Sandwich Islands they are employed for candles. 
A number of them strung upon a stick will bum for hours, giving 
a clear and steady light. The tree grows most readily &om seed, 
and might be extensively cultivated. The cake after expression of 
the oil is a good food for cattle, and useful as manure. According 
to Simmonds, "31^ gallons of the nut yield 10 gallons of oil, which 
bears a good price in the home market." About 10,000 gallons are 
yearly produced in the Sandwich Islands. In Ceylon it is manu- 
factured, and there known as the " kekuna " oil. It is supposed to 
be a good substitute for rape-oiL — Ldndley, Simmonds. Comm. 
Prod. Jury Rep. M. E. 

(38) Aloe vulgaris {Lam.) K O. Liliacks. 

Barbadoes Aloe, Eno. Eattalaj, Tam. 

Description. — Stem short; leaves fleshy, stem-clasping, 
first spreading, then ascending, lanceolate, glaucous-green, flat, 
obovate, convex below, armed with distant reddish spines 



28 ALOE. 

perpendicular to the margin; the parenchyma slightly coloured 
brown, and very distinct from the tough leathery cuticle; 
spike cylindrical-ovate ; flowers at first erect, then spreading, 
afterwards pendulous, yellow, with the three inner segments at 
the apex somewhat orange, not longer than the stamens. — 
Lam, Enc, i. 86. Rheede, xi. t 3. — A. Barbadensis, Mill 
Common in the Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — The above species of Aloe, which is properly a 
native of Greece, or, as some say, of the Cape Colony, has long been 
naturalised in both Indies. It yields what is known as the Bar- 
badoes Aloes. This substance is of a dark or reddish-brown 
colour, and has a most unpleasant odour. In quaHty it is 
far inferior to the real Socotrine Aloes {A, Socotrina). As a 
drug, Aloes is reckoned extremely valuable, and its medical pro- 
perties are very numerous. Although aperient, yet, unlike other 
cathartics, the effect is not increased, if given in Isige doses, beyond 
a certain point. To persons predisposed to apoplexy it is more 
beneficial than most other purgatives. The compound decoction is 
a valuable emmenagogue, particularly when combined with prepara- 
tions of iron. One of the best modes of covering the unpleasant 
taste of Aloes, when given liquid, is in the compound tincture of 
lavender. Aloes are produced by most of the varieties of these 
plants, but Dr O'Shaughnessy remarks that the quaHty of the pro- 
duct is apparently more dependent on soil, climate, and preparation, 
than on any specific difference in the plant itself A great deal 
depends on the mode of preparation. The usual mode of extracting 
the substance is by making a transverse iucision in the leaves, or 
cutting them off at the base, and scraping off the jmce as it flows if 
done in the former way, and allowing it to run in a vessel placed 
for the purpose if in the latter. Pressure is made occasionally to 
assist the flow ; but, as Dr O'Shaughnessy observes, " by this means 
large quantities of the mucilage are forced out and mix with the 
proper bitter juice, which is proportionately deteriorated;" for it must 
be recollected that the Aloe contains a great deal of mucilaginous 
matter, abundant towards the centre of the thick fleshy leaves. The 
Aloes after being received into a vessel are exposed to the sun or 
other heat, by which means they become inspissated. The greater 
portion of Aloes sent to England is from the Cape Colony. Of late 
years the importation of the true Socotrina Aloes has considerably 
decreased. What is now shipped to Europe is sent usually round 
by Bombay ; but Simmonds says, " Socotrine Aloes, although long 
considered the best kind, is now below Barbadoes Aloes in commercial 
value." The several kinds of Aloes are the East Indian or Hepatic 
Aloes, so called from its liver colour, and said to be the produce of 
the A, Arahica ; and the Horse- Aloes, which is only used in veteri- 
nary medicine. This latter product is said to be obtained by boil- 



ALPINIA. 29 

ing the leaves that have been previously used for producing a finer 
sampla The greater part of Cape- Aloes is the produce of A, S^cata, 
which is of a yellowish colour, and has a heavy disagreeable odour. 
— (Ainslie. lAndl. Bengal Disp, Comm, Prod, Mad,) The other 
species yielding Aloes are the A. Indica, Eoyle {A, per/oUata, Boxb.), 
inhabiting dry sandy plains in the North-Western Provinces, and 
the A, litoralis (Koenig), found on the sea-coasts of the Peninsula. 
A good kind of Aloes is procurable from the latter. The natives 
attach much value to the juice of the leaves, which they apply 
extemaUy in cases of ophthalmia, and especially in what are com- 
monly termed country sore-eyes. The mode of administering it is 
to wash the pulp of the leaves in cold water and Tni-g it up with a 
little burnt alum. In this state it is appHed to the eyes, being 
previously wrapped in a piece of muslin cloth. An ink is prepared 
by the Mahometans from the juice of the pulp. — (Ainslie,) It 
appears certain that, with a little care. Aloes of good quality might 
be obtained from this source in considerable quantities, at a cost 
far less than that of the imported article. The £reshly-expressed 
juice is in almost universal use as an external refrigerant application 
to all external or local inflammations. — Pharm, of India, 

(39) Alpinla galanga (Swz,) K 0. Zingtberagel£. 

Bara-KuliDJan, Hind, and Duk. Pera-rattai, Tah. Pedda-dumpa-rashtrakam, 
Tkl. Pera-ratt^ Mal. 

Description. — Perennial ; stem 6-7 feet when in flower, 
with leafless sheath up to the middle ; leaves short-stalked, 
lanceolate, white, and somewhat callous on the margin, smooth; 
panicles terminal, spreading, dichotomous, each division with 
from 2 to 6 pale -greenish, fragrant flowers ; calyx smooth, 
white, 1-toothed ; exterior limb of corolla of 3 nearly equal 
recurved divisions ; interior one unguiculate, oval, deeply 
2-lobed, white with reddish specks ; capsule size of a small 
cherry, obovate, smooth, deep orange-red, 3-ceIled; seed 1, 
much compressed, deep chestnut colour, a little wrinkled, 
arillate, except at the apex. FL April — May. — Boxb. Fl, Ind. 

i. 59. — Maranta galanga, Linn, South Concan. Chittagong. 

Travancore. 

Medical Uses. — ^The tubers, which are faintly aromatic, pungent, 
and somewhat bitter, are the larger galangal of the shops, and are 
used as a substitute for ginger. They are given in infusion in 
fevers, rheumatism, and catarrhal affections. The galangal root is 
much used in China, and is one of the articles of commerce, realising 
in London 12s. to 16s. per cwt. It has an aromatic pungent taste ; 
the outside is of a reddish-brown ; internally it is reddish- white. 



30 ALSTONIA. 

An inferior sort of galangal is got fix)m A. AUugkas (Roscoe), the 
root of whicli is considerably aromatic. Of this hitter species 
Eheede says, that the juice of the root is applied externally in gout, 
and is also used internally. The root itself macerated and mixed 
with wine is a good external application for pains in the limbs ; and, 
pulyerised, is administered in colic. It is the Mala Insehikua of 
Eheede. — (Ainalie. Bimmonds, BJveede,) The A. Khtdinjariy a 
variety of the A, CkinensiSy is found growing in several gardens at 
Madras ; and its rhizome, when dried, resembles that of the lesser 
galangaL It is supposed to be a distinct species by some, though 
closely approximating the A. Calcarata. It is stimulant, carmina- 
tive, stomachic, and expectorant. It is useful in all diseases where 
ginger is used, and also in most nervous disorders. It has also proved 
useful in incontinence of urine. — Siippl. to Pharm. of India. 

(40) Alstonia scholaris {E. Br,) N. 0. Apootnaokb. 

Ezhilaip-palai, Tam. Edakulapala, Pala-ganida, Edakula-ariti, Edakula-ponna, 
Til. Pala, Mukkan-pala, Mal. Chhatin, Bkno. 

Description. — Tree, 50 feet ; leaves 5-7 in a whorl, obovate- 
oblong, obtuse, veins ribbed, approximating the maigin ; calyx 
5-parted; corolla salver-shaped, with roundish segments; 
cymes on short peduncles; limb of corolla a little bearded; 
flowers greenish white, follicles very long, slender. Fl. Nov. — 
Dec. — Bheede, i. t. ^5,—^Wight Icon, t 422. — Echites scholaris, 
Linn. ^Travancore. CoromandeL Assam. 

Medical Uses. — ^The wood is bitter to the taste, and the bark is 
a powerful tonic, much used by the natives in bowel complaints. It 
is astringent, anthelmintic, and anti-periodic. It has proved a 
valuable remedy in chronic diarrhoea and the advanced stages of 
dysentery, and also effectual in restoring the tone of the stomach 
after debilitating fevers. — Pharm, of India. Gibson in Pharm. 
Journal^ xii 422. 

EooNOMio Uses. — This tree has obtained the trivial name Scholaris 
from the fact of its planks being used as school-boards, on which 
children trace their letters, as in the Lancastrian system. The chil- 
dren assemble half-naked under the shade of the Cocoa palm, place 
themselves on rows on the ground, and trace out on the sand with 
the forefinger of the right hand the elements of their alphabet, and 
then smooth it with their left when they wish to trace out other 
characters. This method of teaching writing was introduced into 
India 200 B.O., according to Megasthenes, and still continues to be 
practised. The wood is white and close-grained. In Assam it is 
much prized for beams and light work, such as boxes, trunks, and 
scabbards. The whole tree aboimds in milky juice. — Nimmo, RoxIk 



AMARANTUS — AMMANNIA. 31 

(41) Amarantns fhimentaceus (Bitch.) N. 0. Ahabantacejb. 

Poong-kirai, Tah. 

DBSCBiPnoN. — Stem herbaceous, erect ; leaves long-petioled, 
broad-lanceolate, acute ; panicles terminal, erect ; sepals subu- 
late, acute ; stamens five ; stigmas three ; seed subcompressed, 
smooth; utricles wrinkled. Deo. Prod. xiii. s. 2, p. 265. — 

Baxh. Flar. Ind. iii %99.— Wight Icon. t. 720. ^Mysore. 

Coimbatore. 

EoONOMio Uses. — ^This plant is extensively cultivated in the 
Coimbatore district, chiefly for the flour of its seeds, which is a great 
article of diet among the natives. Besides the above, there are 
several other species of Amaranths used as vegetables by the natives, 
such as the A, polygonoides (Roxb.), considered very wholesome, 
especially for convalescents ; the A, oleracetis (Linn.), of which the 
several varieties are cultivated for diet, especially the Var. giganteus^ 
which is about 4 to 8 feet high, and with a thick succulent stem, 
which is eaten as a substitute for asparagus. — Roxb. Aindie. 

(42) AmarantuB spinosus (Linn.) Do. 

Kant^mat, Buk. MuUnk-kirai, Tail Mundla-tota-kura, NaUa-doggali, Tel. 
MuUan-chira, Mal. Eanta-mari, BxNO. 

Description. — ^Erect, 1-3 feet, somewhat striated, glabrous, 
reddish; leaves long-petioled, rhomb -ovate, or lanceolate- 
oblong, with two spines in the axils; panicles sparingly 
branched; spikes erect, cylindric, acute, terminal ones long, 
stiffish, lateral ones middle-sized; flowers dense, green ; utricles 
2-3 cleft at the top, somewhat wrinkled; bracts unequal, 
bearded ; seed lenticular, polished, black. — Dec. Prod. xiii. s. 
2, p. 260.— Roxb. Flor. Ind. iii. &11.— Wight Icon. t. 513.— 
Rumph. Amb. v. t. 83, fig. 1. Peninsula. Bengal Malabar. 

Medical Uses. — EmolUent poultices are made of the bruised 
leaves. In the Mauritius a decoction of the leaves and root is ad- 
ministered internally as diuretic.^ — (Boufon, Med. PI. of the Mauritius. ) 
The A. campestris (Willd.) is considered demulcent, and is given in 
decoction in cases of strangury — (Ainslie). The A. polygamns 
(Linn.) is used in bilious disorders, and as an aperient — Long^ 
Indig. Plants of Bengal. 

(43) ATiifnn.iiTi<a vesicatorla (Roxb.) K. O. Ltthaaoes. 

Did-miri, Hind. Aein-bAti, Duk. Kaflurivi, Miumel-neruppa, Tam. Aqui- 
▼ender-paka, Tel. KalLar-vanchi, Mal. 

Description. — Herbaceous, erect; stem much branched, 
4-sided ; leaves sessile, opposite, lanceolate, attenuated, smaller 



32 AMOORA — AMORPHOPHALLUS. 

nearer the flowers ; calyx 4-cleft to the middle, lobes acute, 
accessory teeth very small ; flowers very minute, aggregated in 
the axils of the leaves, almost sessile ; tube of the calyx at first 
narrow and tightened round the ovary, in fruit cup-shaped ; 
petals wanting ; capsule longer than the calyx, 1-celled ; 
flowers red. Fl. Oct.— W. & A. Prod. L 305. R<xxb. Flor. Ind. 
i, 426. — Dec. Prod, iii. 78. Peninsula. Bengal 

Medical Uses. — ^The whole plant has a strong muriatic, not dis- 
agreeable smell. Its leaves, being extremely acrid, are used by the 
natives in raising blisters in rheumatism. Bruised and applied to 
the affected parts, they perform their office most effectually in about 
haK an hour — (Ainslie). The pounded leaves are appUed to herpetic 
exupiioBB'^Fleming). It is said, from the great pain the leaves cause 
as blisters, they cannot be recommended. — Pharm. of India, 

(44) Amoora Bohitoka (W. ^ A,) N. O. MsLiACEiE. 

Chemmamm, Mal. Hurin-hura, or Khana, Hind. Tikhta-raj, Bkkq. 

Description. — Small tree ; leaves unequally pinnated ; leaf- 
lets 6 pair, opposite, obliquely-oblong, glabrous ; young peti- 
oles slightly hairy on their lower part ; male flowers in panicles 
shorter than the leaves, subsessile; calyx 3-leaved; female 
flowers numerous, sessile, solitary, erect on spikes, which are 
rather more than half the length of the leaves ; petals three ; 
capsule pale yellow, 3-celled, 3-valved ; seeds solitary, enclosed 
in a fleshy scarlet aril ; flowers small, white, or cream-coloured. 
Fl, July — Aug. — W. &A, Prod. i. 119. — Andersonia Eohituka, 
Roodb. Fl, Ind, ii. 213. ^Travancore. Bengal 

Economic Uses. — From the seeds, where the trees grow plenti- 
fully, the natives extract an oil which they use for many economical 
purposes. — Roxh. 

(45) Amorphophallas campannlatns (Blume), K 0. Abacejb. 

TeUnga potato, Eno. Karana, Mal. and Tam. Mnncha Knnda, Tel. 01, Hind. 

Desceiption. — Stemless ; leaves decompound ; flowers small, 
dark-coloured, sessile with respect to the surface of the ground, 
and appearing when the plant is destitute of leaves ; spathe 
the length of the spadix, campanulate, margins curled ; nectary 
none ; club broad-ovate, lobate, anthers 2-celled. Fl, June. — 
Wight Icon, t, 782. — Arum campanulatum, Roxb, — Wieede, 
Mod, xi. t, 18, 19. Bengal. Peninsula. 



AMPHIDONAX — ANACARDIUM. 33 

MisDiOAL Uses. — ^The acrid roots are used mediciiially in boils and 
ophthalmia. They are very caustic and abound in starch, and are 
employed as external stimulants, and are also emmenagogue. — (Lind- 
ley,) The &esh roots act as an acrid stimulant and expectorant, and 
are used in acute rheumatism. — Powell, Punj. Prod, 

EcoNOMio Uses. — ^The roots are very nutritious, on which account 
they are much cultivated for the purpose of diet They are planted 
in May, and will yield from 100 to 250 maunds per beegah, seUing 
at the rate of a rupee a maund. The roots are also used for pickling. 
"Wight says that " when in flower the fetor it exhales is most over- 
powering, and so perfectly resembles that of carrion as to induce flies 
to cover the club of the spadix with their eggs." A very rich soil, 
repeatedly ploughed, suits it best. The small tuberosities found in 
the large roots are employed for sets, and planted in the manner of 
potatoes. In twelve months they are reckoned flt to be taken up for 
use ; the larger roots will then weigh &om 4-8 or more pounds, and 
keep well if preserved dry. The natives employ them for food in 
the manner of the common yam. The plant is the Clumeh or MuU 
turn ckaneh of Eheede. — Jury Rep» M, E, Boxb, 

(46) Amphidoiiaz karka {Land,) K 0. Graminage^. 

Naga Saia, Maitantos, Tel. Nar Nul, Benq. 

Description. — Culms erect, 8-12 feet, round, smooth, covered 
i^ith the sheaths of the leaves ; leaves approximate, ensiform, 
smooth ; mouths of the sheaths bearded ; panicles erect, oblong, 
composed of many filiform, sub-verticelled ramifications, bow- 
ing to the wind ; rachis of the branches angular and hispid ; 
florets alternate; calyx 3-5 flowered; glumes unequal Ft. 

Sept.— Feb.— JBoaA. Fl, Ind, I 347.— A. Koxbnrghii, Ktk 

Peninsula. Bengal. 

Economic Uses. — The common Durma mats at Calcutta are made 
of the stalks of this reed split open. Pipes are made of the culms, 
especially those used by people carrying about dancing-snakes. This 
grass is more luxuriant in Bengal than on the coast. In Scinde the 
culms are made into chairs, and the flower-stalks are beaten to form 
fibres which are there called Moonyah. These are used for string 
and ropes. — Boyle. Boxb, 

(47) Anacardinm occidentale (Linn,) N. 0. TEREBiNXHACEii:. 

Cashew-lint, Eng. Eaju, Hind, and DuK. Mandiri-manun, Tam. Jidi-mamidi, 
Munta-mamidi, Tbl, Paranki-maya, Eappa-XDayakiun, Mal. Hiijli-badam, Bbnq. 

Description. — ^Tree; leaves oval, alternate, with roundish 
or emarginate apex ; calyx 5-cleft nearly to the base ; jpetals 

3 



34 ANAMIRTA. 

5, linear-lanceolate, pale yellow with pink stripes; stamens 
usually nine, with one longer than the others ; style solitary ; 
panicles terminal, with male and hermaphrodite flowers mixed 
together; flowers greenish red; fruit a kidney-shaped ash- 
brown nut, sessile on the apex of a yellow or crimson-coloured 
torus. Fl. Feb.— March.— JT. <fe A. Prod. L 168.— iZoa*. FL 

Ind. ii. 312. — Itheede, iii. t 54. Coasts of the Peninsula. 

Chittagong. Trichinopoly. 

Medical Uses. — ^The frait is sub-acid and astringent. The peri- 
carp of the nut contains a black acrid oil, known as Caidole, which 
is a powerfoUy vesicating agent It requires, however, to be cautiously 
used. It is applied to warts, corns, and ulcers, but it ia said that 
the vapour of the oil when roasting is apt to produce swelling and 
inflammation. Martius says, ^'The sympathetic effect of the nut borne 
about the person upon chronic inflammation of the eyes, especially 
when of a scrofulous nature, is remarkable." The astringency of the 
fruit-juice has been reconnnended as a good remedy in dropsical 
habits. The bark is given internally in infusion for syphilitic swell- 
ings of the joints. — Lindley. Pereira, 

EooNOMio Uses. — The acrid oil stated above as Cardole is often 
appHed to floors or wooden rafters of houses to prevent the attack of 
white ants, and most effectually keeps them away. A transparent 
gum is obtained from the trunk of the tree, useful as a good varnish, 
and making a fair substitute for gum- Arabic. It should be collected 
while the sap is rising. It is particularly useful when the depreda- 
tions of insects require to be guarded against. For this purpose it is 
used in S. America by the bookbinders, 'who wash their books with 
a solution of it in order to keep away moths and ants. The kernels 
are edible and wholesome, abounding in sweet milky juice, and are 
used for imparting a flavour to Madeira wine. Ground up and 
mixed with cocoa they make a good chocolate. The juice of the 
fruit expressed and fermented yields a pleasant wine ; and distilled, 
a spirit is drawn from it making good punch. A variety of the tree 
grows in Travancore, and probably elsewhere, the pericarp of whose 
nuts has no oil, but may be chewed raw with impunity. The tree 
flowers twice a-year. The juice which flows from an incision in the 
body of the tree will stain linen so that it cannot be washed out. 
An edible oil equal to olive or almond oil is procured from the nuts, 
but it is seldom prepared, the kernels being used as a table-fruit. 
The wood is of no value. — Lindley. Pereira, Don, 

(48) Anamirta eoccnluB (PT. ^ A,) N. 0. Menispermaoejb. 

'f Pen-Kottai, Kaka-coollie, Tam. Kaki-chempoo, Tel. Kakmari, Hind. PoUa 

or Kaandaka-Gonuveh, Mal. 

Description. — Twining ; bark deeply cracked ; leaves alter- 



ANANAS. 35 

nate, slightly cordate, roundish, acute, whitish beneath, with 
5 digitate ribs; calyx 6-sepalled; corolla none; racemes of 
female flowers, lateral, whitish green; drupes 2-3; seeds 
globose. — W. & A. Prod, i 446. — Menispermum cocculus, 
Linn, — Cocculus suberosus, W, &A. Prod, i. 11. — Rheede, vii. 
t 1, and xi. t. 62. Malabar. Circar moimtains. Concans. 

Medical Uses. — ^The berries of this plant, which are very dis- 
agreeable to the taste, are known as the Cocculus Indicus seeds, and 
have been extensively used by brewers in the adulteration of malt 
liquors. In overdoses they are highly poisonous. An oil is pro- 
duced from them used for poisoning fish and game. In a powdered 
state they are employed for destroying pediculi in the hair, and in 
ointment are reckoned of value in cutaneous diseases. The juice of 
the fresh fruit is applied externally to foul ulcers, and is esteemed a 
good remedy in scabies. Ainslie states that '^ the berry ia employed 
by the Yytians as a useful external application in cases of inveterate 
itch and herpes ; on which occasions it is beat into a fine powder 
and mixed with a little warm castor-oiL" Marcet proved by experi- 
ments that it is also a poison for vegetable substances, a solution pre- 
pared with an extract made from the seeds having killed a bean plant 
in twenty-four hours. The poisonous properties reside in the seeds, 
which contain a large percentage of the virulent principle called Pic- 
rotoxine. And the pericarp 3rield8 another dangerous alkaloid called 
Menispermine. Its chief influence, as a poison, is upon the nervous 
system, and leaves scarcely any trace of its action upon the coats of 
the stomach. The ointment made from the powdered berries is very 
efficacious in allaying inflammation, but requires to be cautiously 
used. — Ainslie. PJiarm. of India. 

EooNOMic Uses. — ^That the seeds are ill^ally employed in the 
adulteration of beer by the lower class of brewers in England is an 
undoubted fact, although the penalties imposed by the Legislature are 
very severe. It is said that 1 lb. of these berries is equal to a sack 
of malt in brewing, and it was even recommended, by a person who 
wrote on the * Art of Brewing,' to add 3 lb. of seed to every ten 
quarters of malt. A considerable quantity of " Cocculus Indicus " 
is exported from Malabar and Travancore, and shipped for the 
London market, where the price varies from 18 to 24 shillings per 
cwt. — Ainslie. Lindley. 

(49) Ananas sativns (Sehult) K 0. BROHELiACSiB. 

Pine-apple, Eno. Anasa, Tam. Pooieethee, Mal. 

Description. — ^Perennial, 2-3 feet ; leaves ciliate with spin- 
ous points ; calyx 3-parted ; petals 3 ; spikes tufted ; flowers 
small, bluish. Fl. April— May.— iZoarS. Fl. Ind. u. 116.— 



36 ANDBOMEDA. 

Ananassa sativa, LincU, — ^Bromelia ananas, Litm. ^Natural- 
ised in India. 

Economic Ussa — ^The Pine-apple has long been domesticated in 
the East Indies, and is now found in an almost wild state in most 
parts of the Peninsula, Northern Provinces, and Ceylon. The Portu- 
guese appear to have first introduced the seeds &om the Moluccas. 
It is abundant in China and the Philippine Islands. The plant suc- 
ceeds well in the open air as for north as 30°, while in the southern 
parts of the Peninsula it forms hedges, and will grow with little care 
and in almost any soiL The flavour of the fruit is greatly heightened 
by cultivation, being somewhat acrid in its wild state. The plants 
are remarkable for their power of existing in the air without contact 
with the earth ; and in South America they may be seen in abundance, 
hanging up in the gardens and dwelling-houses, in which situations they 
will flower profusely, perfuming the air with their delicious fragrance. 
The most important use of the Pine-apple plant consists in the fine 
white fibres yielded by the leaves. These have been formed into 
the most delicate fabrics, as weU as fishing-lines and ropes. Unlike 
other fibres, they are not injured by immersion in water — a property 
much increased by tanning, which process is constantly used by the 
natives. In Malstcca and Singapore a trade is carried on with China 
in these fibres, which are there used in the manufacture of linen 
stufls. As a substitute for flax they are perhaps the most valuable 
of Indian fibres. Dr Eoyle states '^ that a patent was taken out for 
the manufacture of thread from the pine-apple fibre, because, when 
bleached, it could be manufactured in the same way as flax. The 
process of bleaching by destroying the adhesion between the bundles 
of fibres renders it much finer, and hence enables it to be extended 
between the rolls in the process of spinning." Specimens of pine- 
apple fibre were sent to the Madras Exhibition frx)m Travancore, 
South Arcot, and other parts of the country ; upon which the Juries 
reported, — " The above samples are nearly white, very soft, silky and 
pliant) and the material seems to be a good substitute for flax, as it 
is known to be strong, durable, and susceptible of fine subdivision. 
It has also the advantage of being as long in the staple as flax, and 
it can be worked upon with the same machinery." According to 
experiments by Dr Royle, pine-apple fibre prepared at Madras bore 
260 lb., and some from Singapore 350 lb. A rope of the same broke 
at 57 cwt. In other experiments a 12-thread rope of plaintain fibre 
broke at 864 lb., and a similar rope of pine-apple fibre at 924 lbs. 
— Royle, Ainslie, Jury Rep, Mad, Exhih, 

(50) Andromeda Leschenanltii {Dec) K 0. Ebicacsjb. 

Indian Wintergreen, Enq. 

Descbiption. — Shrub, glabrous, branches somewhat 3-cor- 
nered; leaves petioled, ovate or obovate, terminating in a 



m^^a^K^KBST' 



ANDROMEDA. 37 

gland, crenulate, punctuate beneath; i*acemes axiUary or 
lateral, pubescent, shorter than the leaves, erect ; bracts con- 
cave, acute, glabrous, one under the pedicel, two near the 
flower ; flowers pure white ; berries blue. Fl. All the year. 
— Dec. Prod, viL 593. — ^A. Kotagherrensis, Hook. Icon, t 246. 
— Leucothoe Kotagherrensis, Dec. I. c. p. 606. — Gaultheria 
Leschenaultii, Dec. I. c. Drury, Handb. Irid. Flor. iL 116. 
Wight Icon. L 119 5. Spicil. ii. t 130. Neilgherries. 

Medical Uses. — The oil procured from this plant, which grows 
abundantly on the iNeilgherries, is identical with the Canadian oil of 
winteigreen (Gaultheria procumhena). This latter oil is of some 
slight commercial value, and is used in medicine as an antispas- 
modic. Mr Broughton, the Government Quinologist, in a report to 
the Madras Grovemment on the subject of this oil, says : The oil 
from this Indian source contains less of the peculiar hydrocarbon 
oil which forms a natural and considerable admixture with the 
Canadian oil, and therefore is somewhat superior in quality to the 
latter. The conmieicial demand for the oil is not, however, con- 
siderable enough to make its occurrence in India of much direct im- 
portance. 

It occurred to me in 1869 that methyl-salicylic acid would, how- 
ever, under suitable treatment, furnish carbolic acid according to a 
decomposition described by Gerhardt. After a few experiments I 
was successful in preparing considerable quantities of pure carbolic 
acid. 

The method of manufacture is as follows : — 

The oil is heated with a dilute solution of a caustic alkali, by 
which means it is saponified and dissolved, methylic alcohol of great 
purity being Hberated. The solution of the oil is then decomposed 
by any mineral acid, when beautiful crystals of salicylic acid are 
formed. These are gathered, squeezed, and dried. They are then 
mixed with common quicklime or sand, and distilled in an iron re- 
tort ; carbolic acid of great purity, and crystallising with the greatest 
readiness, passes into the receiver. 

This acid is equal to the purest kind obtained flrom coal-tar, and 
employed in medicine. It, of course, possesses all the qualities 
which have rendered this substance almost indispensable in modem 
medical and surgical practice. 

I had hoped, from the inexhaustible abundance with which the 
plant grows on the Neilgherries, that the carboHc acid from this 
source could be prepared at less cost than that imported. I have 
not yet had an opportunity of working on a laige scale with an 
itinerant still, as would be necessary for its cheapest production ; 
but &om some calculations I have lately made, I am led to think it 
can scarcely be prepared for less than the price of that procured 



38 ANDROGRAPHIS. 

from coal-tar. The purest kinds from the latter source cost four 
shillingB a-pound ; I estimate the cost of that from this indigenous 
source at from rupees 2.8 to rupees 3.8 (five to seven shillings) per 
pound in this country. 

The carbolic acid &om the same source has certain advantages 
over the coal-tar acid, consequent on its extreme purity. It is less 
deliquescent, and cannot possibly be open to the suspicion of con- 
tamination with certain other products of coal-tar which possess in- 
jurious qualities. 

In conclusion, I am led to the belief that it would not be advis- 
able to prepare carbolic acid from this singular source, when the 
comparative cost shows that the gain must be very small or non- 
existent. But it appears to me well worthy of record, that should 
circumstances render the supply of the English product difficult or 
uncertain, as in the case of war, or the English price increase, a 
practically inexhaustible source exists in this country from which 
this indispensable substance, in its purest state, can be obtained at 
a slight enhancement of the present price. — Broughton^s Eepart to 
Mad. Govt, Jan. 1871. — Pharm. Joum., Oct 1871. 

(51) Andrographifl panicolata (Wall.) K 0. Aoanthacejs. 

Shirat-Kuch-chi, Nela-vembu, Tah. Nella-vemoo, Tel. Nila-veppa, Kiriatha, 
Mal. Mahatita^ Charayeti^, Kiryat, HmD. Eala£iiath, Duk. CheroUi Mahatita, 

BSNQ. 

Description. — Annual, 1-2 feet ; stem quadrangular, pointed, 
smooth ; leaves opposite, on short petioles, lanceolate, entire ; 
calyx deeply 6-cleft; corolla bilabiate, lips linear, reflected, 
upper one 3-toothed, lower one 2-toothed; flowers remote, alter- 
nate, on long petioles, downy, rose-coloured or white, streaked, 
with purple; capsules erect, somewhat cylindrical; seeds S-i in 
each. Fl. Nov. — Feb. — LindL Flor. Med. 501 . — Justicia pani- 
culata, Boxb. FL Ind. i. 118. — Bheede, ix. t 56. — TFigkt Icon. t. 

518. ^Bengal, in dry places under trees. Cultivated in Tin- 

nevelly. 

Mbdigal Usbs. — This plant is much valued for its stomachic and 
tonic properties, especially the root, which is one of the chief in- 
gredients in the French mixture called Drogue am^re. The whole 
of the plant is very bitter, and is occasionally used in cholera and 
dysentery. It is also said to be alexipharmic. — (Ainsl. Lindl.) It 
has been found serviceable in general debility, and in the advanced 
stages of dysentery. The expressed juice of the leaves is a common 
native domestic remedy in the bowel-complaints of children. The 
tincture of Kariyat is said to be tonic, stimulant, and gently aperient, 
and to prove valuable in several forms of dyspepsia. Eoxburgh re- 
marks that its Hindustani name, ^'Mahatita," signifies "King of 



ANDROPOGON. 39 

Bitters," and a very powerful and niucl>e8teemed one it is. — Roxh, 
Pharm, of India. — Fleming^ As. Res, xi. — Waringy Indian Ann. of 
Med. Set. V. 618. 



(52) Andropogon citratnm (Dec.) K 0. GBAMiNACEiE. 

Lemon-grass, Eno. Akya-ghas, Hnn>. Hazar-masaleh, Duk. yashanap-pnlla, 
Karpura-pullUj Tah. NimmA-gaddi, Chippa-gaddi, Tel. Vasaziap-pulla, Samb- 
hara-pulla^ Mal. . Agya-ghans, Bemo. 

Desceiption. — Eoot perennial ; panicles somewliat secund ; 
spikes conjugate, ovate-oblong; rachis pubescent; floscules 
sessile, awnless ; culms 5-7 feet, erect, smooth ; leaves many 
near the root, bifarious, soft, pale green, 3-4 feet long ; spike- 
lets in pairs, on a common pedicel furnished "with a spathe ; 
rachis articulated, hairy ; flowers in pairs, one hermaphrodite 
and sessile, the other male and pedicelled. — Rheede, xii t. 72, 
— ^A.schoenanthus, Linn. — BooA. FL Ind, i. 274. — Cymbopogon 

schcenanthus, Spreng. Travancore. Bengal. Cultivated in 

CoromandeL 

Medical Uses. — ^An infusion of the fragrant leaves, which are 
bitter and aromatic, is given to children as an excellent stomachic. 
It is also diaphoretic An essential oil is prepared from them, 
which is a most valuable remedy in rheumatism, applied externally. 
Mixed with butter-milk, the leaves are used in cases of ringwonn. 
It is a remedy of considerable value in affections of the bowels. It 
allays and arrests vomiting in cholera, and aids the process of re- 
action. Externally applied, it forms a useful embrocation in chronic 
rheumatism, neuralgia, sprains, and similar painful affections. — 
{Pharm. of India.) The rhizomes and flowers have similar qualities. — 
(Lindley.) The essential oil, when first distilled, is of a high colour, 
owing to the quantity of resin in it. To remove this, as also to have 
the oil clear, it is saturated in charcoal grits that have been previ- 
ously well washed and thoroughly dried. The grits saturated with 
the oil are thrown into the still with the required quantity of water, 
made slightly sharp to the taste and distilled. The oil thus obtained 
is not only clear, but in a great measure free irom resin, and this 
passes in England as essence of Verbena or CitroneUe. The oil of 
the first distilling, which is of a high colour, is known as the Lemon- 
grass oil. Mr C. Kohlhoflf, for some time Conservator of Forests in 
. Travancore, has used the double-distilled oil as an embrocation in 
cases of rheumatism, and found it a most efficacious remedy, and 
has also administered it in cases of cholera with great advantage. 
The dose is from 12 to 20 drops on a lump of sugar, repeated till 
the symptoms abate, at the same time applying it externally to the 
lips, back, and stomach, to prevent the cold and cramp so invariably 



40 ANDROPOGON. 

accompanying that disorder. A decoction made from the fresh 
leaves is used by the natives to allay thirst in various diBordeis. — 
Pers. OhA, 

EcoNOMio Uses. — ^When fresh and young, the leaves are used in 
many parts of the country as a substitute for tea, and the white 
centre of the succulent leaf-culms is used to impart a flavour to 
curries. In Bengal, large tracts of waste land are covered with this 
grass. The export of Lemon-grass oil from Ceylon amounts in value 
to nearly X7000 annually. — Baxb, Simmonds. 

J, / (53) Andropogon Iwanmcasa (Eoxb,) Do. 

Iwaran-kiusa, Beno. 

jjjfr^i&4 Description. — Root perennial, fibrous; culms erect, 3-6 
feet, smooth, filled with a light spongy substance ; leaves near 
the root longer than the culm-points, margins hispid, other- 
wise smooth; panicles axillary and terminal, consisting of 
numerous fascicles of pedicelled, thin, 5-jointed spikes, with a 
spathe to each pair of spikes ; flowers on the rachis in pairs, 
one awned, sessile, the other one awnless, male, and pedicelled ; 
the terminal florets are three, one hermaphrodite, two male ; 
glumes two, 1 -flowered, with which the rachis and pedicels are 
woolly at the base. — Boxb, Fl. Ind. L 275. — Lindl. Flor. Med. 
611. -Skirts of the mountains of N. India. Hurdwar. 

Medical Uses. — ^The roots of this fragrant grass are used by the 
natives in Northern India in intermittent fevers. In habit and 
taste it is similar to the A. achcenanihua, Dr Boyle denies that it 
yields a grass oiL — Pereira. Boyle. 

(54) Andropogon Martini (Roxb.) Do. 

Roussa-graas, Eno. Ganjni, Hikd. and DuK. Eamakshipullu, mandap-pnlln, 
Kasottam-pullu, Shunnarip-pullu, Tam. KamakshUKasuvu, Kmnaochi-gadai, TsL. 
Kamaksha-pulla, Chora-pulla, Mal. Khama-kher, Bvsq. 

Description. — Eoot long, fibrous; culm erect, branched, 
5-6 feet^ glabrous ; leaves elongated, very delicate, soft, glab- 
rous, acuminate ; ligula membranaceous ; panicles linear, sub- 
secund ; spikelets twin ; rachis jointed, woolly ; corolla of the 
hermaphrodite floret 1-valved, awned, male muticous. — Boaib, 
Flor, Ind. i. 277. — A. nardus, Linn. Balaghaut highlsmds. 

Medical Uses. — ^A fragrant oil is extracted from this species. 
It is of a pale straw colour, and is very aromatic. It is known as 
the grass-oil of Nemaur. It is valuable as a rubefacient, and is 



ANDROPOGON. 41 

employed as a substitute for Cajeput oil, being frequently applied 
externally in rheumatic affections^ also as a stimulant and dia- 
phoretic. It has the power, in a remarkable degree, of preventing 
the hair of the head iram falling off after acute diseases, such as 
feyer, or after confinement or prolonged nursing. It even restores 
the hair ; but it must be strong and pure, and not such as is usuaDy 
sold by perfumers. It is obtained by distillation &om the fresh 
plant. It closely assimilates in characters, properties, and uses, 
with the analogous product of A. citratum. — LincUey. Fereira. 
Phann, of India, 

EcoNOHio Uses. — This grass is a natiye of the highlands of 
Balaghaut, whence the seeds were brought by the late General 
Martin, and taken to Lucknow as well as to the botanic garden at 
Calcutta. He was induced to take particular notice of this long 
grass by observing how voraciously fond cattle were of it, notwith- 
standing its strong aromatic and pungent taste, insomuch that not 
only the flesh of the animals, but also the milk and butter, had a 
very strong scent of it. It is universally spread over the trap dis- 
tricts of the Deccan, though seldom found on the ordinary granite 
of those tracts. It is much used in perfumery — (Boyle). A volatile 
oil, resembling in characters the two preceding oils, is the produce, 
it is believed, of the A, pachnodes. — (Trin.) It has obtained con- 
siderable repute as an external application in rheumatic, neuralgic, 
and other painful affections. — PJiarm. of India. 

A correspondent in the ' Bombay Gazette ' writes as follows, while 
sending specimens of paper made from the Koussa-grass : '' It may 
be had almost for the cutting throughout the Deccan. It costs 
about an anna a hundredweight, and twelve seers (= 24 pounds) has 
been found sufficient to make sixty quires of paper, equal in quality 
to that used by Soucars for writing their hoondies upon." Eemark- 
ing upon the two specimens forwarded with the above, the editor 
observes that the material of which the best is formed might be con- 
verted, by proper processes and machinery, into as good paper as 
ever might be required for newspapers or book- work. It is after the 
oil has been extracted that the fibres are used for conversion into 
paper. 



(55) Andropogon moricatum (Eefz). Do. 

Cuscus-grass. Eno. Balah, Hikd. and Duk. Vetti-ver, Vizhal-ver, Ilainich-cham- 
ver, Viranam, Tail Vatti-veni, AwTiru-gaddiveru, Vidavali-veru, Ouru-veru, Tel. 
Vetti-ver, Bamach-cham-ver, Mal. Bala, Shandaler-jar, Beno. 

Description. — Eoot perennial, fibrous; culms numerous, 
smooth, slightly compressed at the base, 4-6 feet ; leaves bifa- 
rioiis near the base, narrow, erect; florets in pairs, awnless, 
male and hermaphrodite, the former pedicelled, latter sessile. 



42 ANEILEMA — ANETHUM. 

— Boxh, Flor. Ind. L 265. — ^Anatherum muricatum, Beauv. — 
Phalaris Zizania, Linn. Bengal. Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — ^An infusion of the root is used as a gentle 
stimulant, and makes a grateful drink in feyeis. Beduced to 
powder, tlie roots are employed in bilious affections ; and, mixed 
with milk, are used externally as cooling applications to skin irri- 
tations. Antispasmodic, diaphoretic, diuretic, and emmenagogue 
properties have been assigned to this grass, but it is not reckoned 
a valuable medicine. — Ainslie. Pereira, Fharm, of India. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — The roots are made into fans, and being thinly 
worked into bamboo frames, are employed for the purpose of cooling 
the heated atmosphere in dwelling-houses during the hot winds. 
These are known as the Cuscus tatties. The grass is used for 
thatching bungalows and for covering palanquins. — Bo3^. 

(56) Aneilema tuberosum (Ham.) K 0. Commeltnaceje. 

Description. — Eoot perennial, composed of several smooth 
elongated tubers ; stem none, except the sheathing bases of 
the leaves which appear after the flowers; leaves ensiform, 
waved, acute, smooth ; racemes radical, erect, smooth, straight ; 
scape branched above, branches each with a sheathing bract, 
branchlets with several pedicelled blue flowers, rather large. 
Ham. in Wall. Cat. 5207.— Dalz. Bomb. Flor. 255.— Com- 

melyna scapiflora, Boicb. — Murdania scapiflora, Boyle. 

Southern Goncan. 

Medical Uses. — ^The tubers are considered by the natives hot 
and dry. They are employed in headaches and giddiness, also in 
fevers, jaundice, and deafness. Also as an antidote to animal 
poisons and the bites of venomous serpents. — PowelTs Pur^. Prod. 

(57) Anethmn Sowa (Boxh.) K. 0. Apiace^ 

Dill or Bishop's weed, Eno. Bxivk Soyah, Hun). Soyi, DuK. Satha-oooppa, 
Tam. Sompa, Tel. Shatha-koopa, Mal. Soolpha, Besq. 

Description. — ^Annual, 2-4 feet, erect; glabrous; leaves 
decompound, alternate; leaflets filiform; petioles sheathing 
below ; stem smooth, covered with whitish pubescence ; petals 
roundish, entire; umbels terminal, without involucels; sta- 
mens about the length of the petals ; fruit oblong, compressed^ 
almost destitute of a membranaceous margin ; seeds two ; 
flowers yellow. Fl. Feb.— April.— W. & A. Prod, i 372.— 



ANISOCHILUS — ^AN ISOMELES. 43 

Wight Icon, t 572. — Boa^, Flor. Ind, ii 96.— A. graveolens, 
WalL Bengal Cultivated in the Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — ^The seeds are to be met with in every Indian 
bazaar. They form one of the chief ingredients in curry-powder. 
They yield a valuable oil, prepared by distillation, and used 
medicinally. Bruised and boiled in water and mixed with the 
roots, these seeds are applied externally in rheumatic and other 
swellings of the joints. The leaves, applied warm and moistened 
with a little oil, are said to hasten suppuration. — Atnsl. Eoxb, 

I 

(58) AnisochiluB camosum (Wall) N. 0. LAifiACEs. 

Thick-leaved lavender, Eng. PanjiijL Hnn). and DuK. EaTpnravalli, Tam. 
Roga-cLetta, Omamu, Tel. Chomara, Kattu-Koirkay Pata-Enrrka, Mal. 

Description. — Small plant ; stem erect, tetragonal ; leaves 
petiolate, ovate-roundish, crenated, cordate at the base, thick, 
fleshy, tomentosely villous on both surfaces ; spikes on long 
peduncles ; calyx with upper lip, with ciliated edges, lower 
lip truncate, quite entire ; corolla bilabiate, upper lip bluntly 
3-4 cleft, lower lip entire ; flowers lilac. FL June — Sept. — 
Bheede Mal. x. t 90. — Plectranthus strobiliferus, Roai>. Mor. 

Ind. m. 23. Clefts of rocks among mountains in N. Circars 

and Malabar. Mysore. 

Medical Uses. — ^The fresh juice squeezed firom the leaves of this 
plant, and mixed with sugar and gingely oil, is used as a cooHng 
liniment for the head. The leaves and stems are given in infuRion 
to children in coughs and colds. The plant also yields a volatile 
oiL — (Ainsl. Bheede.) A stimulant, diaphoretic and expectorant, 
is used in cynanche, and by the native doctors in Travancore in 
catarrhal affections. Dr Bidie states that as a mild stimulant 
expectorant it is particularly useful in coughs of children. — Pharm. 
of India. 

(59) Anisomeles ICalabarica {R. Br.) Do. • 

Malabar Cat-mint, Eno. P^yam^tti, Tam. Moga-bira, Tel. Earintoomba, 
Mal. 

Description. — Shrub, 2-5 feet ; branches tomentose ; leaves 
ovate-lanceolate, crenately serrated at the upper part, entire 
below ; calyx 5-cleft, thickly covered with long, white, some- 
what viscid pubescence ; upper lip of corolla entire, white, 
under one 3-cleft, with the lateral divisions reflexed ; anthers 
deep purple ; whorls disposed in simple racemea FL July 



44 ANONA. 

— Aug. — Wight Icon. t. 864 — Nepeta Malabarica, Linn, — 

Ajuga fruticosa, Baosb. FL Ind. iii 1. — Sheede, x. t 93. 

Travancore. Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — ^The juice of the leaves in infuaion is given to 
childien in colic, indigestion, and fevers arising from teething, and 
is also employed in infusion in stomachic complaints, dysentery, and 
intermittent fevers. Patients suffering from ague are made to inhale 
the vapour arising from an infusion of this plant ; copious perspira- 
tion ensues, which is kept up by drinking more of the infusion. The 
leaves, which are bitter and astringent, are taken to assist digestion, 
and to impart tone to the stomach. A clear reddish oil is distilled 
from the plant, of heavy odour, acrid and slightly bitter. A decoc- 
tion of the whole plant is antarthritic, if the body be washed with 
it.— ( Wight Ainslie. Lindley.) An oil obtained by distillation from 
the leaves is likewise stated to prove an effectual external application 
in rheumatism. The A. ovata partakes of the physical characters of 
the preceding, and, according to Burman, a distilled oil prepared from 
it in Ceylon is useful in uterine affections. — Pharm. of India, 

(60) Anona Banamosa (Linn.) N. 0. Anonaoe2b. 

Cnstard-apple, Eno. Atta-manim, Mal. Seeta-phul, DUK. Ata, Hnn). Loona, 
Meba, Benq. Sita-puUum, Tam. 

Desceiption. — Shrub or small tree, 15-20 feet; leaves ob- 
long, or oblong-lanceolate, glabrous, pellucid-dotted; calyx 
3-sepalled ; petals 6 in a double row : exterior ones narrow- 
lanceolate, three-cornered near the apex ; inner ones scarcely 
any ; peduncles axillary ; flowers whitish green. FL March 
—April.— fT. & A. Prod. i. T.—Rlieede, iii t 29— i2oa*. Fl. 
Ind. iL 657. ^Domesticated everywhere in India. 

Medical Uses. — ^The leaves gently bruised and mixed with salt, 
and reduced to the form of a plaster, and in this state applied to 
malignant tumours, will act powerfully in ripening them. The seeds 
of the A. retictdata may be swallowed whole with impunity, though 
the kernels are highly poisonous. The bark is a powerful astringent, 
and as a tonic is much used in medicine by the Malays and Chinese. 
— Longf Iiidig. Plants of Bengal. Rheede. 

Economic Uses. — ^The Anonas are all South American plants. 
This species, as well as the A. reticulata (Sweet-sop or BuUock's- 
heart) and A. muricata (Sour-«op), has long been naturalised in the 
East " The only place," says Royle, " where I have seen it appa- 
rently wild, was on the sides of the mountain on which the hill-fort 
of Adjeegurh in Bundelcund is built, and this it covers in company 
with the teak-tree, which only attains a dwarfish size. The fruit is 



ANTIARIS — ANTIDESMA. 45 

delicioiis to the taste, and on occasionB of famine has literally proved 
the staff of life to the natives. It is not generally known that the 
leaves of this plant have a heavy disagreeable odour, and the seeds 
contain a highly acrid principle fatal to insects, on which aocount 
the natives of India use them powdered and mixed with the flour 
of gram (Cicer arietinum) for washing the hair. When in fruit, 
the Custard-apple is easily distinguished from the BuUock's-heaxt 
They are well known as Seeia-phvJ and Ram-phvl. The Sour-sop 
or rough Anona is sparingly cultivated in Madras ; the fruit is muri- 
cated with soft prickles. — Moyle. Oibson. 

(61) Antiaris saccidora (Dalz,) K 0. Abtocarpaoejb. 

Nettavil-marum, Tam. Araya-angell, Mal. 

Descreption. — Large tree ; leaves alternate, ovate - oblong, 
acuminate, entire, glabrous above, slightly villous beneath ; 
capitule axillary, aggregated ; drupe, shape and size of a small 
fig, covered with purple down. FL Oct. — Wight Icon, t 1958. 

— ^Lepurandra saccidora, Nimmo in Orah's Cat Malabar. 

North Concan. Travancore. 

Economic Uses. — ^The natives strip the bark of this tree into large 
pieces, soak it in water, and beat it well, when it becomes white and 
furry. In this state the hill-people use it as clothing, and also make 
it into large bags by making a single perpendicular incision in the 
bark, and one above and below, and then sewing the sides together 
again. Paper is also made from the bark. It is a very large tree, 
18 feet in circumference at the base. On wounding the fruit a 
milky viscid fluid exudes in large quantities, which shortly hardens, 
becoming of a black and shining colour, and of the consistency of 
bees'- wax. The inner bark is composed of very strong tenacious 
fibres, which seem excellently adapted for cordage and matting. The 
nuts are intensely bitter, and contain an azotised principle, which 
may prove an active medical agent. In the N. Concans, iJie natives 
caU the tree Juzoogry and Kurwut. Sacks made horn the bark are 
used by the villagers for carrying rice, and are sold for six annas 
each. The tree was first noticed by Dr Lush at Kandalla in 1837. 
The native name given in Graham's catalogue is Chandul, and there 
described as having dentate serrulate leaves. — Dalzell in Hodker^s 
Joum. of Bot, iiL 232. Nimmo. •/. Chrdh. Cat 

(62) Antidesma bnnias {Spreng.) K 0. STiLAomACEiE. 

Nolai-tali, Tam. NuU-tali, Mal. 

Description. — Middle-sized tree; leaves alternate, entire, 
lanceolate-oblong ; spikes axillary and terminal ; male flowers 



46 APONOGETON — ^ARACHIS. 

triandrous, with an abortive column in the centre; flowers 
green ; fruit red. Roxb. FL Ind, iii. 758. — Wight Icon, t 819. 

— Eheede, iv. t. 56. — ^Stilago bunias, Linn. Coromandel. 

Malabar. Nepaul. 

Medical Uses. — The shining deep -red fruit is sub-acid, and 
esteemed for its cooling qualities. This is one of the numerous 
plants reckoned as a remedy against the bites of snakes. The leaves 
are acid and diaphoretic, and when young are boiled with pot-herbs, 
and employed by the natives in syphilitic affections. — Ltndley, 

EeoNOMio Uses. — ^The bark is used for making ropes, especially in. 
Travancore. In Assam the tree grows to a large size, the trunk 
being 12 or 14 inches in diameter. The timber is greatly affected 
by immersion in the water, becoming heavy and black as iron. An- 
other species, the A. diandrum, found on the Circar mountains, 
yields a tolerable timber, useful for many purposes. Bopes are also 
made from the A. puhescens^ a native of the Northern Circars, where 
it 19 CEJled Pollarie. The succulent drupes are eatable. — Boxb. 

(63) Aponogeton monostachyon {WUId.) N. 0. Juno agin ACEiE. 

Pama-kalanga, Mal. Ohechoo, Hind. Kotee-kalasgoo, Tax. Nama, Tel. 

Description. — Perennial, aquatic ; roots tuberous ; leaves 
radical, linear-oblong, cordate at the base, pointed, entire, 3-5 
nerved ; scapes slightly striated, as long as the leaves ; spikes 
single, closely surrounded with flowers ; capsules 3, smooth, 
1-celled, 4-3-seeded; anthers blue. — RoaA, Fl, Ind. ii, 210. — 
Bheede, xi. t. 15. Peninsula. Concans. 

Economic Uses. — ^This aquatic plant is found in shallow stand- 
ing water and the beds of tanks, flowering during the rainy season. 
The natives relish the small tubers as an article of diet. Th^y are 
said to be as good as potatoes, and esteemed a great delicacy. — 
Boxb, Ainsl. 

(64) AracMs hypogsda (Linn.) K 0. Leguminos^. 

Earth-nut, Manilla-nut, Eno. Vayer or Nelav-cadalay, Tam. Nela Sanagalu, 
Tel. Vel^tee-moong, Duk. Moong-phullee, Hind. 

Description. — ^Annual, diffuse ; stem hairy ; leaves abruptly 
pinnated ; leaflets 2-pair ; calyx tubular, long ; corolla papili- 
onaceous ; stamens and petals inserted into the throat of the 
calyx; flowers above ground sterile, aggregate, axillaiy, yel- 
low; legumes long-stalked, indehiscent, 1-celled, 2-3-seeded. 



ARACHIS. 47 

FL June.— IT. & A. Prod. i. iSO.—Roxb. Fl Ind. iii 280. 
Cultivated in the Peninsula. 

Economic Uses. — Properly indigenous to South America, but 
extensively cultivated in the Peninsula for the sake of the oil yielded 
by the seeds. This plant obtained its specific name from the pods 
burying themselves in the earth, where they ripen their seeds. These 
latter are roasted in America, and are considered a good substitute 
for chocolate. The oil which is expressed from them is much used 
in China and India for lamps. The poorer classes eat the nuts. An 
experiment was made in France as to the relative consumption of 
the ground-nut oil and olive oil in a lamp having a wick of one-eighth 
of an inch in diameter, when it was found that an ounce of the 
ground-nut oil burned 9 hours and 25 minutes, while olive oil under 
similar circumstances burned only 8 hours. It has the additional 
advantage of giving no smoke. In Europe a bushel of ground- 
nuts produces one gallon of oil when expressed cold ; if heat be 
applied a still greater quantity is procured, but of inferior quality. 
The nut, according to Dr Davy, abounds with starch as well as oil, 
and a large proportion of albuminous matter, and in no other in- 
stances had he found so large a proportion of starch mixed with oil. 
The leaf is something like that of clover, and affords excellent food 
for cattle, and the cakes after the expression of the oil form a good 
manure. Under favourable circumstances the nuts wOl produce 
half their weight of oil, and the quantity is much increased by heat 
and pressure. It is cultivated in the neighbourhood of Calcutta, the 
oil being used for pharmaceutical purposes, and especially for lamps 
and machinery. A great quantity of the oil is exported annually from 
the Madras territories. It does not seem to be consumed to any 
large extent in this country, although the nut itself is much eaten 
by the poorer classes. It is said to be used for adulterating gingely 
oil in Korth Arcot, where it costs Es. 1-8 to 2-12 per maund. In 
the iNellore district the seeds are procured at Es. 1-8 per maund, and 
in Tanjore about 200 acres are cultivated, producing annually 75 
candies of oil, at Es. 2-6 per maund. The seeds yield about 43 per 
cent of a clear straw-coloured edible oil, which is an excellent sub- 
stitute for olive oil, and makes a good soap. Simmonds has re- 
marked upon this useful product: ''This oil is good for every 
purpose for which olive or almond oil is used. For domestic pur- 
poses it is esteemed, and it does not become rancid so quickly as 
other oils. Experiments have been made on its inflanmiable pro- 
perties, and it is proved that the brilliancy of light was superior to 
that of olive oil, and its durability was likewise proved to be seven 
minutes per hour beyond the combustion of the best olive oil, with 
the additional advantage of scarcely any smoke." And further : 
'' That the culture of the Arachis in warm climates, or even in a 
temperate one under favourable circumstances, should be encour- 
aged, there can be but one opinion, especially when it ia considered 



48 ARECA. 

that its qualities are able to supeisede that of the olive and the 
almond, which are but precarioiu in their crops. ... I am 
informed by an American merchant that he cleared 12,000 dollars 
in one year on the single article of ground or pea nuts obtained 
£rom Africa. Strange as it may appear, nearly all these nuts are 
transhipped to France, where they command a ready sale ; are there 
converted into oil ; and then find their way over the world in the 
shape of olive oil, the skill of the French chemists enabling them to 
imitate the real Lucca and Florence oil, so as to deceive tiie nicest 
judges. Indeed, the oil from the pea-nuts possesses a sweetness 
and delicacy that cannot be surpassed." There are two varieties of 
this plant grown in Malacca ; also in Java — one with white, the 
other with brown seeds. It is there known as the Katjang oiL So 
useful a plant should be more extensively cultivated in this country. 
It thrives well on a light sandy soil, and is very prolific In some 
parts of America it yields from thirty to eighty bushels of nuts per 
acre. On the western coast of Africa it is planted to a great extent 
— Ed, FhU, Mag. JSimmonds, Comm. Prod, Mad. 

(65) Axeca catechn (Linn.) N. O. Palmacejl 

Areca or Betel-nut Palm, Eiro. Paak-marum or Camooghoo, Tam. Poka-chettu, 
TsL. Suparie, Duk. Adaka or Cavooghoo, Mal. Gtooa, Bsng. 

Desceiption. — Palm ; spathe double ; spadix much branch- 
ed ; male flowers numerous, above the female, sessile ; calyx 
1-lobed, 3-comered, 3-partite; petals 3, oblong, smooth; 
stamens 2-partite, inserted round the base of the style ; female 
flowers 1-3 at the base of each ramification, sessile; calyx 
5-lobed, flowers small, white, fragrant. FL April — May. — 
Soxb. FL Ind. iii 615.— Clw. i. t 76.— Bheede, I t. 6, 6, 7, 8. 
Cultivated. 

Medioal Uses. — ^The nut is used as a masticatory in conjunction 
with the leaf of Piper Betel and Chunam. It w considered to 
strengthen the gums, sweeten the breath, and improve the tone of 
the digestive organs. The seed, reduced to charcoal and powdered, 
forms an excellent dentifrice. Dr Shortt states that the powdered 
nut, in doses of ten or fifteen grains every three or four hours, is 
useful in checking diarrhoea arising from debility. The dry ex- 
panded petioles serve as excellent ready-made splints for fractures. 
— Pharm. of India, 

EooNOMio Uses. — In appearance the Areca Palm is perhaps the 
most graceful and elegant of Indian Pabna Its native place is 
unknown, but it is extensively distributed in India. It yidds the 
betel-nut of commerce. A tree will produce annually, on an average, 
three hundred nuts. The catechu which they yield is of a very 



ARECA. 49 

inferior quality. There are two preparations of it, which are re- 
spectively called by the Tamools, Cuttacamboo and Cashcnttie ; in 
Teeloogoo, Kansee ; and in Dakhanie, Bharab-cutta and Acha-cutta. 
The first (Cuttacamboo) is chewed with the betel-leaf. Like most 
of the Paim tribe, the trunk is much used for ordinary building 
purposes; and in Travancore is especially used for spear-handles, 
&c. The spathe which stretches over the blossoms, which is called 
Paak-muttay, is a fibrous substance, with which the Hindoos make 
vessels for holding arrack, water, &c. ; also caps, dishes, and small 
umbrellas. It is so fine that it can be written on with ink. The 
Areca Palm is found chiefly in Malabar, Canara, North Bengal, the 
lower slopes of the mountains of Nepaul, and the south-west coast 
of Ceylon. It will produce firuit at five years, and continue to bear 
for twenty-five years. Unlike the Cocoa Palm, it will thrive at 
high regions, and at a distance from the sea. In the Eastern Islands 
the produce of the tree varies from two hundred to one thousand nuts 
annually. They form a considerable article of commerce with the 
Eastern Islands and China, and are also one of the staple products 
of Travancore, The nuts are gathered in Jidy and August, though 
not fally ripe till October. In the latter country the nuts are 
variously prepared for use. " Those that are used by families of 
rank are collected while the fruit is tender ; the husks or the outer 
pod is removed ; the kernel, a round fleshy mass, is boiled in water : 
in the first boiling of the nut, when properly done, the water be- 
comes red, thick, and starch-like, and this is afterwards evaporated 
into a substance like catechu. The boiled nuts being now removed, 
sliced, and dried, the catechu-like substance is rubbed to the same 
and dried again in the sun, when they become of a shining black, 
ready for use. Whole nuts, without being sliced, are also prepared 
in the same form for use amongst the higher classes ; while ripe 
nuts, as well as young nuts in a raw state, are used by all classes of 
people generally ; and ripe nuts preserved in water with the pod are 
also used." When exported to other districts, the nuts are sliced 
and coloured with red catechu, as also the nut while in the pod. 
The average amount of exports of the prepared nuts from Travan- 
core is from 2000 to 3000 candies annually, exclusive of the nuts 
in their ordinary state, great quantities of which are shipped to 
Bombay and other ports. According to the last survey there were 
upwards of a million trees in Travancore. The foUowing mode of 
extracting the catechu from the nuts in Mysore is taken from 
Heyne's * Tracts on India : * " The nuts are taken as they come 
from the tree, and boiled for some hours in an iron vessel. They 
are then taken out, and the remaining water is inspissated by con- 
tinual boiling. This process furnishes Kossa, or most astringent 
terra japonica, which is black, and mixed with paddy-husks and 
other impurities. After the nuts are dried they are put into a fresh 
quantity of water and boiled again ; and this water being inspissated 
like the former, yields the best or dearest kind of catechu, called 

4 



50 AHQEMONE. 

Coony. It is yellowkh brown, has an earthy fracture, and is firee 
from the admixture of foreign bodies." The nuts are seldom im- 
ported into England. The catechu has of late years superseded 
madder in the calico-works of Europe for dyeing a golden coffee- 
brown, 1 lb. of this being equal to 6 lb. of madder. On the moun- 
tains of Travancore and Malabar, a wild species, the A. Dicksonii, is 
found in great abundance. Of this the poorer classes eat the nuts 
as a substitute for the common betel-nut, but no other part of the 
tree appears to be employed for any useful purpose. — Ainslie, 
Lindley, Simmonds. Rep. on Products of Travancore. 



(66) Argemone Mezicaiia (Linn.) N. 0. FAPAVERACEiB. 

Tellow thiitld or Mexican poppy. Eno. Bramadandoo, Tuf. Brahmadandi, 
Tel. Feiingie-datma, or Peala, DUK. Buro-shialkanta, or Thialkanta, Bemg. 
Bherband, Hnn). 

Desceiption. — ^Annual, herbaceous ; leaves alternate, sessile, 
repand-sinuate, sharply toothed; sepals 2-3; calyx prickly, 
glabrous; petals 4-6; stem bristly; flowers solitary on erect 
peduncles ; capsules prickly ; seeds roundish ; flowers yellow. 
Fl. Oct— Nov. — W. &A. Prod. i. 18. CoromandeL Mala- 
bar in waste places. 

Medical Ussa — This plant is a native of Mexico, but is now 
found abundantly in Asia and AMca over a very extended area. 
The stalks and leaves abound with a bitter yellow juice like Gam- 
boge, which is used in chronic ophthalmia. The seeds are used in 
the West Indies as a substitute for Ipecacuanha. An oil is also 
expressed from them, which in South America is much used by 
painters, and for giving a shining appearance to wood. It has also 
been employed as a substitute for castor-oil, and is applied exter- 
nally in headache by the native practitioners. The juice of the 
plant in infusion is diuretic, relieves strangury from blisters, and 
heals excoriations. The seeds are very narcotic, and said to be 
stronger than opium. Simmonds says, " The seeds possess an 
emetic quality. In stomach complaints the usual dose of the oil 
is thirty drops on a lump of sugar, and its effect is perfectly magical, 
relieving the pain instantaneously, throwing the patient into a pro- 
found refreshing sleep, and relieving the bowels." This valuable 
but neglected plant has been strongly reconunended as an aperient, 
anodyne, and hypnotic, by Dr Hamilton and other experienced prac- 
titioners in the West Indies. — (Vide PharmL Journal, iv., v., and 
xii.) Samples of the oil were produced at the Madras Exhibition. 
It is cheap, and procurable in the bazaars, being used chiefly for 
lamps. — (Ainslie. Ldndley. Simmonds.) Age apparently affects its 
activity, the freshly-prepared oil proving more energetic and uniform 
in its operation than that which has been kept some time. It has a 



ARGYREIA. 51 

soothing influence on all herpetic eruptions ; and as a local applica- 
tion to indolent ulceis the expressed juice is much esteemed by the 
natives. The native practice of applying the juice to the eye in 
ophthalmia is dangerous. The plajit was introduced into India 
from Mexico some three centuries ago. It is covered with strong 
prickles, whence the Spaniards called it Figo del Inferno— the Fig 
of Hell. The fresh root, bruised and applied to the part stung by 
scorpions, is said to give relief. — Pharm, of India, Agric. Joum, of 
IndiUy ix. 403. 

(67) Argyreia bracteata (Choisy), K O. Convolvulace^. 

Description. — Twining shrub, branched ; leaves alternate, 
on long petioles, broadly cordate-ovate, dark shining green 
above, beneath hirsute and somewhat silky ; calyx 5-cleft ; 
sepals hairy ; coroUa campanulate, hairy externally, purplish 
white, with a deep purple eye ; peduncles axillary, dividing at 
the extremity in two or three branches with a seasUe ebracteated 
flower in the fork, each of the pedicelled flowers with three 
bracteas at the base of the calyx ; berry 3-4 seeded, deep 
orange colour; seeds embedded in pulp. — Dec. Prod. ix. 

328. — Drury Hand. Ind. Flor. ii. 296. Madras. Coro- 

mandel. 

Medical Uses. — This plant is filled with milky juice. Decoc- 
tions of the leaves are used by the natives as fomentations in cases 
of scrofulous enlaigement of the joints, the boiled leaves being used 
as poultices at the same time. — Wight 

(68) Argyreia Malabarica (Choisy). Do. 

Kattu Kalangu, Mal. Paymoostey, Tah. 

Description. — Twining shrub ; stem downy ; leaves round- 
ish-cordate, acute, furnished with a few scattered hairs on both 
surfaces, paler below ; corolla campanulate ; peduncles as long 
as the leaves, many-flowered at the apex ; sepals 5 ; exterior 
ones clothed with hoary villi with revolute edges ; petioles 
and peduncles villous ; flowers small, cream-coloured, with 
deep purple eye. Fl. July — ^August. — Dec. Prod. ix. 331. 

Convolvulus Malabaricus, Linn. — Bheede, xi. t. 51. Mysore. 

Malabar. Common on the ghauts. 

Medical Uses. — ^The root is cathartic. This plant is considered 
by farriers a good horse-medicine. The leaves beaten up with the 



52 ARGYREIA — ARISTOLOCHIA. 

Codi Avanacu (Tragia ehamcelea) and fresh butter promote the 
maturation of abscesses. The root is used externally in erysipelas. 
— Aindie, lOieede. 

(69) Argyreia SpecioBa (Sweet). Do. 

Elephant Creeper, Eno. Samundar, HiKD. and Duk. Sbamnddirap-pachchai, 
Kadaf^paUi, Tam. Samudra-pala, Chandra-poda, Kokkita, PalA-samudra, Tel. 
Samudra-yogam, Samadra-pali^ Mal. 

Description. — ^Twining, tomentose ; leaves cordate, acute, 
glabrous above, thickly nerved beneath, and silky silvery; 
sepals 5 ; corolla campanulate ; peduncles equal in length to 
the petioles, umbellately capitate ; corolla nearly two inches 
long, deep rose-coloured, hairy in the plicae outside. FL July 
— August — Dec, Prod. ix. 328. — Convolvulus speciosus, Linn. 
— Lettsomia nervosa, Boai. Fl. Ind. i 488. — Rheede, xi. t. 61. 

— Wiglvt Icon. t. 851, 1360. Malabar forests. Hedges in 

the Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — ^The leaves are used by native practitioners in 
the preparation of emollient potdtices, and also in cutaneous com- 
plaints, being appHed extemadly to the parts affected. The upper 
side of the leaves is used by the natives to act as a discutient^ the 
under or white side as a maturant. — {Ainslie. Gibson.) In a case 
which came under Dr Wight's observation they acted as a powerful 
vesicant — Wight, 111., u. 201. 

(70) Aristolochia bracteata (Retz). K. 0. Aristoloohiage^ 

Worm-kiUer, Eno. Addatinapalay, Tam. Gadida-guda-pa, Tel. Kera-mar, 
Hind, and Duk. 

Description. — Trailing; roots perennial, fibrous; st^ms 
striated, waved ; leaves alternate, petioled, kidney -shaped, 
curled at the margins, glaucous below ; petioles channelled ; 
flowers axillary, solitary, peduncled, drooping ; calyx with the 
upper part of the tube and tongue erect ; colour dark purple ; 
covered on the inside with purple hairs ; capsules ovate. Fl. 

Nearly all the year. — Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 490. Coromandel 

in cultivated places. Travancore. Banks of the Jumna. 

Medical Uses. — Every part of this plant is nauseously bitter. 
In cases of gripes, two of the fresh leaves are rubbed up with water 
and given once in twenty-four hours. An infusion of the dried leaves 
is given as an anthelmintic. Fresh bruised and mixed with castoiK)!!, 
they are considered a valuable remedy in obstinate cases of that kind 
of Psora called in Tamil Carpang. It is also said to be anti-periodic 



ARISTOLOCHIA — ^ARTEMISIA. 53 

and eramenagogue. The fresh leaves applied to the navel of a child 
are said to have the effect of moving the howels. The same, Med 
with castor-oil and made into a ball the size of an orange, relieves 
horses when suffering from gripes. The leaves beaten up with 
water are given internally in cases of snake-bites ; also in infusion 
for boils and inflammatory attacks. The plant grows abundantly on 
dark red or black soil in the Deccan. The natives squeeze the juice 
into wounds to kill worms, hence its name ^'Keeramar." — {Racb. 
Atnslie. Gibson, Lindley,) Dr Newton says that in Scinde the 
dried root, in doses of about a dram and a half, in the form of 
powder or in infusion, is administered to increase uterine contrac- 
tions. — Pharm. of India. 

(71) Aristolochia Indica {Linn,) Do. 

Indian birthworty Eno. laharmnl, Hnn)., DuK., and Bsno. Ich-chnnmuli, 
Peru-marindu^ Pemm-Kizhangu, Tam. Ishvara-veru, Dala-govela, Govila, Tel. 
Karalekam, £!arukap-pulla, Kandvekam, IshyaramiiTi, Mal. 

Desckiption. — Perennial, twining; leaves stalked, wedge- 
shaped or obovate, 3-nerved, pointed, waved; calyx tubular, 
nearly globose at the base ; racemes axillary, shorter than the 
leaves ; flowers erect ; corolla purplish ; capsule roundish, 
hexagonal, 6-celled ; seeds numerous. Fl. Sept. — Oct — Roocb, 
Fl, Ind, iii. 489.— JPFi^A^ Icon, t 1858.— iZAcede, viii. t. 25. 

Copses and jungles in Travancore. CoromandeL Bengal. 

Hills throughout the Concan. 

Medical Use& — The root is nauseously bitter, and is said to 
possess emmenagogue and antarthritic virtues, and to be a valuable 
antidote to snake-bites, being applied both externally and internally. 
For particulars regarding the alleged efficacy of this remedy, see 
Journal of the Agri. Hort. Soc. of India, v. 138 and 742. Mixed 
with honey, the root is given in white leprosy, and the leaves 
internally in fever. — Ainalie. Lindl. 

(72) Artemisia Indica {Willd.) K O. Composite 

llajtari, Mastara, Hind. Machipattiri, Tau. liachipatri, TxL. Tira-nitri- 
pachha, Mal. Mastam, Beko. 

Description. — Sufifruticose, erect ; leaves white, tomentose 
below, pinnatifid, upper ones trifid, uppermost and branched 
ones undivided, and with the lobes oblong, obtuse, mucronate ; 
capitules spicately panicled, oblong, panicle leafy and spreading, 
younger racemes nodding ; outer scales of the younger pubes- 
cent involucre leafy, acute, of the inner ones scariose, obtuse ; 
flowers small, greenish white. WUld, Sp. iii. 1846. — Eoxb, 



54 ARTOCARPUS. 

Flor. Ind. iiL 449. — Ehcede, x. t 45. — X. grata, Dec, Com- 
mon on high lands. Mysore. 

Medical Uses. — ^The strong aromatic odour and bitter taste of 
this plant indicate tonic and stomachic properties. Dr Wight states 
that the leaves and tops are administered in nervous and spasmodic 
affections connected with debility, and also that an infusion of them 
is used as a fomentation in phagedenic ulceration. Dr L. Stewart 
describes an infusion of the tops and leaves as a mild stomachic 
tonic. — {Pharm, of India J) All the different species of Artemisia 
are aromatic bitter tonics, and most of them have anthelmintic pro- 
perties. They contain an essential oil, a bitter principle called 
Absinthine, and a peculiar acrid. They are principally used in 
intermittent fevers and dyspepsia, also in epilepsy and chorea. The 
present species is used as an antispasmodic in hysteria. It might be 
used as a substitute for Cinchona, though inferior in intermittent 
fevers. — PotoelTs Punj. Products, 

(73) ArtocariraB hirsntos {Lam.) K 0. Abtooarpaosa. 

Ai^jelee, Tam. Ayenee, Ansjeli, Mal. 

Description. — Tree ; leaves elliptic, obtuse, or rounded at 
both ends, glabrous, hairy, especially on the nerves beneath ; 
male catkin long, cylindrical, ascending, afterwards pendulous ; 
females oval, size of a hen's egg ; fruit globose, echinata Fl. 
Feb. — March. — Roxb. Flor. Ind, iii 521. — RJieede, iii. t 32. — 
Wight Icon, t 1957. ^Forests of Malabar and Travancore. 

Economic Use& — ^This tree yields the Anjely wood so well known 
on the western coast for house-building, ships, frame-works, &c. 
The tree attains a large size in the forests on the western coast, 
where it abounds. The fruit is the size of a large orange, and 
abounds in a viscid juice, which freely flows fix)m the rough rind if 
touched ; this is manufactured into bird-lime. The pulpy substance 
which surrounds the seeds is much relished by the natives, being 
almost as good as the Jack-fruit. The bark is occasionally used in 
Canara for preparing a brown dye. — Boxb. Wight 

(74) Artocarpns integrifoliuB (Linn,) Do. 

Indian Jack-tree, E^a. Pila, Tam. Panasa, Tel. Phonus, DuK. Pilavoo, 
Mal. Kantal, Bsng. 

Description. — Large tree ; young branches hirsute ; leaves 
alternate, petiolate, ovate-oblong, glabrous, pale below and 
hirsute with stiif hairs ; flowers male and female on the same 
branch ; peduncle pendulous, arising from the trunk orbranches; 
amentum of male flowers cylindrical ; calyx none ; petals 2 ; 



ARUM. 55 

fruit ovate, muricated. Fl, Nov. — Dec. — Boxb, Flor, Ind, iii. 
522.— Cor. iii. t 250.— Meede, iii. t. 26-28.- Wi^ht Icon. t. 
678. — A. heterophylla, Lam. Malabar. Peninsula. Bengal. 

Economic Uses. — ^The timber of this tree, so well known as the 
Jack- wood, is much esteemed for making furniture of aU kinds, for 
which it is well adapted. At iirst it is somewhat pale, but after- 
wards assumes a darker tinge approaching to mahogany, and when 
polished becomes one of the best fancy woods for tables, chairs, aud 
frames. The root of the older trees is dark-coloured, and admirably 
adapted for picture-frames and carving-work of aU kinds. Like 
others of the same family, the tree abounds in viscid, milky juice. 
The fruit, which grows to an enormous size, and hangs by a peduncle 
springing from the trunk, is a favourite article of food among the 
natives. There are several varieties, but what is called the honey- 
jack is by far the sweetest and best. The seeds when roasted are 
also much prized as a diet among the poorer classes. The leaves are 
given to goats and other cattle, and are said to be very fattening. 
In Travancore the Jack-tree is a monopoly, and yields an annual 
tax to the Sircar. The wood yields an abundant yellow dye, the 
sawdust being generally boiled for this purpose. The kernels con- 
tain a quantity of oiL The tree, if planted in stony soil, grows short 
and thick ; if in sandy ground, tail and spreading ; and if the roots 
happen to come in contact with water, the tree will not bear fruit. 
Bird-lime is manufactured from the juice. The word Jack is a cor- 
ruption from the Sanscrit word ^' Tchackka," which means the fruit 
of the tree. The situation of the fruit varies with the age of the 
tree, being first borne on the branches, then on the trunk, and in 
very old trees on the roots. In Travancore the mode of propagation 
is as follows : The natives put the whole fruit in the ground, and 
when the seeds germinate and grow up they tie the stems together 
with straw, and by degrees they form one stem, which will bear 
fruit in six or seven years. — {Roa^.) The other species worthy of 
mention are the A. Cliaplasha, a native of Ghittagong and the 
forests east of Bengal. It grows to be an immense tree, and canoes 
for river use are made from the trunk. The timber is also useful for 
other purposes, especially when required for anything under water. 
The A. lakoocha is a native of Bengd. The roots are used for dyeing 
yeUow. The male spadix is acid and astringent, and is eaten by the 
natives in their curries. — (Boxb. J. Grah.) The A. Echinaia is a 
large tree, growing on the Neilgherries, and yielding a good timber, 
but hitherto little known. 



(75) Anun montanum {Roxb.) K. O. Araohs. 

Konda-rakis, Tel. 

Description. — Stemless ; root a cylindrical tuber ; leaves 



56 ASPARAGUS. 

cordate, lepand, polished ; spadix nearly as long as the hooded 
coloured spathe ; anthers many-celled. — Sozb. Fl, Ind, iii. 
iffl.— Wight Icon, t 796. Northern Circars. 

EooNOHic Uses. — A. native of the mountainous parts of the Nor- 
thern Circars, where the root is employed to poison tigers. Among 
other useful plants of this genus may he mentioned the A, lyratum 
(Roxb,), also a native of the Circar mountains, the roots of which 
are eaten hy the natives, and reckoned very nutritious. They re- 
quire, however, to he carefully hoiled several times, and dressed in 
a particular manner, in order to divest them of a somewhat disagree- 
ahle taste. — Roxb, 



(76) Asparagus racdmosns (Willd,) N. O. Luajlce^, 

Shakakul, Hind, and Duk. Tannir-muttan, Shadavari, Tam. Challa-gaddalu, 
PUlipichara, Pilli-tega, Satavari, Tkl. Shatavaii, Mal. Sat-muli, Besq, 

Description. — A straggling climbing shrub ; branches stri- 
ated ; leaves fascicled, linear, falcate ; thorns solitary, reflexed; 
racemes many-flowered, axillary ; flowers small, white. FL 
Nov.— Dec— ifca?6. FL Ind, ii. 151. — Wight Icon. t. 2056. 
— ^Travancore. Deccan. 

Medical Uses. — This plant, says Roxburgh, will perfume the 
air to a considerable distance, owing to the delightful fragrance of its 
flowers. The loot boiled in milk is given in bilious aflections. It 
is necessary to remove the bark previous to administering it, as it is 
considered poisonous. The leaves boiled and mixed with ghee are 
applied externally to promote suppuration in boils and tumours. — 
(Roxb. Ainsl.) It acts also as a diuretic, and is used in special 
diseases. It increases the appetite and removes pains in the bowels, 
and is also considered to prevent the confluence of smaJl-pox. — (Punj. 
Prod,) The A. sarmentosus (Willd.), also a native of the Peninsula, 
has also medicinal qualities. It is known as the Sufed Mush ; and 
on this Modeen Sheriff' remarks (Suppl. to Pharm. of India, p. 59) : 
" There are two kinds of Sufed Mush, one found in the bazaars of 
Southern India, and the other elsewhere. The former is the dried 
and split roots of Asparagus sarmentosus. Dried it is useless as a 
medicine, but when fresh it is nutrient and demulcent The Sufed 
Mush of all other parts is the real drug to which the name is appli- 
cable, and is the root of Asparagits ascendens. It is a useful medi- 
cine, and is better than Salep, for which it is used as a substitute. 
It is known under the Dukhanee name of Shakakul-hindi. It grows 
in Eohilcund {Pharm. of India, SuppL) The roots of the A, sarmen- 
tosus are often candied, in which state they are occasionally brought 
from China. They are also pickled in vinegar, and used as tonics. 



ASTERACANTHA — AVERBHOA. 57 

and also boiled in oil and applied in diseases of the skin." — Ainslie. 
J. Graham, 

(77) Ajrteracantlia longifolia {Neea). N. O. Acanthaceje. 

Neer-mooUie, Tau. Neer-goobbie, Tjbl. Gokshura. Hiia>. Eanta-koolika, Bkno. 
Wahel-schulli, Mal. 

Description. — ^Annual; stem erect, bluntly quadrangular, 
hispid ; leaves opposite, ensiform, very long ; calyx 4-cleft ; 
corolla funnel-shaped, 5-cleft, one division deeper than the 
rest ; flowers in whorls, axillary, blue or bright violet ; spines, 
three on each side of the stem, equal in length to the whorls. 
jP7. July — Dec. — JVigJU Icon. t.4Ad, — ^Barleria longifolia, Linn. 
— Buellia longifolia, Boxb. FL Ind. iiL 50. — Bheede, ii. t 45. 
Malabar. Bengal 

Medical .Uses. — This plant may commonly be met with by the 
side of paddy-fields and other damp situations. The roots are con- 
sidered tonic and diuretic, administered in decoction. They are also 
employed in dropsical affections and gravel. The leaves boiled in 
vinegar are reckoned diuretic. — Aijisl. Pharm. of India. 

(78) Atalaatia monophylla (Dec,) K 0. AuRAXTiACEiB. 

Wild-llme, Esq. Cat-ilimicliam, Tam. Mabmregam, Mal. Adivi-nimma, T£L. 

Description.— Shrub, 8 feet ; thorns small ; leaves ovate or 
oblong, more or less emarginate at the apex; calyx 4-toothed; 
petals 4 ; racemes short, sessile ; pedicels long, slender ; berry 
globose, size of a lime, 3-4 seeded ; flowers axillary and termi- 
nal, small, white. Fl. Oct. — Nov. — fT. & A. Prod, i 91. — 
Limonia monophylla, Linn. — Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 378. — Cor. i. 
t. 82. — Bheede, iv. t 12. Malabar. Coromandel. 

Economic Uses. — The wood is hard, heavy, and close-grained ; of 
a pale yellow colour, and very suitable for cabinet-work. In the 
forests of Coromandel it grows to be a small tree, flowering about 
the rainy season. — Roxb. 

(79) Averrhoa bilimbi (Linn.) K. 0. OxALiUACEiB. 

BUimbi-tree, Esq. WUumpi, MaL. BiUmbi, Bjenq. Eamaranga, Himd. 

Description. — Tree, 15-20 feet ; leaves alternate, unequally 
pinnated ; leaflets oblong, lanceolate, acuminated, entire ; calyx 
5-cleft, pubescent; petals 5; flowers reddish purple, in racemes 



58 AVERRHOA — ^AVICENNIA. 

&om the trunk ; fruit oblong, obtuse-angled ; seeds without 
ariL Fl May— June.— W, & A. Prod. i. \42.—Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
ii. 451. — Efie€de,uLt. 4^5,4:6. Goa. Travancora Cultivated. 

Medical Uses. — ^The juice of the fruit has a pleasant acid taste, 
from which a syrup is made, given as a cooling drink in fevers. 
The leaves are slightly sensitive to the touch. The tree is a native 
of the Moluccas. The fruits are pickled or preserved in sugar. 

(80) Avexrhoa carambola (Linn.) Do. 

Carambola-tree, Eno. Tamara-tonga, or Eamaranga, Mal. Camunmga, Beno. 
Meetha-kumarunga, Duk. 

Description. — ^Tree, 1 5-20 feet ; leaves alternate, unequally 
pinnated ; leaflets ovate, acuminated, 2-5 pair on small peti- 
oles ; calyx glabrous ; stamens 5 ; flowers disposed in short 
racemes arising from smaller branches on the trunk ; corolla 
5-petalled, campanulate; petals yellowish purple; fruit acutely 
5-angled, with a smooth yellowish rind ; seeds with aril. Fl. 
April — June. — W. & A. Prod. L 141. — Rheede, iii t. 43, 44 — 
Boocb.Fl. Ind. u. 4:50. Travancore. CoromandeL Cultivated. 

EooNOMio Uses. — This beautiful tree originally came from Ceylon 
and the Moluccas. It is now commonly to be met with in the 
Peninsula. The &uits, which contain an acid watery pulp, are good 
when candied or made into syrup. They also make good pickles, 
and the juice is very useful in removing iron-moulds from linen. 
The leaves are a good substitute for sorrel. The root, leaves, and 
fruit are medicinal, and the latter is used for dyeing and other pur- 
'poseB.r^Itheede. Don. 

(81) Avicennia tomentosa (Linn.) N. 0. Verbekace^. 

White Mangrove, Eno. Oepata, Mal. Bina, Besq. Nalla-madu, Tel. 

Description. — Small tree ; leaves opposite, obovate or oval, 
slightly tomentose beneath; flowers terminal, small, dingy 
yellow. Fl. April — May. — Poxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 88. — Pheede, 

iv. t. 45. — Wight Icon. t. 1481. Soonderbunds. Salt 

marshes in the tropics. 

Economic Uses. — ^A preparation is made from the ashes of the 
wood which natives use for washing and cleaning cotton cloths. 
Painters mix the same with their colours to make them adhere more 
firmly. The kernels are bitter but edible. In Eio Janeiro the bark 
is used for tanning. 



AZADTRACHTA. 59 

(82) Azadirachta Indica {Ad de Juss,) N. 0. MsLiACEiE. 

Neem-tree, Eno. Aria-bepou, Mal. Vaypiim, Tam. Vepa, Tel. Neem, Beno. 

Description. — Tree, 20 feet; calyx 5-partite; petals 5; 
anthers ten on the throat of the stamen tube ; leaves pinnated ; 
leaflets ovate-lanceolate, unequal-sided, acuminated, serrated ; 
panicles axillary; flowers small, white ; fruit, when ripe, purple, 
size of a small olive, 1-celled, 1-seeded. FL April — July. — 
TV. & A. Prod. L 118,— Boxb. FL Ind, ii. 394u—Eheede, iv. 

t 52. — WigJU Icon, 1 17.^Melia azadirachta, Linn, ^Malar 

bar. Peninsula. Bengal. 

Medical Uses. — ^The bark, which has a remarkably bitter taste, 
has been much employed of late years as a fair substitute for Cin- 
chona. The natives consider it a most useful tonic in intermittent 
fevers and chronic rhemnatism, administering it either in decoction 
or powder. The dried leaves, added to common poultices, act power- 
fiilly in preventing glandular tumours from coming to maturity. The 
same discutient effect is produced after the application of leeches, in 
all kinds of bruises and sprains, by a watery or vinous infusion of 
them, particularly when spirit of camphor is now and then sprinkled 
over the cloth, steeped in the infusion. The greatest benefit has 
been derived &om the application in the worst cases of compound 
fracture. A saectilus aromaticue of these leaves, with a few grains 
of powdered camphor, seldom fails to afford relief in rheumatic affec- 
tions of the ears, eyes, and teeth. Dr Wight says, '' The leaves beaten 
into a pulp, and externally applied, act like a charm in removing the 
most intractable form of psora and other pustular eruptions.'' On 
the decline of the small-pox, it is almost invariably the custom of the 
natives to cover the body with the leaves of this tree. From the 
pericarp of the seed an acrid bitter oil is expressed, which is a useful 
remedy in leprosy, and is, moreover, anthelmintic and stimulant, being 
used extemsdly in cases of bad ulcers, and as a liniment in headaches 
and rheumatic affections. It is obtained either by boiling or expres- 
sion ; is of a deep yellow colour. The seeds after being skinned are 
employed to kUl insects, and the kernels powdered and mixed with 
water for washing the hair. A gum is also got from the bark, used 
medicinally as a stimulant. A kind of toddy called Yaypumkhulloo, is 
procured from the young trees, which is said to be a good stomachic. — 
(AinsUe, Eoxb. Wight) Of this tree there are two kinds ; one of 
them, which has a black appearance, is called Karin-veppa; the other, 
with green phckly leaves, which have an exceeding bitter taste, is 
known under the name of Arya-Karin-veppa. The latter properly 
is that which produces the real Malabar China. The bark of this 
tree, however, is employed by the natives only in cases of necessity ; 
for a decoction of the leaves, if the coarser parts which subside to 



60 AZADIRAGHTA. 

the bottom of the vessel be used, produce as powerful au effect. The 
Brahmins are accustomed to prepare from the juice of these leaves 
what they call Karil — ^that is, a sauce which they eat with their rice. 
This medicine is of excellent service in tertian fevers, in cases of 
worms, and in all disorders arising from indigestion and weakness of 
the nerves and stomach. If the green leaves be bruised and applied 
to wounds and ulcers of long standing, they cleanse them, and prevent 
from spreading or becoming cancerous. In a word, they answer the 
same purpose as the China bark, and in a much shorter time, because 
more power is contained in the juice of the leaves than in the woody 
parts of the stem and the branches. — {Bart. , Voy. to E, Ind. ,413.) Maj or 
Lowther, writing to the Agri. Hort. Society, says : " I noticed a curi» 
ous fact connected with the flow of sap in the !N^eem-tree, presenting 
the animal phenomenon of discharging a copious fountain of juice 
into a sort of natural basin at the roots, accompanied by a curious 
pumping noise within the trunk. Such was the repute in which this 
natural medicine was held, that natives came in crowds and carried 
away the liquor in their vessels. In the epidemic cholera which 
ravaged the station of Berhampore more than twenty-five years ago, 
a strong decoction of the leaves was given with much success to 
European soldiers. In some parts of India the Neem will not grow 
on its own roots, but ccones to great perfection when budded on its 
congener, the Melia sempervirens. The expressed oil is much used 
and sold in the bazaars as an application to the sores of csunels and 
other animals. Probably a decoction of the boiled seeds will be 
found a good application to the roots of vegetation attacked by 
white ants." 

EcoNOMio Uses. — ^The wood is very like mahogany, beautifully 
mottled, hard, and heavy. The old trees yield an excellent wood for 
furniture, and it is so bitter that no insects will attack it. It is also 
used for ship-building, carts, and other purposes. The oil extracted 
from the seeds is used for lamps, and also for imparting colours to 
cotton cloths. — (Bedd. Flor. Sylv. t 13. Rep, Mad. ExhiK) It is 
not generally known that the timber is equally durable with Camphor- 
wood, and makes imperishable trunks and chests, the contents be- 
coming in a short time insect-proof. A handful' of dried Neem-leaves 
are useful in packing collections of seeds and in guarding dried plants. 
In the latter case they should be renewed frequently. — Lowtlt^r in 
Punj, Agri. Hort, Soc. Proc. 1857. 



61 



B 

(83) Balanites ^gsrptiaca (Delile), var. Indica. N. 0. Amtridacks. 

Hlngen, Beno. Garee, Tel. Nunjoonda, Tam. 

Description. — Tree, 20 feet; leaves alternate, bifoliate; 
spines axillary ; calyx 5-parted ; sepals villous ; petals 5, lan- 
ceolate ; pedicels 1-flowered ; flowers aggregate, small, green ; 
drupe ovoid, acute, 1-celled, l-seeded, with a woody 5-angled 
nut. FL April — May. — Ximenia -ffigyptiaca, Boxb. FL Ind. 
ii. 253. — Wight Icon. 274. Deccan. Goozerat. 

Economic Uses. — ^This is a variety of the Egyptian plant which is 
found in the plains of the Deccan. The flowers are very Vagrant. 
In Egypt, the fruit, according to Delile, passes for chebulic myro- 
balans. The nut is covered with a soft pulpy substance like 
soap; bitter to the taste, and with an oflensive, greasy smell. 
It is very hard, and used in fireworks. For this purpose a 
hole is drilled in it, the kernel extracted, and the shell filled with 
powder; when fired, it bursts with a loud report. In Africa, 
the wood, which is very hard and of a yellow colour, is used for 
making furniture. An oil is also extracted from the seeds. The un- 
ripe drupes are bitter and violently purgative, but are eaten when 
ripe without any unpleasant consequences. The ryots use the bark 
medicinally for their cattle. This is one of the few trees which 
flourish on black soil. — (Roxb. LindL J. Grah,) It is interesting, 
says Eoyle, to find this plant in the country about Delhi, and in the 
Dooab as far as Allahabad, especially on the banks of the Jumna, as 
it serves with other plants to show an analogy in the Flora of this 
part of India with that of Egypt, where also this plant is found, as 
well as in the interior and western parts of Africa. This was first 
discovered by Dr Roxburgh as belonging to the Indian Flora, when 
he suggested that it should be formed into a new genus rather than 
be referred to Ximenia, and described it as common on the driest and 
most barren parts of the Circars. It is found only in similar situa- 
tions in the north of India, and is one of those plants which show 
the great uniformity of vegetation over a great extent of the plains 
of India. — Eoyle, Himcd, Bot 

(84) Baliospennnm montannm (MuUer), K 0. Euphorbiacejb. 

Description. — tJndershrub ; upper leaves lanceolate, acute 
at the base, lower ones broader, ovate, and often cordate at the 



62 6ALSAM0DENDR0N. 

base, sinuately toothed or deeply 3-lobed, marked with long 
scattered hairs ; inflorescence commonly bisexual, males more 
loose than the females, and longer peduncled, all shorter than 
the petioles ; fruit-bearing pedicels deflexed ; sterile bracteoles 
numerous ; segments of the male calyx orbicular-ovate, of the 
female, lanceolate ; capsules sub-globose, tridymous, puberul- 
ous ; seeds smooth, at length marbled. Dec, Prod, xv. s. 2, p. 
1125. — Jatropha montana, WUld, — Croton polyandrum, Boxb, — 

B. polyandrum, Wight Icon, t 1885. Hills in Bengal 

Northern parts of the Peninsula. Malabar. 

Medioal Uses. — The seeds are cathartic, and probably furnish the 
greater part of the Jumalgota of the drug-seUers. East of the Sutloj 
its leaves are in high repute for wounds, and its sap is believed to 
coirode iron. — Stewards Punj^ Plants. 

(85) BalBamodendron agallocha {W. ^ A.) K O. Aktrtdaceje. 

Googol, Beno. 

Dbsckiption. — ^Tree ; trunk crooked, and clothed with many 
drooping crooked branches down to the ground; branchlets 
often ending in thorny points ; calyx 4-toothed ; petals 4 ; 
leaves alternate, petioled, oval or elliptic, serrulate, smooth on 
both sides ; at the base or apex of the petiole on each side is 
generally a small leaflet giving the appearance of a temate 
leaf; flowers on short peduncles, axillary, small, red, aggregate 
on the buds by the former year's leaves : berry drupaceous, 
red, smooth, size of a currant; nut 2-celled, 1-seeded. Fl. 
Feb. — March. — Wight lU. i 185. — Amyris commiphora, Bo(d>. 
Fl. Tnd. ii 244 Silhet. Assam. 

Economic Ussa — This tree is said to yield the Indian bdellium, 
a substance like myrrh. Dr Eoyle has remarked that all the species 
of this genus require to be carefully examined from good and authentic 
specimens, accompanied by their respective products, so much doubt 
still remains in the opinions of botanists regarding the tree producing 
this substance. From an interesting paper by Dr Stocks in Hooker's 
'Journal of Botany' (voL L p. 257), it would appear that this plant 
is not identical with the B. Mukul which grows in Scinde, and which, 
from the similarity of the native name * Googul,' has been mistaken 
for it. It is important to notice this fact, especially when so much 
doubt exists as to the true plant yielding Indian bdellium, though 
in all probability the exudation of both species is similar in its pro- 
perties. Of the one under notice, Dr Roxburgh observes, that the 



BAMBUSA. 63 

whole plant while growing ia very odoriferous, and if broken in any 
part diffuses around a grateful fragrance, like that of the finest myrrh, 
yet that the juice never congeals, but is carried off by evaporation, 
leaving little or nothing behind ; and all that he could procure was 
a minute portion of gummy matter, which certainly resembles myrrh 
both in smell and appearance, but has no tendency to be even tena^ 
cious or elastic. The Googul is collected in the cold season by 
making incisions in the tree and letting the resin fall on the ground. 
This accounts for the dirty condition in which it is found in the 
shops. Bdellium is properly a gum-resin, of which there are several 
kinds. It occurs in brittle masses of different sizes and shapes, of 
a red, yellow, or brownish colour, sometimes transparent, with a 
bitterish balsamic taste like myrrh. It is soluble in potass, and 
contains resin, gum, bassorine, and a volatile oiL It is often used 
as a substitute for myrrh, to which it has some resemblance in its 
effect upon the human frame. The odour is more faint and more 
agreeable than myrrh, by which it may be distinguished. It wiU 
melt in the mouth, while myrrh, when chewed, adheres to the teeth 
and imparts a milky colour to the saliva. — Eoxb, Boyle, Hooker^s 
Jour. 



(86) Bambusa amndinacea (WiUd.) K O. Gbaminace^. 

Bamboo, Eno. Vedurn, TxL. KuU-mooUah, Mal. Bhans, Due. Mungil^ Tam. 
Bansb, Bbno. 

Description. — Stems erect, bending at the summit, jointed, 
hollow between the joints ; branches alternate ; thorns two or 
three, alternate on the joints ; when double, a branchlet occu- 
pies the centre ; when triple, the largest is strong, sharp, and 
somewhat recurved, occasionally wanting; leaves sheathing, 
linear-lanceolate, upper sides and margins hispid, sheaths 
downy ; when in flower, the tree is leafless and the extremities 
are covered with flowers like one large panicle composed of 
numerous verticillate spikes, each verticel composed of several 
oblong, jointed, sessile spikelets ; calyx 2-6-flowered, 3-valved ; 
flowers hermaphrodite and male ; seeds size and appearance 
of oats; male flowers 1-3 above the hermaphrodite ones. 
Fl March— May.— ife>a?6. Fl. Ind, ii. 191.— Cor. i. t 79.— 
Arundo bambos, Linn, Forests of the Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — ^The siliceous concretion known as Tdb(i8ti£€fi' 
(Tavakshiri, a Sanscrit term meaning cow's milk) is only procured 
from the female plant. It so far resembles siLex as to form a kind 
of glass when fused with alkalies. It is also unaffected by $re and 
acids. It IB employed medicinally in the cures of paralytic com- 



64 BAMBUSA. 

plaints and poisonings. Sir D. Brewster (PhU, Trans., 1819. Ed. 
Journ. of Sci.y viii. 286) made some singular discoyeries on the 
optical properties of this substance. It is called by the Hindoo 

i physicians, he says, bamboo manna, mUk, sugar, or camphor of 
bamboo, and appears to be a secretion from the joints of the reed in 

. a state of disease, malformation, or fracture. The ordinary quantity 
produced by a disorganised joint or intemode is four or five grains. 
It consists of silica, containing a minute quantity of lime and vege- 
table matter. Its physical properties are remarkable. Its re&active 
power is lower than that of any other body, when solid or fluid. 

") With certain oils, which it imbibes, it becomes as transparent as 
glass. It absorbs water, and becomes as white and opaque as if it had 
been covered with white-lead. It is highly prized in native practice 
as a stimulant and aphrodisiac. Among other reputed medical 
properties of the bamboo, the root is said to be a diluent, the bark 
a specific in eruptions, and the leaves as anthelmintic and emmena- 
gogue. — Ainslie. Pharm. of India. Madras Journ. of Med. Sci.y 
1862, p. 246. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — ^These gigantic arborescent grasses, which cover 
the sides and tops of the mountains throughout the continent of 
India, form one of the peculiar as well as most striking* features of 
Oriental scenery. Few objects present a more attractive sight in the 
wild forests of this country than a clump of these beautiful plants, 
with their tall bending stems and delicate light-green foliage. With 
the exception of the cocoa, and some other palms perhaps, the bam- 
boo is the most useful and economical of all the vegetable products 
of the East In no other plant is strength and lightness combined 
to that degree which renders this so important an article in building - 
houses, lifting weights, forming rafts, and a thousand other uses 
which might here be enumerated. It attains a considerable height 
— ^some 70-80 feet — and has been known to spring up thirty inches 
in six days. At the age of 15 years the bamboo is said to bear 
fruit — a whitish seed like rice — and then to die. These seeds are 
eaten by the poorer classes. 

The purpose to which different species of bamboo are applied are 
so numerous that it would be difficult to point out an object, in 
which strength and elasticity are requisite, and for which lightness 
is no objection, to which the steins are not adapted in the countries 
where they grow. The young shoots of some species are cut when 
tender, and eaten like asparagus. The full-grown stems, while 
green, form elegant cases, exhaling a perpetual moisture, and capable 
of transporting fresh flowers for hundreds of miles. Wben ripe and 
hard they are converted into bows, arrows, and quivers, lance-shafts, 
the masts of vessels, bed-posts, walking-sticks, the poles of palan- 
quins, to floors and supporters of rustic bridges, and a variety of 
similar purposes. In a growing state the spiny kinds are formed 
into stockades, which are impenetrable to any but regular infantry, 
aided by artillery. By notching their sides the Malays make won- 



BAMBUSA. 65 

derfiilly light Bcaling-ladders, which can be conveyed with facility 
where heavier machines could not be transported. Bruised and 
crushed in water, the leaves and stems form Chinese paper, the finer 
qualities of which are only improved by a mixture of raw cotton 
and by more careful pounding. The leaves of a small species are 
the material used by the Chinese for the lining of their tea-chests. 
Cut into lengths and the partitions knocked out, they form durable 
water-pipes, or, by a little contrivance, are made into excellent cases 
for holding rolls of papers. Slit into strips, they afford a most dur- 
able material for weaving into mats, baskets, window-blinds, and 
even the sails of boats. Finally, the larger and thicker truncheons 
are exquisitely carved by the Chinese into beautiful ornaments. No 
plant in Bengal is applied to such a variety of useful purposes as the 
bamboo. Of it are made implements for weaving, the posts and 
frames of the roofs of huts, scaffoldings for buildings, portable stages 
for native processions, raised floors for granaries, stakes for nets in 
rivers, rafts, masts, yards, oars, spars, and in boat-decks. It is used 
for building bridges across creeks, for fences, as a lever for raising 
water for irrigation, and as flag-poles. Several agricultural instru- 
ments are made of it, as are also hackeries or carts, doolies or litters, 
and biers, the shafts of javelins or spears, bows and lu^ows, dubs, 
and fishing-rods. A joint of bsunboo serves as a holder for pens, 
small instruments, and tools. It is used as a case in which things 
of little bulk are sent to a distance. The eggs of silk-worms were 
brought in a bamboo-cane from China to Constantinople in the time 
of Justinian. A joint of bamboo answers the purpose of a bottle, 
and a section of it is a measure for solids and liquids in bazaars. A 
piece of it is used as a blow-pipe, and as a tube in a distilling appara- 
tus. A small bit of it split at one end serves as tongs to take up 
burning charcoal, and a thin slip of it is sharp enough to be used 
as a knife in shelling betel-nuts, &c. Its surface is so hard that it 
answers the purpose of a whetstone, upon which the ryots sharpen 
their bill-hooks and sickles. — Boxh, Lindley, 

When travelling in the Himalaya, Dr Hooker observed a manu- 
factory for making paper out of the bamboo. Large water-tanks 
were constructed in the fields for the purpose of steeping the bam- 
boo stems. They appeared to be steeped for a length of time in 
some solution of lime. They were then removed and beaten upon 
stones until they became quite soft) or till all the flinty matter which 
abounds in their stems was removed. — Hooker y Him, Joum,y 311. 

A correspondent from Burmah furnishes the following very in- 
teresting account of the flowering of the bamboo, and of its uses : 
The flowering of the bamboo is considered to be a very rare occur- 
rence. Once in eighteen, twenty, and even twenty-five years, does 
it flower, and still less seldom does it produce seed. We have 
shown the seed to Burmese of 75 and 80 years old, and they 
could not tell what it was. They had seen none before. Among 
the hill-people and the tribes who are buried away in the recesses 

5 



66 BARLERIA. 

of our foiests, they have a yery supeTstitious dread of this phenome- 
noiL They mention that when the bamhoo flowers, fevers and sick- 
ness will be prevalent. Their traditions havie taught them so, and 
hence they always fear the appearance of this particular flower. Of 
course their apprehensions are based purely on superstition and 
ignoranca The flowering of the bamboo may be ascribed to natural 
causes. 

It is one of the most valuable, as it is the most useful, kind of 
plants, adapted to supply the wants of mankind. It is employed in 
a great variety of ways — ^for houses, ^miture, utensils, and for fueL 
Colonel Kuthall, who spent many years on this coast, was of the 
deliberate opinion, from his great experience of the country, that no 
branch of industiy would yield a capitalist more handsome profits 
than the growing of the large-size bamboo. All that is needed is 
to put the young shoots down, and they will run up rapidly of them- 
selves without any care or attention to them whatever. They would 
proportionately fetch higher prices than the smaller kinds, for which 
there is a constant demand all over the country. The use of bam- 
boo will never go out of fashion in Burmah, at least among the rural 
population. Often there is foimd a small whitish fungus growing on 
the sides of the bamboo, which is called by the people " Wah moo,^* 
which the late Dr Judson makes synonymous with " Than moo" 
It is a mushroom growth, and when rasped or bruised down to a 
powder it is administered as a vermifuge by Burmese physicians. 
It is said to be a very eflectual remedy in cases of worms, with 
which children are so liable to be troubled in infancy. We have 
no doubt that if this Burmese remedy was known in Europe, it 
would at once be introduced into the British pharmacopoeia. It is 
a more manageable article than some of the substances now classified 
as vermifuge medicines. 

Immense quantities of fine bamboos are floated down the various 
rivers of the western coast. They are usually 60 feet long, and 5 
inches in diameter near the root. These are readily purchased, 
standing at 5 rupees, and small ones at 3^ rupees, per 1000. 
Iklillions are annually cut in the forests, and taken away by water 
in rafts, or by land in hackeries. From their buoyancy they are 
much used for floating heavier woods. — Gleghom's Forests of 8. 
India* 

(87) Barleria pxlonitis (Linn,) K 0. Aoanthaors. 

Coletta-veetla, Mal. Shem-mull, Tam. Mnllii-goiiiita, Tel. KanthA-jathi, 
Bxira. 

Description. — Shrub, 4 feet ; stem herbaceous ; leaves op- 
posite, entire, lanceolate-ovate ; between the branch and the 
leaf there is a spine with four sharp rays from the same centre ; 

* For farther accounts of the bamboo, see Appendix A. 



BARRINGTONIA. 67 

flowers sessile, axillary, orange-coloured. Fl. Nearly all the 
year. — RosA. Fl, Ind. iii 36. — WigM Icon. ii. 452. — Rheede, 
ix. t 41. Peninsula. Bengal 

MsDiOAL Uses. — ^The juice of the leaves, mixed Tvith sugar and 
Tfater, is given to children in fevers and catarrhal affections. The 
ashes of the burnt plant, mixed with water and rice conjee, are 
employed in cases of dropsy and anasarca ; also in coughs. — Aittslie. 

(88) Barringtonia acntangnla (Ooertn,) N. O. Mtbtaoea. 

Earp4, Tel. Sjeria-samstravadi, Mal. 

Descbiption. — Tree ; leaves crowded about the ends of the 
branches, cuneate-obovate, serrulated; racemes long, pendu- 
lous ; pedicels very short ; calyx 4-clefl ; ovary 2-celled ; fruit 
oblong, 4-sided, sharp-angled ; flowers small, reddish white, 
with scarlet filaments. FL April — May. — W, & A, Prod, 
i 333. — Rheede, iv. t 7. — Roxh, Fl. Ind. ii 635. Eugenia 
acutangula, Linn, sp. Bengal. Peninsula. Travancore. 

Medical Uses. — ^The root is bitter, and said to be similar to 
Cinchona^ but also cooling and aperient. The seeds are very warm 
and dry, and are used as an aromatic in colic and parturition. — 
PowelVa Punj. Prod, 

EcoNOKio Uses. — The wood is hard and of a fine grain, red, and 
equivalent to mahogany. — {APClelland.) It is suited for ordinary 
work 

(89) Barringtonia racemosa {Roxh.) Do. 

Samutra-pullam, Tam. Samndra-poo or Sam-Btravadi, Mal. 

Description. — Tree ; leaves alternate, short-petioled, cune- 
ate-oblong, acuminated, serrulated, smooth on both sides ; 
racemes terminal, or axillary from the large branches, pendu- 
lous ; flowers on short pedicels, large, white with a tinge of 
rose ; calyx 2-3 cleft ; petals four ; filaments longer than the 
petals ; style long ; fruit ovate, drupaceous, bluntly 4-angled, 
smooth, brownish red ; endocarp scarcely separating from the 
epicarp; seed 1. Fl, May. — W, & A. Prod, i 333. — Wight 
Icon, t 152. — Roxb, Fl. Ind, ii. 634. — Rheede, iv. t, 6. — 
Eugenia racemosa, Linn. sp. Malabar. Goromandel. 

Medical Uses. — The medicinal properties are said to be similar 
to the preceding species. The roots are slightly bitter, but not 



68 BASELLA — ^BASSTA. 

unpleasant. They aie considered by Hindoo doctors valuable on 
account of their aperient, deobstruent, and cooling properties. The 
fruit, powdered, is used to clean the nostrils in cold as a snuff, and 
is also applied externally, in combination with other remedies, in 
sore-throat and cutaneous eruption. — Ainslie. Boxh. lAndley, 

(90) Basella rubra {Linn,) N. 0. Basellaoe^. 

Malabar nightshade, Bnq. Rakhto-pooi, Beno. Alla-batsalla, Tel. Pol, Hind. 

Description. — Stem scandent, 3-4 feet, angular, brownish 
purple ; leaves ovate, acuminate, purplish ; spikes nearly 
equalling the leaves, long-peduncled ; flowers purple ; outer 
divisions of the calyx oblong-eUiptic ; berries dark purple, 
obsoletely 4-lobed, greenish and purple at the apex before 
ripening ; seeds pale brown. Dec, Prod, xiii. s. 2, p. 222. — 
Wight Icon, t 896. Bengal. Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — ^The juice of the leaves is prescribed by native 
practitioners in doses of a teaspoonful thrice a-day to children suffer- 
ing from catarrh. — {Faylkner,) The B, alba is merely a variety. 

Economic Uses. — This esculent herb is cultivated in almost every 
part of the country. The succulent leaves are dressed and eaten 
like spinach. An infusion of the leaves is used as tea. The B, cor- 
difolia is also cultivated as a pot-herb. It yields a very rich purple 
dye, but is difficult to fix. — Lindley. Boxb. 

(91) Bassia butyracea (Boxh,) K O. SAPOTACEiB. 

Indian Battec-tree, Eno. Phulwara, Beno. 

Dbscription. — Tree, 30-40 feet ; leaves obovate, tomentose 
beneath ; corolla 8-cleft ; stamens 30-40 on longish filaments ; 
pedicels aggregate, and, as well as the calyx, woolly ; drupes 
oval ; flowers smallish, white. Fl, Jan. — Feb. — D, Bon, Fl, 

Nep, p. 146.— -Boa;6. Fl, Ind, ii 527. Almora Hills. 

NepauL 

Medical Uses. — A pure vegetable butter called Choorie is pro- 
duced by this tree ; the mode of extraction Dr Eoxburgh has fully 
described in the 8th voL of the ' Asiatic Eesearches.' The kernels 
of the fruit are bruised into the consistence of cream, which is then 
put into a cloth bag with a moderate weight laid upon it, and left to 
stand till the oil or fat is expressed, which becomes immediately of 
the consistence of hog's lard, and is of a delicate white colour. Its 
uses in medicine are much esteemed in rheumatism and contractions 
of the limbs. It is also an excellent emollient for chapped hands. 



BASS [A. 69 

It resembles piney tallow in its clieinical properties, and is of a pale 
yellow colour. — Pharm, of India, Moxb. 

EooNOMio Uses. — ^The pulp of the fruit is eatable. The juice is 
extracted from the flowers and made into sugar by the natives. It 
is sold in the Calcutta bazaar, and has all the appearance of date- 
sugar, to which it is equal if not superior in quality. The butter 
which is obtained from the kernels of the fruit is reckoned a valuable 
preservative when applied to the hair, mixed with sweet-scented oil, 
and thus sold and exported. Being cheaper than ghee, it is used to 
adulterate that article. By experiments in England, a specimen was 
found to consist of solid oil, 34 of fluid oil, and 6 parts of vegetable 
impurities. The original specimen dissolved readily in warm alcohol, 
a property which may render it of great advantage in medicinal pur- 
poses. It makes excellent soap. When pure, it bums bright with- 
out smoke or smell, and might be advantageously employed in mak- 
ing candles. 

It is a peculiar characteristic of the seeds of the Bassia trees that 
they contain at the same time saccharine matter, spirit, and oil, fit 
both for food and burning in lamps. The butter procured from this 
species of Bassia is not liable to become rancid, even if kept for some 
time. It is completely melted at a temperature of 120*^. — Eoxb. 
Boyle. 8immond8, 

(92) Bassia latifolla {Roxh.) Do. ^ ^ 

'^ Mahwah-tree, Eng. Pooiinnin, Mal. Caat>elloopei, Tam. Ipie, Tel. Moola, 
HiNO. Mahwah or Muhooa, Beno. T K K i' 

Description. — Tree, 40 feet; leaves altemateT oblong or 
elliptic, crowded about the extremities of the branches, smooth 
above, somewhat whitish below; stamens 20-30 within the 
gibbous tube of the corolla, on short filaments ; corolla thick, 
fleshy, with a more than 8-lobed limb ; lobes cordate ; sepals 
4 ; pedicels drooping, terminal ; flowers white, with a tinge of 
green and cream colour, numerous, crowded from the extrem- 
ities of the branchlets, peduncled, and bent with the mouth 
of the flowers directly to the ground ; berry size of a small 
apple, 1-4 seeded. FL March — April. — Roxb. Fl, hid. iL 526. 
— CoT.y i. t 19. Circar mountains. Bengal Concans. 

Economic Uses. — The timber of this tree is hard and strong, and 
is in request for naves of wheels, carriages, and similar uses. An 
ardent spirit is* distilled from the flowers by the hill tribes (where 
the tree is abundant), which makes a strong and intoxicating liquor. 
.The flowers are sweet-tasted, and are eaten raw. Jackals are parti- 
cularly fond of them. The seeds yield by expression a large quan- 
tity of concrete oU, which is used in lamps, to adulterate ghee, and 



70 BASSIA. 

for frjmg cakes. The kernels are easily extracted fix)in the smooth 
chestnut-coloured pericarps, when they are bruised, rubbed, and sub- 
jected to a moderate pressure. The oil concretes immediately it is 
expressed, and retains its consistency at a temperature of 95^. The 
oil is, however, thick and coarse, and only used by the poorer 
classes. 

The following account by Dr Gibson is given of this plant in 
Guzerat and Eajpootana, where it abounds : '^ This flower is col- 
lected in the hot season by Bheels and others from the forests, also 
from the planted trees, which are most abundant in the more open 
parts of Guzerat and Eajwarra. The ripe flower has a sickly sweet 
taste resembling manna. Being very deciduous, it is found in large 
quantities under the trees every morning during the season. A 
single tree will afibrd from 200 to 400 lb. of tiie flowers. The 
seeds afford a great quantity of concrete oil, used in the manufeu^ture 
of soap. The forest or Bheel population also store great quantities 
of the dried flowers as a staple article of food ; and hence, in expedi- 
tions undertaken for the punishment or subjection of those tribes 
when unruly, their Bassia trees are threatened to be cut down by the 
invading force, and the threat most commonly insures the submission 
of the tribes." 

'^ In Guzerat and Eajpootana every village has its spirit-shop for 
the sale of the distilled liquor from the flowers. In the island of 
Caranja, opposite to Bombay, the Government duty on the spirits 
distilled (chiefly horn this flower) amounts to at least £60,000 per 
annum; I rather think that £80,000 is most generally l^e sum. 
The Parsees are the great distillers and sellers of it in all the country 
between Surat and Bombay, and they usually push their distilleries 
and shops into the heart of the forest which lines the eastern border 
and hills of those coimtries. The spirit produced from the Bassia is, 
when carefully distUled, much like good Irish whisky, having a 
strong, smoky, and rather fetid flavour ; this latter disappears with 
age. The fresh spirit is, owing to the quantity of aromatic or em- 
pyreumatic oil which it contains, very deleterious ; and to the Euro- 
pean troops stationed at Guzerat some thirty years ago, appeared to 
be quite as poisonous as the worst new rum of the West Indies has 
generally proved to our soldiers. It excited immediately gastric 
irritation, and on this supervened the malarious fever so common in 
those countries." — Hooh, Joum, of Bot, 1853, p. 90. Boxb, 

In 1848 a quantity of Mahwah oil was forwaixled to the Secretary 
of the E. L and China Association, with the view of ascertaining 
its market value and applicability for the manu&cture of candles 
and soap. The managing director of Price's Patent Candle Com- 
pany stated in reply : " I beg to inform you that the ' Mowah * oil, 
of which you fucmshed us samples, is worth in this country, for the 
manufacture of candles, £8 per ton less than Petersburg tallow. 
We have tried a great many experiments upon it, and found it to 
be of the same value as cocoa-nut oil, as its being harder makes up 



BASSIA. 71 

for the colour being inferior. Large quantities could be used in this 
country at about £36 per ton. I send some candles and oil, but 
fear that the formerivill not remain in a solid state through the 
voyage to India. We have, however, processes secured to us by 
which we can make candles &om Mowah oil sufficiently hard for the 
Indian market." 



(93) Bassia longifolia (Linn,) Do. 

EUoopie, Mal. EUoops, Tam. Ippa, Tkl. Mohe, Hind. 

Description. — Tree, 40 feet ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, entire, 
crowded about the ends of the branchlets, immediately above 
the peduncles; young shoots and petioles slightly villous; 
calyx of two opposite pairs of leaflets ; corolla 8-cleft ; fila- 
ments scarcely any; pedicels axillary, drooping, crowded, 
l-flowered; stamens 16-20, within the gibbous tube of the 
corolla; flowers whitish; fruit olive-shaped, yellowish when 
ripe, 8-9 seeded; seeds solitary. Fl. May. — Roxib, Fl, Ind. ii. 
523. CoromandeL Malabar. Circars. 

Medical Uses. — Like most Sapotads, this tree abounds in a 
gummy juice which exudes from the bark. It is employed by the 
Yytians in rheumatic affections. The bark itself is used in decoc- 
tion as an astringent and emollient, and also as a remedy in the cure 
of itch. — Ainslie, 

EooNOMio Uses. — The flowers are roasted and eaten, and are also 
bruised and boiled to a jelly, and made into small balls, which are 
exchanged by the natives for flsh and rice. An oil is expressed from 
the ripe fruits which is used for lamps among the poorer classes, and 
is one of the principal ingredients in making country soap. It is to 
the common people a substitute for ghee and cocoa-nut oil in their 
cakes and curries. The cakes which are left after the oil is expressed 
are used for washing the head, and are carried as articles of trade to 
those countries where the tree does not grow. The oil is solid at a 
moderate temperature, but will not keep any length of time — ^not 
more than a fortnight or three weeks in the warm season ; it then 
becomes rancid, emitting a disagreeable odour. If, however, it be 
well corked and secured from contact with the air, it will in cold 
weather keep for some months. In England it is used in the manu- 
facture of candles. The price of this oU is about three rupees and a 
half a maund. The wood of this tree is hard, and nearly as durable 
as teak, but not so easUy worked, nor is it procurable of such length 
for beams and planks. It thrives best on deep light soils. — Roxh 
Hunter on Veg. OUa of 8* India, 



72 BATATAS — ^BAUHINIA. 

(94) Batatas ednlis (Choisy), N. 0. CoNVOLvuLAO&fi. 

Sweet or Spanish Potato. Eno. Eappa-kalenga, Mal. Shukar-kimdoo-aloo, 
BXNO. Chillagada, Grasugada, Tel. 

Description. — Stem creeping, rarely twining ; leaves vari- 
able, usually angular, also lobed, cordate ; sepals 5 ; corolla 
campanulate ; peduncles equal in length to the petioles, 3-4 
flowered; flowers white outside, purple inside. FL Feb. — 
March. — Bheede, vii. t 50. — Convolvulus batatas, Linn, — 
JRoxb, Fl. Ind, i. 483. — Ipomsea batatas. Lam, Cultivated 

EcoNOMio Uses. — ^This plant is said originally to have been found 
wild in the woods of the Malayan Archipelago, from whence it was 
introduced into this country. There are two varieties, one with red, 
the other with white tubers. The red variety is considered the best ; 
both are very nutritious and palatable, though slightly laxative. 
This esculent root was brought to England from Spain and Portugal 
before the common potato became known. ^' The sweet potato," says 
Sir Joseph Banks, ^' was used in England as a delicacy long before 
the introduction of our potatoes. It was imported in considerable 
quantities from Spain and the Canaries, and was supposed to possess 
the power of restoring decayed vigour." In India they are cultivated 
by all classes. They require very httle care ; the ground being merely 
cleared of weeds, the plants will grow on any soil. In taste they 
are sweet and palatable, possessing a quantity of saccharine matter. 
The natives eat the tubers, leaves, and tender shoots. The former 
are considered as nourishing as the potato, and a lighter food. The 
tubers yield a large proportion of starch They must be kept dry, 
or they decay soon. The herbage is employed for feeding cattle. — 
Don, Simmonds, 

Batatas betacea, the Beet-rooted sweet Potato, figured in the Bot. 
Reg., t. 66 (1840), has been lately introduced. The following parti- 
culars are given in the Jury Reports, Mad. Exh. 1856 : — 

" Four small roots were sent from AustraHa by Mr DowdesweU, 
and planted by Mr Rohde at Guntoor, whence it has been already 
largely distributed. It has been in ddly use as a vegetable for the 
last six months, and is preferred to the conunon sweet potato, as 
being less sweet and more farinaceous." 

The large turnip-shaped roots of the B, panimdata dried in the 
sun, reduced to powder, and then boiled with sugar and butter, are 
said to promote obesity. They are also cathartic, and as such are 
used by the natives. Cattle are very fond of them. — Boxh, 

(96) Bauhinia racemosa {Lam,) K 0. LEOUMiNOSiE. 

Bun-raj, Beko. Arree, Tel. 

Description. — Small tree, unarmed, bushy; branchlets 



BAUfllNIA. 73 

drooping; leaves cordate at the base, upper side glabrous, 
under villous, or pubescent, or nearly glabrous ; leaflets round- 
ish or broadly ovate, united to about the middle, 3-nerved ; 
racemes solitary, terminal or leaf-opposed, leafless, much longer 
than the leaves ; flowers scattered, small, white ; calyx spatha^ 
ceous, at length reflexed, 5-toothed, pubescent ; petals linear, 
lanceolate, slightly hairy outside ; stamens all fertile, imited at 
the base ; filaments and anthers bearded ; style none (!) ; stigma 
flat, sessile; legumes linear, straightish or curved, scarcely 
dehiscent, many-seeded. FL May — ^June. — W.JkA.Prod. i. 

295.— B. parviflora, Vahl.—Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii 323. My- 

sora Coucan mountains. Bengal 

Economic Usbs. — ^This tree has a thick bark, of which matchlock- 
men make their matches. It bums long and slowly without any 
substance being mixed with it. To prepare the bark it is boiled, 
dried, and beaten. Strong ropes are made from the bark stripped 
from the green branches, used for cots, tying fences, and various 
other purposes. The fibre is not exported, and the price is very 
low. Among other Bauhinias which yield fibres may be mentioned 
the B, diphyllay which is common about Cuddapah and Guntoor, 
where it is Imown as the Authee nar, Yepy, and Apa. — Roxh, Jury 
Rep. M. E. 

A fibre is also procured from the B, seandens, a large climber, 
growing in the CJoncans and Travancore. A line made from it was 
tested by Captain Thomson, who found that it sustained a weight of 
168 lb. for the space of forty-five minutes, thereby equalling in 
strength the best Sunn hemp. — Boyle, 



AMJa o^^^ 



*~^(96) BanhlniA tomentosa (Linn.) Do. 

Gaat-attie, Triviat-pntrum, Tam. Chanscheha, Mal. 

Description. — Shrub, 6 to 12 feet; unarmed ; leaves ovate or 
roundish at the base, under surface villous as well as the peti- 
oles, branches, peduncles, and calyx ; leaflets connected beyond 
the middle, oval, obtuse, 3-nerved ; peduncles 2-flowered, leaf- 
opposed; pedicels each with 3 bracteas at the base; calyx 
spathaceous, 5-toothed ; petals oval ; stamens all fertile ; le- 
gumes flat, lanceolate, 5-6-seeded ; flowers large, pale sulphur ; 
one petal usually with a dark purple spot inside. FL July — 
August— TT. & A. Prod, i. 295,— Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii 323.— 
Rheede, L t. 35. Malabar. Coix)mandeL Oude. 



74 BAUHINTA. 

Medical Uses. — ^The native doctors administer the dried leaves 
and young flowers in dysenteric affections, and a decoction of the 
bark of the root is given in cases of liver and phlegmatic complaints, 
and also as a vermifuge. The bruised bark is also occasionally ap- 
plied to tumours and wounds. — (Ainslie. Rheede,) The leaves of 
several species of Bauhinia are used in Bengal as demulcent or muci- 
laginous remedies in dysentery. The seeds are eaten, and are said to 
be tonic and aphrodisiac. — PowelVs PunJ. Prod, 



(97) Bauhinia Vahlil (W. ^ A,) Do. 

Mahwal, Hind. Adda^ Tel. 

Description. — Shrub, climbing to aii immense extent; young 
8hoots,petioles, peduncles, and tendrils covered with thick rusty- 
eoloured tomentum; leaves roundish, deeply cordate at the 
base, upper side nearly glabrous, under tomentose; leaflets 
oval, obtuse, united to a little above the middle, 4-6 nerved ; 
nerves covered with rusty tomentum ; tendrils opposite, below 
the leaves, spiral; racemes terminal, corymbiform; pedicels 
elongated, and with the calyx densely villous; calyx ovate, 
splitting to the base of the limb into two reflexed segments ; 
petals densely clothed on the back with silky hairs, the three 
upper a little larger than the others ; fertile stamens 3, villous 
at the base ; ovary densely villous, its stalk cohering on one 
side with the calyx tube; legumes pendulous, long, linear, 
compressed, 8-12 seeded; flowers largish, white, gradually be- 
coming cream-coloured. FL March — ^April. — W, & A. Prod. i. 

297. B. racemosa, Vahl. — Eoxb. Flor. Ind, ii 325. Circars. 

Bengal 

Economic Uses. — ^This is one of the largest of the Bauhinias, and 
a native of alpine districts. The large leaves are nearly a foot in 
diameter, and are collected in the northern districts of the Circars, 
and sold in the bazaars for various purposes, such as plates and pack- 
ages. The seeds are eaten raw when ripe, tasting like cashew-nuts. 
The flowers hang down in elegant festoons, and the branches are 
very extensive, j&rom 100 to 300 feet long, climbing over the highest 
trees. Hopes are made ^m the bark ; the natives boil and then 
beat it, which makes it soft and pliable. It will, however, rot if 
kept too long in the water. The ropes have been occasionally used 
for suspension-bridges over the mountain-torrents in the Himalayan 
valleys. — Royle^ Fib. Plants. Moxb. 



BAUHINIA — BEESHA. 75 

(98) Batihinia variegata (Linn.) Do. 

Chovaima Mandaree, Mal. Sona, Hind. 

Dbscjription. — Tree, 20-30 feet ; tmanned; leaves roundish, 
upper side glabrous, under when young villous, cordate at 
the base ; leaflets oval, obtuse, 5-nerved, united far beyond the 
middle ; petals oblong, nearly sessile, the upper one somewhat 
larger and on a rather longer claw th£Ln the others ; fertile 
stamens 5, all shortly united at the base ; racemes axillary 
and terminal ; calyx spathaceous, 5-toothed at the apex ; leg- 
umes straight, 5-12 seeded. Fl. Feb. — March. — W. & A. Prod. 
I 296.— Meede, i t 32, 33. 

The two varieties are : — 

a — B. purpurascens — Bukhta-kanchun, Beedul, Beno. — four 
petals reddish and varied with purple ; the fifth varie- 
gated with purple, brown, and yellow — ^B. purpurea, 

JjTo/i— B. variegata, Boaib. Fl. Ind. ii. 319. Malabar. 

CoromandeL 

b — B. Candida — Kana-raj, Benq. — four petals whitish; the 
fifth variegated on the inner side, with yeUow and 

green. Boxb. FL Ind. ii. 318. Bengal Malabar. 

Oude. 

Medical Uses. — ^The bark is astringent, and used as a tonic in 
fevers. The natives reckon the dried buds astnngent, and useful 
in diarrhcea and woims. — PowdVs Punj. Prod. 

Economic Uses. — The buds are eaten as vegetables when pre- 
pared with animal food. The astringent bark is used for tanning 
and dyeing purposes. — Boxb. 

(99) Beesha Bheedii (Kunth). K. 0. Grahinace^. 

Beesha, Mal. Bish-bansh, Beng. 

Description. — Unarmed; leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate, 
bifarious, smooth on both sides ; sheaths villous, bearded at the 
mouth; pericarp a large, fleshy, conical-curved and pointed 
fruit, with a single oval seed in each. M. July — Sept. — Boaib. 
Fl. Ind. ii. 197. — Bambusa baccifera, Kimth. — Boxb. Cor. iiL 

1 243. — Bheede, v. t. 60. Peninsula. Chittagong mountains. 

Malabar. 

EcoNOXio Uses. — Indigenous to the mountains in Chittagong^ 



76 BERBERIS. 

where it is called Paga-tullu. It bears no thorns, and is, moreover, 
remarkable for its large pendulous pericarp. Pierard, quoted by 
Eozburgh, says that this bamboo is in common use in the country 
where it grows, for every purpose of building. " It grows in dry- 
places chiefly on the sides of hills, where the upper stratum of the 
soil is sandy. The circumference near the base is 12-13 inches, the 
height &om 50 to 70 feet, beautifully erect, and -Without the least 
flexure or inequality of surface, bare of branches, except near the 
extremity. Perishes after yielding its fruit. It yields more or less 
of the Tabasheer of a siliceous crystallisation ; sometimes it ia said 
the cavity is nearly filled with this, which the people called * chuna, 
or lime.' '' The natives make arrows and bows from the stems, and 
pwis from the younger shoots. — (Roxb.) The native name is pro- 
noimced Vay or Vaysha. It is very common on the Travancore 
hills, growing also in the low country. The leaves are often put 
on verandahs and roofs of houses to keep away the white ants, and 
for this purpose the most effectual and simple remedy known where 
the plants are common. — Pers, Obs. 

(100) BerberiB lyciuxn (Eoyle). X. 0. EERBEiuDKfi. 

Raisin Berberry, Enq. 

Descbiption. — Shrub, 6-8 feet; spines trifid or simple; leaves 
oval, cuueated or elliptical, mucronate, smooth, under surface, 
glaucous, entire or spinulosely toothed ; racemes short, many- 
flowered, corymbose, shorter than the leaves ; pedicels elon- 
gated, 1-flowered; berries purplish; flowers small, yellow. FL 
May — June. Nepaul. Kumaon. 

Medical Uses. — This plant is distinguished from other species by 
the very short racemes of its flowers. The fruit is oblong, purplish 
or pinkish, wrinkled and covered with bloom like that of the best 
raisins. Among many conflicting opinions of botanists it becomes 
difficult to identify the several described species of Berberis. It has 
now been definitively settled by Dr Royle that this is the Lyeium 
Indicum of Dioscorides, over which much doubt has hung for a long 
period. The medicine it yields is of the highest antiquity, and has 
been known to the Hindoos from very early ages. The most cele- 
brated part is the extract called Rusot, which is prepared by digest- 
ing in water pieces of the root, stem, and branches. This is 
frequently employed as a remedy in ophthalmia, especially useful 
after the acute symptoms have subsided. Some say that it is one 
of the best applications ever used in that complaint The tincture, 
which is also prepared from the bark of the root, is recommended as 
preferable to the extract. It \a very bitter, yielding a principle 
called Berberine, As a medicine it is reckoned exceedingly valu- 
able, and is easily prepared where the plant is indigenous. Accord- 



BERBERIS. V7 

ing to Dr O'Shaughnessy, the medicine is best administered as a 
febrifuge, promoting digestion and acting as a gentle but certain 
aperient. In ague and remittent fevers, it is peculiarly useful, and 
by some it is reckoned only second to quinine, externally either 
alone or with equal parts of alum and opium mixed up in water and 
applied round the eye. The B. lycium is found at a lower elevation 
(viz. at 3000 feet) than any of the other species, and therefore may 
be acclimated in the plains. 

All the species of Berberry are supposed to possess similar pro- 
perties in a greater or less degree. There has been much confusion 
in arranging them, but the following may perhaps be enumerated as 
distinct plants : — 

B. aristata. — Spines very stiff and three parted ; leaves oblong or 
oblong-lanceolate, nearly entire or toothed, sometimes deeply 
or coarsely veined; flowers in long loose slender racemes. 

Common in Northern India, distinguished by its slender 

pendulous or erect racemes of flowers, longer than the leaves, 
and not cor3rmbose. 

B. Sinensis. — Spines 3-5 or more ; leaves lanceolate, very acute, 
much netted, entire, or regularly toothed ; flowers numerous, 

in drooping racemes not much longer than the leaves. 

Found in Northern India and China. — ^Berries are said to be 
dark purple. 

B. Wallichiana. — Spines long, slender, 3 -parted; leaves oblong- 
lanceolate, deep green, sharp-pointed, finely serrated; flowers 

very numerous, in clusters shorter than the leaves. ^Native 

of Nepaul at very high elevations. 

B. Nepaulensis. — Leaves 3-5 pairs, ovate ; leaflets spiny, toothed ; 

racemes upright, slender, elongated ; fruit bluish purple. 

Native of mountainous parts in Northern India, growing 10- 
12 feet high at 8000 feet elevations. Said to be one of the 
finest of the species. It differs very little from B. Leschen- 
aultii. — (W. ^ A. Prod, L 16.) — Royle, Loudon, Indian 
Ann, of Med, Science, 

(101) Berberis tinctoria (Leech.) Do. 

Dyei's Berberry, Enq. 

Description. — Shrub, 6-10 feet; leaves simple, oboval, en- 
tire, or with distant, small, spiny teeth, glaucous, with the 
principal veins and nerves prominent beneath, but not above ; 
racemes stalked, longer than the leaves; pedicels slender; 
petals 6, distinctly biglandular; sepals 5, spines deeply divided 
into three sharp rigid segments ; flowers yellow ; berries 2-3 

seeded, FL Jan. — April — W. & A. Prod, i, 16. Neil- 

gherries. Pulney mountains. 



78 BEHaERA. 

EooNOMio TJsBS. — ^Thifl species of Berbeny, fotind on the l^eil- 
glienies, serves, as the name implies, for dyeing a yellow colour. 
The roots contain 17 per cent of nseful colouring matter. Accord- 
ing to Leschenault, who had the wood analysed, it contained the 
yellow colouring principle in a greater state of purity than the 
common English Berberry. According to recent investigations, this, 
species is identical with the B. arifftata.-^Dee.) It ranges on the 
mountains of India from the Himalaya to the Neilgherries, and to 
Newera Ellia in Ceylon. It is a handsome and ornamental shrub, 
remarkable for its fine large compound racemes of flowers ; the fruit 
is of an oblong shape and brownish-purple colour, with little or no 
bloom. It is very distinct from other species, and grows quickly. 
The root and wood are of a dark yellow colour, and form the yellow 
wood of Persian .authors. In Kepaul the fruit of this .species is 
dried like raisins. — Wight, Loudon, Joum, Agri, Hort, SoCy iii. 
272. 



(102) Bergera Kosnigii (Keen,) K 0. Aurantiace^e. 

Carry-leaf-tree, Eno. Kari-bepon, Earreya-pela, Mal. Carroova-pOlay, Tak. 
Kari-yepa, Tsu Earay-paak, Hind, fiorsunga, Bsmg. 

Description. — Small tree with pinnate leaves; leaflets 
alternate, ovate, acuminate, pubescent, somewhat serrated; 
panicles corymbiform, terminal ; calyx 5-cleft ; petals 5, 
spreading; berry 1-celled, 1-seeded; flowers small, whita 
Fl. April— July.— IT. & A, Prod, i 94.— jBoajJ. Fl Ind. ii. 
376. — Cor. ii. t 112. — Bheede, iv. t 53. — Murraya Kcenigii, 
Sprerig, Circar mountains. Malabar. Cultivated in gar- 
dens. 

Medical Uses. — The root is laxative, and both bark and roots 
are stimulant, and are used externally as remedies in eruptions, and 
in infusion to check vomitings in cholera. It is used for bites of 
poisonous animals, the tender leaves being boiled in milk, bruised, 
and applied as a poultice to the parts affected. The fresh leaves are 
eaten raw in dysentery. The pulp of the fruit gives out a kind of 
white juice, which blackens the skin like walnuts. — Ainslie, 

Economic Uses. — The natives put the leaves of this tree in their 
curries, to which they impart an agreeable flavour. When rubbed 
together they emit a pleasant aromatic smell. They retain their 
flavour when dried, and are sold in that state in the bazaars. The 
wood is hard and durable, and is used for implements of husbandry. 
A yellow, clear, and transparent oil is procured from the seeds, kndwn 
as the Limbolee oil. — Boxb, 



BIGNONIA — ^BIXA. 79 

(103) Bignonia snberosa (Eoxh.) K 0. BiGNONiAciBJs. 

Indian Ck)rk-tree, "Esq. 

Desctription. — ^Tree, 40-50 feet ; leaves opposite, supra-de- 
compound ; leaflets acuminated, sub-cordate, entire ; panicles 
terminal, with horizontal ramifications, the first trichotomous, 
then dichotomous, with generally a simple flower in the fork ; 
flowers numerous, large, pure white, fragrant. FL June — ^Aug. 
— Boxb. FL Ind, iii. 111. Tanjore. Courtallum. Madras. 

Economic TJsBa — ^The wood is white, firm, and close-grained. The 
bark is very spongy, yielding an inferior kind of cork. The tree 
grows rapidly, is handsome and ornamental, and well adapted for 
avenues and plantations. — (jRoxb. Jury Reports, Mad, FxJdb.) 
The B, xylocarpa is a large but common tree in almost all the 
Madras forests, as well as in Mysore, Bengal, and Bombay. It 
grows rapidly. It is called Vadenoami in Tamil The wood is 
brownish yellow, rather close-grained, takes a good pohsh, and is 
used for cabinet purposes. — Bedd,^ Fl, Sylv,, t 70. 

(104) Biza OreUana (Linn.) K 0. Bixikels. 

Arnotto-tree, Eno. Konmgoomimga, Mal. Jafia, Tel. Kooragoomangjul, 
Tail Gawpurgee, Hiin). 

Desoeiption. — Tree, 30 feet; leaves cordate-ovate, acumi- 
nated, entire or angular, smooth on both surfaces ; sepals 5, 
orbicular ; petals 5, capsule 2-valved, prickly on the outside ; 
seeds 8-10 attached to each placenta, surrounded by a red 
pulp; corymbs terminal, panicled; peduncles 2-4 flowered; 
flowers pale peach-coloured, or white. Fl. May — ^Aug. — W. 

& A. Prod. i. 31. — Roxb. Fl, Ind. iL 581. Travancore. 

Bengal. Mysore. 

Medical Uses. — ^The pulp surromiding the seeds is astringent 
and slightly purgative, and is esteemed a good antidote in dysentery 
and diseases of &e kidneys. — (Moxb.) The seeds are cordial, astrin- 
gent, and febrifdgal, and the red pulp is a supposed antidote to the 
Mandioc poison. — lAndley. 

Economic Uses. — ^A valuable dye known as the Amotto dye is 
produced from the pulp surrounding the seeds of this plant. It is 
prepared by macerating the pods in boiling water, extracting the 
seeds, and leaving the pidp to subside ; the fluid being subsequently 
thrown ofll The residuum, with which oil is sometimes mixed, is 
placed in shallow vessels and dried in the shade. When properly 
made it should be of a bright yellow colour. It imparts a deep 



80 BLUMEA. 

orange tinge to silk and cotton, and is used by the dyers for that 
purpose. The Spanish Americans mix it with their chocolate. In 
this country the dye prepared is of a pale rose-colour. The cloth is 
prepared by first being soaked in strong alum-water ; the colour is 
then suspended in butter-milk, into which the cloth is dipped and 
charged with the colour. The dye is not very durable, and requires 
to be renewed from time to time; and that of the Indian variety is 
inferior to that of the West Indian plant. Mixed with lemon-juice 
and gum, it makes the paint with which the American Indians 
adorn their persons. The same people produce fire by the friction 
of two pieces of the wood. Cordage is made from the bark in the 
West Indies. 

Several specimens of the Amotto dye were sent to the Madras 
Exhibition. It is soluble in alkalies, by which means it is fixed to 
silk or wooL In Europe it is frequently used to impart a tinge to 
butter, cheese, oils, and vamisL The article is chiefly prepared and 
exported from South America to Europe. Dr Ure, in his * Dictionary 
of Arts,' has given a long account of the process of manufacture in 
the West Indies, part of which is here subjoined. " The substanxse 
thus extracted is passed through sieves, in order to separate the re- 
mainder of the seeds, and the colour is allowed te subside. The pre- 
cipitate is boiled in coppers till it be reduced to a consistent paste ; 
it is then suffered to cool, and be dried in the shade. Instead of 
this long and painful labour, which occasions diseases by the putre- 
faction induced, and which affords a spoiled product, Leblond pro- 
poses simply to wash the seeds of Amotto till they be entirely 
deprived of their colour, which lies wholly on their suiface ; to pre- 
cipitate the colour by means of vinegar or lemon-juice, and to boil it 
up in the ordinary manner, or to drain it in bags, as is practised 
with Indigo. 

" The experiments which Vauquelin made on the seeds of Amotto 
imported by Leblond, confirmed the efficacy of the process which he 
proposed ; and the dyers ascertained that the Amotto obtained in 
this manner was worth at least four times more than that of com- 
merce ; that, moreover, it was more easily employed, that it required 
less solvents, that it gave less trouble in the copper, and furnished 
a purer colour." 

The plant is cultivated in Mysore and the northern parts of 
India. There is a large importation, about 3,000,000 lb. per 
annum, for home consumption, chiefly from South America. In 
Ix>ndon the value is about a shilling a pound. — Eoxb. Simmonds. 
Ure, 



(105) Blnmea balsamifera (Dec,) K 0. Compobitjs. 

Description.— Stem suffmticose at the base, branches woolly- 
villous ; leaves oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, duplicato-dentate, 



BOEHMEHIA. 81 

villous above, silky-villous beneath, the veins wrinkled, lobes 
linear-lanceolate, appendiculate ; corymb sub-panicled, divari- 
cate ; involucral scales linear, acute, hirsute ; flowers small, 
yellow. FL Feb. — March. — Dec, Prod. v. p. 447. — Conyza 
balsamifera, Linn. — C. odorata, Rumph. — Baccharis salvia^ 
Lour. Concana Assam. 

Medical Uses. — ^This plant, which inhabits the Moluccas and 
Ceylon as well as India, possesses a strong camphoiaoeous odour and 
pungent taste. A wann infusion of the plant {Horsf. As. Joum^ 
viiL 272) acts as a powerful sudorific, and is in very general use 
among the Javanese and Chinese as an expectorant. It has also 
been repeatedly employed in catarrhal affections. Loureiro {Flor, 
Coch., p. 603) mentions its use in Cochin China as a stomachic^ 
antispasmodic, and emmenagogae« — PTiarm. of India. 

(106) Boehmeria nivea (Hook. ^ Arn.) K. O. tfRTicACEii!. 

China grass, Eng. 

Description. — ^Perennial, herbaceous; leaves large, alter- 
nate, of equal shape, broadly ovate or elliptic-rounded, acumi- 
nate, cordate at the base, or more often shortly cuneate near 
the petiole, more seldom alternate or truncated at the base, 
crenato - serrate, snowy - tomentose beneath, scabrous above; 
stipules free; glomerules loosely cymose-panicled ; fructifer- 
ous perigonium elliptic or oblong-compressed, hairy. Hook. 
<k Am. Bot Voy. Beech, p. 214. — Dec. Prod. xvi. s. p. 206. — 
Urtica nivea, Linn.^—Hook. Joum. Bot 1851, t 8. — B. Candi- 
cansj (var.) — Urtica candicans, Burm. — U. tenacissima, Itoxb* 
— Wight Icon. t. 688. Cultivated. 

Economic Uses. — ^The fibres of the batk are second to none in 
strength and beauty. They are used throughout the East for making 
textile fabrics. The plant is very easy of cultivation, and of most 
luxuriant and rapid vegetation, throwing up numerous shoots, which 
may be cut and will be renewed three or four times in the course of 
the year. Its stem would become ligneous and covered with brown 
bark if suffered to attain its full growth, while it would throw out 
many branches ; but the young shoots are those which are used, and 
on the stem being cut down niunerous straight ^mple shoots spring 
up from one to eight feet, according to the season, quality of the 
soil, and other circumstances. — iMnkester, Veg. Subst. 

The Indo-Chinese prepare the Eheea fibre as follows : The plant 
is fit for cutting when the stems become of a brown colour for about 
six inches upwards from the root. In order to strip off the bark and 

6 



82 BOERUAVIA. 

fibie, the operator holda the stalk in both hands nearly in the 
middle, and, pressing the fore-finger and thumb of both hands firmly, 
gives it a peculiar twist, by which the inner pith is broken ; and then, 
passing the fingers of his right and left hand alternately towards each 
end, the bark and fibre are completely separated from the stalk in two 
strands. The strands of bark and fibre are then made up into bundles 
of convenient size, tied at the smaller end with a shred of fibre, and 
put into clean water for a few hours, which probably deprives the 
plant of its tannin or colounng matter, the water becoming quite 
red in a short time. The deaning process is as follows : The 
bundles are put on a hook fastened in a post by means of the tie at 
the smaller end, at a convenient height for the operator, who takes 
each strand of the larger end separately in his left hand, passes the 
thumb of his right hand quickly along the inner side, by which 
operation the outer bark is completely separated from the fibre, and 
the ribbon of fibre is then thoroughly cleaned by two or three 
scrapings with a small knife. This completes the operation, with 
some loss, however — say one-fifth ; and if quickly dried in the sun, 
it might at once be made up for exportation ; but the appearance of 
the fibre is much improved by exposure (immediately after cleaning) 
on the grass to a night's heavy dew in September or October, or a 
shower of rain during the rainy season. From its great value, if 
any other cheaper method of preparation could be discovered, it 
would undersell all other fibre& 

(107) Boerhavia diftasa (Linn,) K 0. Ntctaoikacea. 

Spreading Hoe-weed, Eno. Mookaretti, Tam. Ataka-Mamidi, Tel. Tameer- 
ama, Taludama, Mal. Tikri, Hind. Gada-pooma, Swhet-pooma, Bemq. 

DfiSCEimoN. — Low creeping plant with many diffused 
stalks, about two feet long ; flowers pale rose-coloured, much 
scattered on long branching peduncles from the axils and at 
the end of the branches ; seeds brown, oblong, striated, very 
rough ; leaves ovate, rather roundish, bright green above, 
whitish below ; sometimes curled at tlie edges. FL All the 
year. — Boaib. Fl. Ind. i 146. — Bheede, vii t 56. — Wight Icon. 
t. 874. CoTomandeL Travancore. India generally. 

Medical Uses. — Of this troublesome weed, which is common in 
all parts of India, there are two varieties— one with white, the other 
with rose-coloured flowers. The root is given in powder as a laxa- 
tive, and in infusion as a vermifuge. The taste is slightly bitter and 
nauseous. In Jamaica the leaves are given to hogs, whence the 
English name. — {Ainslie.) It has been found a good expectorant, 
and been prescribed in asthma with marked success, given in the 
form of powder, decoction, and infusion. Taken largely, it acts as 
an emetic. — Pharm. of India, 



B0RAS8US. 83 

(108) Borassns flabeUiformis (Linm) N. 0. Palkacejb. 

Palmyra Palm, Ev<l. Pana, Mal. Pannei, Tam. Tadi, Tbl. Talgachh, Bbng. 
and HiMD. Tala, Baits. 

Description.— Trunk, 30-40 feet, .everywhere marked with 
old cicatrices of fallen leaves; fronds composed of several 
folded linear-lanceolate divisions united as far as the centre ; 
flowers male and female on different trees ; drupe subglobular, 
flattened at the apex, filled with soft yellow pulp ; nuts 3, 
perforated at the apex. — Lontarus domestica, Burwph. — Boob. 

Car. i t. 71.— Fl. Ind. iiL 790.— Eheede, i t. 9, 10. Com- 

mon in the Peninsula. 

Medioal Uses. — ^The saccharine juice obtained by exdsion from 
the spadix or young flowering-branch is, when freshly drawn before 
sunrise, of a pleasant sweet taste, and if taken in doses of a tumbler- 
ful every morning acts as a laxative. After fermentation has com- 
menced, it becomes converted into arrack, one of the intoxicating 
drinks of the country. A useful stimulant application, called Toddy 
Poultice, is prepared by adding fi^esh drawn toddy to rice-flour till 
it has the consistence of a soft poultice ; and this being subjected to 
a gentle fire, fermentation takes place. This, spread on a doth and 
applied to the parts, acts as a valuable stimulant application to 
gangrenous ulcerations, carbuncles, and indolent ulcers. The light- 
brown cotton-like substance from the outside of the base of the 
fix>nds is employed as a styptic for aiiesting haemorrhage from super- 
ficial wounds. — Pharm, of India. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — ^This palm is most extensively distributed over 
the continent of India, especially near the sea-coast. Sir W. Jones 
said that it was justly styled the king of its order among those 
which the Hindoos call grass-trees. Its uses are manifold, the best 
known among which is the fermented liquor called toddy, and this 
constitutes its chief value to the native inhabitants. The mode of 
procuring the vinous sap is as follows : The spadix or young 
flowering-branch is cut off near the top, and an earthen chatty or 
pitcher fiien tied on to the stump ; into this the juice runs. Every 
morning it is emptied and replaced, the stump being again cut, the 
vessel placed as before, and so on, until the whole has been gradually 
exhausted and cut away. It is known in Tamil as the Pannung- 
khulloo. It is from this liquor that sugar is extracted, and by the 
same process as that described for procuring the toddy, except that 
the inside of the earthen vessel or receiver is powdered with chunam, 
which prevents any fermentation ; the juice is then boiled down, and 
dried by exposure. Some few trees that from unknown causes do 
not flower in spring, put out their flowers in the cold season, and 
give a scanty supply ; but in spring many are rendered artificially 



84 BOSWELLIA. 

barren by breaking off the flowering-bud as it begins to form. These 
also flower in the winter season, and are called Basanti They do 
not give abore 2^ maunds of juice, but this is of as much value as 
the 6 maunds which a tree gives in spring. Either the male or 
female will answer for the spring or winter crop, but the female 
alone will yield juice in the rainy season. When this is wanted, 
the fruit is allowed to form, and afterwards the point of the spadix 
or stem which supports the clusters is cut and allowed to bleed. 
This does not prevent a great many fruit on each cluster from coming 
to maturity. Palms managed thus are called Ghour. The fruit 
ripens in August^ but many of the stems continue to bleed until 
October. A coleopterous insect often attacks the heart of this tree, 
and occasions it to languish. The remedy is to cut a hole about six 
inches long and two wide entirely through the middle of the «tem, 
and four or five feet from the ground. The stem is found hollow, 
and a great deal of rubbish like sawdust faUs out, but the palm soon 
recovers. The insect probably undergoes a change, and comes out 
by the hole. The coarse sugar is called Jaggery ; and in Tamil, 
Karepootee. It is used for medicinal purposes, as well as for sweet- 
ening drinkSi The pulpy matter surrounding the fresh seeds is 
cooling and pleasant to the taste, but after they ripen it becomes 
insipid. The stems when old become very hard, and are capable of 
taking a fine polish^ being used for bows, &c. For house-building 
and various domestic purposes, the timber is the most generally used 
of the palm tribei It is used chiefly for rafters, joists, and reapers, 
protected from moisture, and esteemed especially when of good age. 
For this purpose the trunk is split into 4 for rafters, into 8 for 
reapers, and these are dressed with an adze. From the structure of 
the fibres, it splits easily in the direction of its length, but supports 
a greater cross-strain than any other wood ; iron nails, however, will 
rust rapidly in it. The fruits and fusiform roots are used as food by 
the poorer classes in the N. Circars ; the leaves are used for writing 
on. They are also employed for thatching houses and making 
baskets, mats, umbrellas, and fans. Strong and durable fibres are 
produced from the petioles of the fronds. — Boxb. Ldnd, Ainsl. 
Jury Rep, Mad, Ezhib, 



(109) BosweUia glabra (Roxh.) N. 0. T^REfiiNT&Acfi^. 

Koonthrekum, Mal. Ooogoola, Tkl. Koondicnim, Tam. 

Description. — Tall erect tree covered with greenish ash- 
coloured bark; leaves alternate, unequally pinnate, at the 
extremities of the brancblets ; leaflets 6-10 pairs, opposite, 
broadly lanceolate^ obtuse, serrated, glabrous ; flowers numer- 
ous, on short pedicels, small, white ; calyx small, 5-toothed ; 
petals 5 ; capsule 3-angled, 3-celled, 3-valved ; seeds solitary. 



BOSWELLIA. 85 

surrounded by a membranaceous wing ; racemes simple, teiv 
minal, fascicled, shorter than the leaves. FL March — ^April. 
— W, & A. Prod. L 174.— iZocJ. Flor, Ind. ii 384— Con 
iii. t 207. Coromandel mountains. Peccan, 

Medical Uses. — This tree yields a fragrant resinous substance 
known as Koondricum, It is bitter and pungent, and is soluble in 
ether and spirits of wine. Eesin exudes from wounds in the bark. 
It soon becomes hard and brittle, and is often used, when bpiled 
with oil; as a substitute for pitch, and called Googul by the Telin- 
gies. Mixed with ghee, the native doctors prescribe it in gonorrhoea 
and other complaints. The resin is much buri)t as an incense in 
the religious ceremonies of the Hindoos. Mixed with lime-juice or 
cocoa-nut oil, it is applied as a plaster in cutaneous affections, as well 
as in cases of ulcers and bad wounds. — (Ainslie. Eoxb.) The resin 
both of this and the following species is employed as an incense in 
India, and both might be much more extensively collected than 
they are at present, as there is reason to beheve that Central India 
alone furnishes the greatest portion of the Indian olibanum of com- 
merce, as it is chiefly exported from Bembay. — (Boyle,) There are 
extensive tracts of Googalam jungles in Goomsur and Cuttack pro- 
vinces. The Khoonds and Woodias living in or near these jungles 
wound the trees in several places. The resin flows out, and is 
collected when sufficiently solid. The dammer collected from the 
decayed parts of the tree is of a dark colour. The Khoonds and 
Uryas make the leaves into the plates from off which they eat 
their food, and also roll up tobacco in them to smoke like a 
cheroot. In times of flEumine the above tribes live on a soup made 
from the fruit of the tree. — Be^, Mad, EaMb, 



(110) Boswellia thnrifera {Bjoxb.) Do, 

Salai, Beno. Luban, Hnrp. 

Descbiption. — Large tree ; .leaves unequally pinnated ; 
leaflets oblong, obtuse, serrated, pubescent ; racemes axillary, 
single, shorter than the leaves ; calyx 5-toothed ; petals 6 ; 
flowers small, white ; seeds solitary, with a winged membrane; 
capsule 3-angled. Fl March — April. — W. & A. Prod. i. 174. 
— Eoah. Fl, Ind, ii, 383. ^-^ — Mountains of OoromandeL 
Belgaum. 

Economic Uses. — ^This is a large tree, affording good timber. 
Colebrooke, in the Asiatic Eesearches, has identified the olibanum 
or frankincense of the ancients with the balsamic gum-resin which 
it produces. It is called Koondooroo, or Ghundurus, or Cundun, in 



86 BRAGANTIA. 

Bengal For a long time this substance was supposed to have been 
produced by various species of junipers, and this opinion is held 
to this day by some ; but it is known that the conifersB, to which 
family the junipers belong, yield pure resin only, but not gum-resin. 
Of the present olibanum there are two varieties, one of which is far 
inferior to the other. The best is found in pieces as large as a wal- 
nut, of a high yellowish colour, inclining to red or brown, covered 
on the outside with a white powder, the whole becoming a whitish 
powder when pounded. It bums with a clear and steady light, not 
easily extinguished, and diffuses a pleasant fragrance. In taste it is 
slightly bitter, and not perfectly soluble in water or alcohoL It is 
seldom used in medicine, but has astringent and stimulant properties. 
The incense burnt in Roman Catholic churches is the produce of 
this tree. — Colebr. in As. Res,, ix. 377. Bozb, Ainslie, 

Dr Eoyle says, *^ The Salai or Saleh of the Hindoos is common 
in Central India and Bundlecund, where I have seen it, especially 
about the Bisrumgunge Ghaut. It is probably also produced by 
the B. glabra, which has the same native name, and, though ex- 
tending to a more' northern latitude, is distributed over many of the 
same localities. It is common on the lulls above Mohun Chowkee, 
where I have collected some very clear, pure, and fragrant resin, 
which bums rapidly away with a bright light, dijQTusing a pleasant 
odour." — (Royle,) The timber both of this and the preceding species 
is hardy heavy, and durable. — Boxb, 



(111) Bragantia Wallichii (R Br,) K 0. Aristolochuce^. 

Alpam, Mal. 

Desceiption. — Shrub ; leaves alternate, oblong, lanceolate ; 
3-nerved at the base ; tube of the perianth smooth, lobes of 
the limb acutish; anther 9, S-adelphous, united by threes; 
male pistil very short, stigmas, 9 radiating, united at the base, 
three of them bifid ; fruit terete. — W. & A. in Ed. Phil Jour. 

1S32.— Wight Icon. ii. t 520.— Eheede, vi. t 28 S. Con- 

cans. Wynaad. Travancore. 

Mbdical Usb& — ^This is by no means a common plant, and would 
appear to be peculiar to the western coast. The whole plant, mixed 
with oil and reduced to an ointment, is said to be very efficacious 
in the treatment of psora or inveterate ulcers. Like other plants 
belonging to the same natural order, it is supposed to have virtues 
in the cure of snake-bites. The juice of the leaves, mixed with the 
Vussumboo root, the root itself rubbed up with lime-juice, and made 
into a poultice and externally applied, are the chief modes of ad- 
ministering it among the natives. 

Bartolomeo, in his * Voyage to the East Indies,' says, " The only 



BRIDELIA — ^BRYONIA. 87 

Malabar plant which I can with certainty call an antidote to poison 
is a shrub about thiee or four feet in height, named Alpam. The 
root is pounded, and administered in warm water to those who have 
been poisoned. A Malabar proverb says, 'Alpam agatta, Yeszam 
poratta' " — As soon as the Alpam root enteis the body, poison leaves 
it — Bheede, BartolomeOy Voy. to East Indies, Wight ^ Am, in 
Ed. Phil. Jour. 1832. 

(112) Bridelia spinoia {WiUd.) N. 0. Euphobbiaok& 

MooUoo-Tengay, Tax. If oolbo-Tangay, Mal. CoTBinan, Tkl. Bdd, Duk. 

Description. — Tree, 30-40 feet; bark scabrous; branches 
numerous, spreading ; thorns large, few, chiefly on the large 
branches ; leaves oblong, alternate, pointed, entire, with con- 
spicuous parallel veins running from centre to circumference ; 
spikes axillary or terminal ; flowers aggregate, small, greenish 
yellow, males and females together. Fl. July— Oct — Boocb. 
Fl. Ind. iii. 735. — Cluytia spinosa, Roocb. Cor. ii t. 172. — 
Wight Icon. 1 1905. Circars. Assam. Travancore. 

EooNomo Uses. — The bark is a strong astringent^ and the wood 
dark-coloured, hard, and durable. Cattle are fond of the leaves, 
which are said to free them from intestinal worms. — Roxb. 

(113) Bryonia callosa {RoUl.) N. 0. Cuourbitacea. 

Toomutti, Tam. Boddama, Tel. 

Description. — Climbing shrub, spreading; stem filiform, 
furrowed, rough vrith bristly hairs ; leaves on long petioles, 
cordate, 3-5 lobed, roundish, toothed, scabrous, and hispid on 
the veins below; berries globose, largish, smooth; flowers 
yellow. — BotUer ap. Aindie, ii. 428. Coromandel. 

Mbdioal Uses. — ^The seeds, which are bitter-tasted, are mixed 
with oil, and employed as a vermifuge. They are also occasionally 
used by fEuriers in diseases of horses. They yield a fixed oil by 
boiling, which is used for lamps by the poorer classes. — Ainalie, 

(114) Bryonia epigaa {Rottl) Do. 

Kolnng Kovay, Tam. Akaaagarooda, Tail Bakos, Hnrax 

Description. — Climbing shrub ; stem glabrous, often very 
flexuose at the joints ; tendrils simple ; leaves somewhat 
fleshy on longish petioles, cordate, usually 3-lobed, densely 



88 BRYONIA — BUCHANANU. 

covered on both sides with short bristly hairs ; lobes rounded, 
the lateral ones the broadest, and slightly 2-lobed, all remotely 
and slightly toothed; male flowers shortly racemose at the 
apex of a long thickish peduncle ; calyx campanulate ; females 
short peduncled, solitary, in the same or different axils from 
the males; berry ovate, rostrate, glabrous, few-seeded; seeds 
white, compressed. — W. & A. Prod, i. 346. — B. glabra, Roxb. 
FL Ind. iii 725.-- — Coromandel. 

Medical Uses. — ^The root of this species was once supposed to he 
the famous Calumba root, which it resembles in its medicinal quali- 
ties. It has a bitter sub-acid taste, and is marked on the outside 
with whitish circular rings. It is used as an external application, 
in conjunction with cununin-seeds, onion^, and oastor-oil, as a kind 
of liniment for chronic rheum^tisuL It has also other medicinal 
uses, and is esteemed of special value in dysenteric and long-stand- 
ing venereal coippjainta. The root lives in the air without water, 
and will grow and send forth shoots in that position. — Ainslie, 

The people of the Deccan regard it as a powerful internal and 
local remedy in snake-bites. It is used for similar purposes in 
Mysore. — Pharm of India, 

(115) Bryonia rostrata {RotU.) Do. 

Appakoray, Tam. 

Description. — Climbing ; stem slender, hairy or pubescent ; 
tendrils simple ; leaves on longish petioles, roundish cordate, 
sinuate, toothed, pubescent ; male flowers usually two together, 
pedicelled, on a slender peduncle, longer than the petiole; 
calyx campanulate; female solitary, very shortly peduncled, 
in the same axils with the male, being ovate, rostrate, longi- 
tudinally striated, hairy, 2-6 seeded ; seeds black, compressed, 
with a thin margin. — W. & A, Prod. i. 346. — B. pilosa, Boxb, 
FL Ind, iii. 726. ^Tranquebar. 

Medical Uses. — ^The root, which is small and of a light-grey 
colour, is sweet and mucilaginous to the taste. It is administered 
internally in cases of piles, and, powdered, is sometimes given as a 
demulcent in humoral asthma. The leaves are eaten as greens in 
Southern IndiELT—Ainslie, 

(116) Buchao^nia latifolia (Roxb,) N. 0. Terebinthacks. 

Moneda, Mowda, or Kat Mango Marum, Tah. Piyala, Bkko. Chara puppoe^ Tel. 
Pceyar Cheroonjie, Hind. Gala marum, Mal. »vj^ ^ t/ ''< ^ i 

Descbiption. — Tree, 30 feet ; leaves alternate, entire, broadly 



BUTEA. 89 

oval or obovate, obtuse ; calyx small, obtusely 5-cleft ; petals 
5, sessile recurved ; branches of the panicles hirsute, terminal, 
and axillary, with the flowers crowded, assuming the appear- 
ance of a corymb at the tops of the branches ; fruit a drupe 
with slightly fleshy-red sarcocarp ; nut very hard, 2-valved, 
1-celled ; flowers small, greenish white. Fl, Feb. — March. — 

W, Jk A. Prod. i. 169.— iJoa*. Fl Ind, ii. 385. Mountains 

of Coromandel and Malabar. Belgaum forests. Mysore. 

EcoNOHio Uses. — The wood is used for various purposes. The 
kernels are a general substitute for almonds among the natives. 
They are much esteemed in confectionery, or roasted and eaten with 
milk. The bark is used in tanning. An oil is extracted from the 
seeds, of a pale straw colour, known as the Cheroonjie oil, and also 
a black varnish, similar to that obtained from the nuts of the Seine- 
carpus anacardium and other trees of the same order. Another 
species, the B. lancifolia (Roxh.), grows in Chittagong, the tender 
unripe fruit of which is eaten by the natives in their curries. — (Jury 
Rep, Roxh. lAndley.) The B. angustifolia (Colah Mavuh in Tamil) 
is common in the Trichore forests. The bark is much used on the 
western coast for its adhesive properties, for which purpose it is 
frequently mixed with chunam. An oil exudes from the cut bark, 
used in lamps, and would probably serve as an excellent vamisL — 
Fera, Oha, 

(117) Bntea frondosa (Roxh.) K 0. LEouMmos^ 

Bastard Teak, Eno. Porasum, Tam. Moduga, Tel. PaUuiie, Mal. Palas, 
Hind. Palas, Dhak, Beno. 



DESCRiPTiON.-:-Middle-sized tree ; leaves^ pinnaJelylrifolio- 
late; leaflets large, roundish ovate, rather velvety beneath; 
corolla papilionaceous; racemes simple, many-flowered, lax; 
calyx segments short, slightly acute, several times shorter than 
the tube; corolla densely pubescent; vexillum ovate, acute, 
recurved; keel and alse incurved; legume flat, thin, with a 
large solitary seed at the apex ; flowers in threes, bright scarlet 
Fl. Dec— Feb.— PT. <fe A. Prod. i. 2&\.—Roxb. Cor. L t 21, 

— FL Ind. iii 244. — Erythrina monosperma, Lam. 

Malabar. Circars. 

Medical Uses. — The seeds are reckoned an excellent vermifuge, 
especially with the Mohammedan doctors. English practitioners have 
also testified to their value in this respect. The seeds are first 
soaked in water, the testa removed, and the kernel then dried and 
pulverised. In large doses, however, this medicine is apt to produce 



90 BUTEA. 

vomiting ; and, further, is apt to irritate the kidneys. The pounded 
seeds made into a paste have been found useful in lingworm. The 
inspissated juice obtained from the stem by incision is known as 
the Bengal Kino, and is an efficient substitute for the real kino. 
A similar exudation is yielded by the B. euperba and B, partnflora. 
Both are employed medicinally by the natives, being possessed of 
some efficiency as astringents. — (Fharm, of India.) The flowers 
are used as a fomentation in dysuria. The seeds are considered 
warm purgatives, and are used in fevers, and also as anthelmintics. 
The juice ia used in diarrhoea, pyrosis, and after parturition. — 
{PowelVa Punj, Prod.) The Butea kino is one of the most valuable 
articles of the class to which it belongs. It appears to be one of the 
most useful kinds of gum, and might be supplied to any extent from 
the province of Pegu. — {McClelland,) The exudation of the Butea 
or Pulos kino, when exported to England a few years ago, was recog- 
nised as being ''gummi rubrum astringens" of the old druggists. 
M. Guibert of Paris, to whom some of it had been sent, states his 
opinion in his work on drugs that it is the original kino, which had 
entirely disappeared from commerce, and was once so much valued 
as to be sold for nearly a guinea a-pound. Amherst province can 
furnish almost any quantity of the article, the tree which produces 
it being one of the most common denizens of its forests. — {Mason.) 
The true Pulos goond or Bengal kino is of brittle texture and ruby- 
red colour, &eely soluble in the mouth, inodorous, of excessively 
astringent taste, soluble in water, the solution being of a deep-red 
colour, partially soluble in alcohol, giving a pale tincture. The juice 
is at first very fluid and red, then becomes paler and hardens. Its 
extraction takes place during the hot season. In the ' Dublin Phar- 
macopoeia' the exudation is described as a variety of kino. The 
true kino, however, proceeds from a different source ; but in chemical 
effects and medical propeities both are identicaL The Pulos kino 
is extremely rich in tannic and gallic acids, and contains, moreover, 
arabine and ulnina From this composition, as might be expected, 
it exercises the most powerful astiingent effects. In two or three 
grain doses it is an excellent remedy in many forms of chronic 
diarrhoea; and as an external astringent application it is quite 
unrivalled. — 0' Slumghnessy. 

Economic Uses. — ^This tree, when in flower, has a very striking 

appearance, from the gaudy appearance of its bright scarlet corollas. 

. > ^ Peacock in his * Greece in India ' has remarked that the name of 

V '^i ^ Pe lassi has been^dgrived from this plant. In modem times the 

name of t^lassy, so celebrated in Indian history, is nothing more 

I than Palas or Palasie, the Hindoostanee name for this beautiful tree. 

The natives are very fond of offering the flowers in their temples ; 

and the women, by intertwining the rich scarlet blossoms in their hair, 

assume a very attractive and pleasing appearance. The natives in the 

North-Western Provinces employ the kino for precipitating their 

indigo, and in tanning ; but in !]^gland it is objected to on account 



BUTEA. 91 

of the discoloration it imparts to leather. The lac insects are fre- 
quently found upon the smaller branches and petioles of the tree ; 
but whether the natural juices of its bark contribute to improve the 
red colouring matter of the lac has not been determined. The 
expressed juice of the fresh flowers, und infusion of the dried flowers, 
yield a water-colour brighter than gamboge ; they also yield a fine 
durable yellow lake in a large proportion. The wood of the tree is 
one of tiiose burnt for gunpowder charcoaL Strong ropes are made 
from the fibre of the roots, used immediately after the bark has been 
stripped oflf. — G. Don, Eoxb. Ainslie. 

(118) Butea saperba (Roach.) Do. 

Tigs-modnga, Til. 

Description. — Twining shrub with pinnated 3 foliolate 
leaves ; leaflets roundish, velvety beneath ; racemes simple, 
lax ; pedicels about twice the length of the calyx ; corolla 
papilionaceous ; legumes flat^ compressed, thin, clothed with 
rusty tomentum, with one solitary seed at the apex ; calyx 
segments shortish, acuminate ; vexillum ovate, acute ; flowers 
large, bright scarlet Fl. March. — W, & A. Prod, i 261. — 

JRoxb. Cor. L t. 22. — FL ItujL iil 247. Travancore forests. 

Circar mountains. 

Economic Uses. — ^The red juice which flows from fissures in the 
bark of this creeper is one of the kinds of East Indian kino, and is 
similar in most respects to that procured from the B. frondosa. The 
flowers are in like manner used for dyeing yellow, and for preparing 
a yellow pigment. Strong ropes are made from the roots of both 
species, used as cordage, and for agricultural purposes. The colour 
of the kino is ruby red, brittle and transparent, consisting of small 
roimd tears. It becomes opaque and dark-coloured after keeping. 
Exposed to heat, it ignites. It imparts a fine red colour to water, 
the interior only dissolving. In hot water the entire will dissolve. 
The exudation should be collected when fresh and only just harden- 
ing, as being then far more applicable to useful purposes than when 
after exposure to the air. It is soluble in alcohol, but far less than 
in water ; also in ether slightly. It contains a lajrge proportion of 
tannin, which might render it useful in the arts and in tanning 
leather, especially for thick hides. — iSoUy in As. Researches. Ainslie, 
Royle. 



92 



G 

(119) Csesalpinia coriaria (Willd,) K. 0. Leouminosjs. 

American Sumach, Divi-divi or Dibi-dibi, Enq. 

Description. — Tree, 25-30 feet, unarmed ; leaves bipinnate ; 
pinnee 6-7 pairs ; leaflets 15-20 pairs, linear, obtuse; racemes 
panicled ; pedicels shorter than the flowers ; calyx cup-shaped 
at the base, 5-lobed ; petals 5, unequal, upper one shorter than 
the rest; legume oblong, incurved laterally; flowers small, 
yellow. Fi Dec. — Jan. Cultivated in the Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — The powder of the dried pods has been recom- 
mended as an antiperiodic in cases of intermittent fever, the dose 
ranging from 40 to 60 grains. A decoction of the legume forms a 
good injection in bleeding piles. — (Pharm. of Lidia.) The astrin- 
gent pods are an excellent remedy for prolapsus ani in children. 
They are better if gathered before becoming ripe. The pods are 
admitted to English markets free of all duty. (For properties of 
divi-divi, see Pharm, Joum, v. 443 ; and Joum. Agru Hort, Soc 
Beng, vol. iv. passim.) 

Economic Uses. — This tree was introduced into India by Dr 
Wallich twenty-five years ago. It is properly a native of the sea- 
shore of St Domingo and of Cura^oa, but has now become so exten- 
sively distributed in this country, and promises to be so useful 'a 
tree, that it is well deserving of a place here. Its chief virtue 
resides in the pods, which are greatly employed for tanning pur- 
poses. These pods are said to contain about 50 per cent of tannin. 
The average yearly produce of pods from a single full-grown tree in 
the West Indies is 100 lb., which, deducting 25 lb. for seeds, leaves 
75 lb. of tanning material. The pods form an article of export into 
Great Britain from the West Indies. By experiments it was ascer- 
tained that one part of divi-divi (which is the commercial name for 
the pod) is equal to four parts of bark for tanning purposes, and the 
process occupies about one-third of the time. The price of the pods 
ranges from £S to £13 per ton. The pods are considered superior 
to any other material used in the tanneries of this country. When 
cured with this substance, leather resembles that tanned with oak- 
bark. The tree is easily propagated from seeds ; indeed, they grow 
so fast and luxuriantly that large plantations might soon be raised 
with little" outlay in the moist climate of the western coast. — 
(Simmxmds, Jury Rep, Mad, Exhih, Pers. obe,) An oil is ex- 



CuESALPINIA. 93 

pressed from the seeds of the (7. digyna which the natives use in 
lamps. 

(120) CsBsalpinia sappan {Linn.) Do. 

Sappan and Brasiletto, Eng. Patungha, Tah. Bukkum, Hikd. and Beng. 
Tbiapangum, Hal. Bukkapu, Tel. Puttung, Duk. 

Desceiption. — Tree, 40 feet, armed; pinnae 10-12 pair; 
leaflets 10-12 pair, unequal-sided, obliquely oval-oblong, emar- 
ginate, pale on the under side; terminal panicles; legumes 
compressed, glabrous, elliptic -obovate, obliquely truncated, 
cuspidate at the apex, 3-4 seeded ; flowers yellow. FL March 
— May.— JT. A A, Prod, i. 281.— i2oa:6. Cor. i t 16.— FL 
Ind, ii. 367. — Bheede, vi. t, 2. CoromandeL Bengal. 

Medical Uses. — The wood contains much tannic and gallic acids, 
and is a good substitute for logwood. — Pharm., of India. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — ^The wood, which is the red wood of commerce, 
is extensively used in dyeing, and is exported for that purpose. It is 
an ingredient in the red dye on the Coromandel coast called the 
Chay-dye. Where a cheap red is required for cotton cloth, the wood 
is employed by the native dyers, but they cannot make it stand. 
The process of the Telinga dyers is as follows : The cotton doth is 
well washed, to remove any remains of the quicklime, &c., used in 
bleaching'; an infusion of half a pound of the powdered kadukai 
(Temiinalia chebida) in a pint and a half of cold water, strained, is 
employed to prepare the cloth, which is done by wetting it twice in 
the same infusion, drying it between and after. The following day 
it is twice wetted in a strong solution of alum, and as often dried in 
the sun. Next day a decoction of the Sappan-wood is prepared as 
follows : Take 1 pound of Sappan-wood in powder, water 12 quarts ; 
boil it till a third is consumed ; divide the remaining 8 quarts into 3 
parts, one of 4 and the other two of 2 quarts each ; into the 4 quarts 
put the cloth, wet it well, wring it gently, and half-dry it ; it is 
again wetted in one of the small portions, and, when half-dry, 
wetted for the third and last time in the other remaining portion of 
the decoction ; dry in the shade, which finishes the process. In 
Paulghaut the tree is cultivated for the sake of the dye, which is 
used for colouring the mats made at that place. Much Sappan-wood 
is annually exported from Ceylon. The tree grows freely without 
any care, and is of the finest quality in Malabar and Mergui. It is 
laigely shipped for the London market from Calcutta. — {Roxh, Ainsl. 
Dm. Simmonds.) The export of Sappan-wood from Bombay in 
1870-71 was 1085 cwt., valued at 4194 rupees. A custom prevails 
in Malabar among the Moplahs to plant, on the birth of a female 
child, 40 or 60 seeds of Sappan, and the trees which reach maturity 
in 10 or 12 years are her dowry when she is married. — Rep. Mad. 
Ezhib. 



94 CiESALPINIA — CAJANUS. 

(121) Cawalplnia seplaxia (Boxb,) Do. 

Mysore thoni| Eng. Hyder ka Jhar, Hnm. Chillur, DuK. 

Description. — Scandent ; branches and petioles anned with 
short, strong, sharp, recurved prickles ; pinnae of the leaves 
6-10 pair; leaflets 8-12 pair, linear-oblong, obtuse; petioles 
pubescent ; stipules broad, semi-sagittate ; racemes axillary, 
solitary ; calyx coloured, the segments soon reflexed ; legumes 
linear-oblong, glabrous, with a long cuspidate point, 4-8 seeded. 
—Roacb. FL Ind. ii 360.— Tf. & A. Prod. 282.— i>ec. Prod. iL 
484.— Wight Icon. t. 37. 

EooNOMio Uses. — ^This species is indigenous to Mysore, but is 
now generally difPused throughout the country, and known as the 
Mysore thorn. Hyder Ali had it planted as a means of defence 
around his strongholds. It is employed as a fence in the Baghyan 
lands of the Dekkan, and possesses the twofold advantage of beauty 
and durability. 

Immediately the shoot appears above ground, it separates into 
numerous lateral branches, which are strongly armed with recurved 
prickles. It is one of the best plants for a general enclosure. It is 
easily raised from seed, and grows vigorously. The hedge requires 
little care beyond occasionally trimming the side branches, and per- 
haps the introduction of a few dead stakes at intervals to steady and 
strengthen it. 

(122) CaJanuB Indicns {Spreng.) N. 0. Leoumikosa. 

Pigeon-pea, Enq. Thoyaray, Tax. Candaloo, Tel. Toor, Hind. Dal Urar, 
Bbno. 

Description. — Shrub, 3-6 feet, softly pubescent ; leaves pin- 
nately trifoliolate ; leaves oval, lanceolate, mucronate ; calyx 
campanulate, somewhat bilabiate ; lips nearly equal in lei^h, 
upper one shortly bifid, lower one 3-partite ; segments slightly 
curved upwards ; apices recurved ; corolla papilionaceous ; 
petals equal in length ; vexillum broad, bi-callous at the base ; 
keel falcate ; racemes axillary ; pedicels slender, in pairs ; le- 
gumes hirsutely pubescent ; flowers yeUow. FL Oct — Nov. 
— W. & A. Prod. i. 256. Peninsula. BengaL Assam. 

Of this shrub there are two varieties which differ by the 
colour of the vexillum alone. 

■Segapoo Thovaray, Tarn, — Yerray candaloo, Td. — Lai 
Toor, Hind. — Vexillum of a uniform yellow colour on 



CALAMUS. 95 

both sides. — C. flavus, Dec. — Cytisus cajan, Linn. — 
R(xxh. Fl Ind, iii 325. 
h — Maenthoveray, Tarn. — Conda Candaloo, Tel — ^Paoud- 
ke-Toor, Eind. — ^Vexillum purplish, and veined on the 
outside, yellow on the inside. — 0. bicolor, Dec. — Cytisus 
pseudo cajan, Jacq. — Rheede, Mai. vL 1 13. 

Economic Uses. — ^The seeds are much esteemed by the natives, 
who hold them third in rank among their leguminous seeds, though 
they are apt to produce costiveness. Cattle are very fond of the tender 
parts of the phmt, both green and dry. The dried stem makes ex- 
cellent fuel, and is well adapted for producing fire by friction. — 
(Roxb.) That which is known as the small '^ Toor " ripens half as 
soon again as the larger one. Some varieties are remarkable for the 
gaudy colours of their orange and red-spotted flowers. The pulse is 
chiefly eaten mixed with rice, a mess known as kedjarL The best 
Toor is sown in alternate drills with Sorghum wlgare^ which ripens 
first, and is cut while the Cajanus is yet smaU. It then remains 
two or three months longer, and is reaped at the end of the harvest. 
The stalks are strong and woody, and well adapted for making char- 
coal required in gunpowder manufacture. — W. Elliott. 



(123) Oalamns fasciculatns {Roxb.) K 0. PALHACSiB. 

Rattan-cane, ENa Perambu, Mal. Paramboo, Tam. Boro-bet, Beno. 

Description. — Stem scandent, elongated ; fronds without 
tendrils ; pinnae aggregated into many distant fascicles, ensi- 
form ; prickles of the fronds straight, scattered, and confluent ; 
spadix decompound, abortive ones whip -shaped; berries 
ovate. Fl. June — Aug. — Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii 779. — Mart. 
Paim. 209. Cuttack. Bengal 

Economic XTses. — ^These plants, though arranged among the Palm 
tribe, hold a middle station between the Palms and Grasses, having 
the habit of the former, whereas their inflorescence resembles that of 
the latter. Canes and rattans, which are the stems of different 
species of Calamus, form considerable articles of commerce. They 
are exported from the valleys of the Himalaya into the plains, 
though the species yielding them are not well known. In some 
years from four to five millions have been exported from this coun- 
try. The stems of this species, when divested of their sheaths, are 
about as thick as the forefinger, and are used as walking-sticks. — 
Roxb. Rayle. 



96 CALAMUS. 

(124) Calamus Botang (Linn.) Do. 

Battan-cane, Eno. Bet or Beta, Beng. and Hind. Bettam, Tel. 

Description. — Stem scandent; fronds without tendrils, 
pinn8B somewhat equidistant, linear^lanceolate, acuminate ; 
prickles of the sheaths frequent, compressed, straight, of the 
rachis straight and recurved, of the spathes and tendrils bent ; 
spadix compound; male calyx 3-clefb, campanulate, a half 
shorter than the broad triangular segments of the corolla; 
berries ovate, sub-globose, size of a small cherry. FL June — 
Aug.— iZoa*. Fl Ind. m, 111. —Mart Palm. 208, t 116, p. 8. 
Moist jungles in Bengal and the Peninsula, 

Economic Uses. — ^This yields the common rattan. It is the T^eru 
tejurd of Eheede {Mai. xii t. 64) and G. Roxburghii of Griffith, 
and is common in the S. Concans, as well as in Goromandel and 
Bengal. Though the several species yielding the rattans of com- 
merce have not been distinctly identiiied, yet it is believed that this 
one is a stouter kind than the others. Some rattans grow to an 
immense length, climbing over the highest trees in the forest, even 
as long as 500 or 600 feet. Such are the dimensions given of the 
C. extensus, a native of Silhet. When fresh gathered, the stems are 
covered with green sheaths, but are divested of them while yet in a 
green state, and then dried. They are extensively used as props for 
plants, as well as for cables, ropes, wicker-work, baskets, chairs, and 
couches ; and being very strong, and at the same time flexible, are 
admirably adapted for those purposes. Cordage and cables for 
vessels are sometimes made from the stems twisted together. In 
fact, their strength is exceedingly great when several are twisted in 
this way^ and will answer all the purposes of the strongest cables. 
In China and Japan they are in great request. Marco Polo refers 
to their uses in those countries. Talking of a certain place in China, 
he says, " They do not employ hempen cordage, excepting for the 
masts and sails (standing and running rigging). They have canes of 
the length of fifteen paces, such as have been already described, 
which they split in their whole length into very thin pieces, and 
these, by twisting them together, they form into ropes three hundred 
paces long. So skilfully are they manufactured, that they are equal 
in strength to cordage made of hemp. With these ropes the vessels 
are tracked along the rivers, by means of ten or twelve horses to 
each, as well upwards against the current as in the opposite direc- 
tion.'' Here he evidently refers to the rattan-canes, and not to 
bamboos, as supposed by some. The seeds are surrounded by a 
fleshy kind of substance, which is eaten as weU as the young tender 
shoots, which are reckoned very delicate food. Of the species best 
known in India and the neighbouring countries the following may 



CALLIOARPA — CALQNYCTION. 97 

be ennxneiated: C. ruderUum (Lour.), native of the Moluccas; C. 
ereciua (Boxb.), indigenous to Silbet^ where the poorer classes use 
the seeds as a substitute for betel-nut ; C. verus (Lour.), Moluccas 
and Cochin China; C. scipionum (Lour.), which yields the so-called 
Malacca cane ; C, Boyleanus, a species found in Dheyra Dhoon ; 
C, draco (Willd.), Sumatra and the Moluccas ; C. gracilis and tenuis^ y 

A^ both of Chittagong, — ^with several others. Wh a t a re toiown oo the 6Ui^e/CA 
^oJHusjC Penang lawyers are yielded by a small Palm, the lAcudla aeutiflda. -^ 
— Bjoyle^ Bcxcb, 

(125) Oalliearpft laaata (Linn,) N. 0. Verbenacejs. 

Gaai eomul, Tam. Baatre, Hind. MasBandaree, Beno. Tonditeregam, Mal. 

Description. — Shrub, or small tree ; branches, peduncles, 
and leaves covered with a kind of woolly nap ; leaves ovate ; 
peduncles axillary, solitary ; calyx 4-cleft ; coroUa monopeta- 
lous, funnel-shaped, 4-cleft ; berry 1-celled, 4-8eeded, convex 
on one side, concave on the other ; margin slightly elevated ; 
flowers purpla FL Feb. — ^March. — Roaib. Fl Ind. L 391. — 

C. cana, Linn. — C. tomentosa. Lam, — JRheede, iv. t 60. 

Travancore. Neilgherries. Coromandel. 

EooNOMic Uses. — ^The bark, which is sub-aromatic and slightly 
bitter to the taste, is chewed by the Cingalese instead of betel-leaves. 
In Upper Hindoostan the root is employed in cutaneous complauit& 
It is one of the trees used for making charcoal A fibre is procured 
from the inner bark called the Aroosha fibre in Chittagong, but not 
much value is attached to it. — Ainslu, Royle, Jour, Agn, Hort, 
8oc, vi. 186. 

(126) Oalonyction Bpedosimi (Choisy). N. 0. Convolvulacejl 

Description. — Stem climbing to a great extent; leaves 
large, quite smooth, cordate, pointed; peduncles very long, 
1-5 flowered ; flowers very large, pure white, opening at sun- 
set Fl. June — Sept. — Dec, Prod. ix. 345. — Choisy Conv. 

p. 59. — Ipomsea bona nox, Linn, — I. grandiflora, Roaib. 

Common everywhere. 

Medical Uses. — ^Tlus species contains in its roots resin, fatty 
matter, volatile oil, albumen, starch, fibre, malic acid, and various 
salts. The bark of the root is used by the natives as a purgative. — 
Lang^ Indig. Plants of Bengal, 

7 



98 CALOPHYLLUM. 

(127) Oalophylliim elatnm (Bedd.) K 0. Guttifers. 

PoonBpar, Eno. Poon, Poongoo, Mal. 

Description. — Large tree ; young shoots, panicles, and outer 
sepals ferruginous ; leaves elliptic, acuminate, attenuated at 
the base, very shining ; panicles terminal and from the upper 
axils, large, many-flowered; sepals 4, two outer ones sub- 
rotund, small, two inner ones petaloid ; petals 4 ; fruit ovoid, 
pointed, about the size of a thrush's egg. FL Jan. — ^Feb. — 

Beddome FL Sj/lv. t 2. ^Forests of the Western Ghauts. 

Coorg. Mysore, Travancore. 

Economic Uses. — ^This tree is never found in dry deciduous 
forests, but in the damp jungles of the western coast. It yields 
the Poonspar of commeTce. The wood is scarcely known except as 
a spar ; and some years ago a good specimen for that purpose would 
fetch a thousand rupees. It is reddish and coarse-gramed. — Bed- 
dome. 

(128) Oalophyllnm inopbyllnm {Linn.) Do. 

Alexandrian Laurel, Eno. Ponna, Mal. Pinnay, Tam. Ponna, Tel. Sultan- 
charapa, Him). Oondee, DuK. 

Descjription. — ^Tree, 50 feet ; branches terete ; leaves ellip- 
tical or oboval, obtuse or retuse, furnished with numerous 
parallel slender nerves ; racemes longer than the leaves from 
the upper axils, or disposed in a terminal panicle ; sepals 4 ; 
drupe spherical, 1-celled, 1-seeded; flowers white, very fra- 
grant. FL June — ^Dec. — W. & A. Prod. i. 103. C. bintagor, 
Boxh. FL Ind. ii 606,— Rheede, iv. t ISS,— Wight Icon, t 77. 
Malabar. Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — ^A fixed oil is yielded by the kernels, held by 
the natives in high esteem as an external application in riieumatism. 
From the bark exudes a resinous substance, erroneously thought to 
be the Tacamahaca of the old pharmacologists. It resembles 
myrrh, and is a useful application to indolent ulcers. — {Pharm, oj 
India.) The gum which flows from the wounded branches, being 
mixed with strips of the bark and leaves, is steeped in water, and 
the oil which rises to the surface is used as an apphcation to sore 
eyes. Horsfield says that in Java the tree is supposed to possess 
diuretic properties. 

Economic Uses. — ^This tree is not less esteemed for its ornamental 
appearance than for the delicious fragrance of its flowers. A dark- 



CALOPHYLLUM — CALOTROPIS. 99 

gieen oil of a disagreeable odour is procured from the &esh seeds 
when subjected to pressure. It is more used as medicine than for 
domestic purposes ; nor is it now exported from this country, except 
in small quantity to Ceylon. It is known as the Pinnay oil The 
seeds, says Simmonds, or berries, contain nearly 60 per cent of a 
fixed oil, which is used for burning as well as for medicinal pur- 
poses. It is perfectly fluid at common temperatures, but begins to 
congeal when cooled below 50^ The Pinnay oil is one of those 
commonly used in Travancore, especially for lamps. It is manu- 
&ctured in large quantities in that province, especially in the 
southern district This tree flowers twice a-year, and is said to 
attain a great age. — Lindley. Simmonds, 

(129) Calophyllnm spiirinm (Ohoisy). Do. 

Cheroo-pmnay, Tam« Tsiroa-paima, Mal. 

Description. — Tree; leaves cimeate-obovate, obtuse, or 
emarginate ; young branches square ; racemes lax, as long as 
the leaves, axillary near the ends of the branches ; sepals 2 ; 
petals 2; drupe oblong, 1-celled; petals white. — W.&A. Prod. 

i. 103. — C. calaba, Linn. — Eheede^ iv. t 39. ^Travancore. 

Malabar. 

EooNOMio Uses. — ^This is a handsome-looking tree, somewhat 
similar to the forme)*. The wood is hard and of a reddish colour. 
Fruit when ripe is red and sweet. It is eaten by the natives, and 
an oil is expressed from it used in lamps. It is called Pootunjee. — 
Jury Rep. Mad. Exkib. 

(130) Oalotropis gigaatea (R. Br.) N. O. Asclepiadaobje. 

Gigantic Swallow-wort, Eno. Yercum, Tam. Terica, Mal. Nella-jUledoo, 
Tbl. Akund, Bsno. Mudar, Ark, Hind. 

Description. — Shrub, 6-10 feet; leaves stem-clasping, de- 
cussate, oblong-ovate, wedge-shaped, bearded on the upper 
side at the base, smooth on the upper surface, clothed with 
woolly down on the under side ; segments of corolla reflexed, 
with revolute edges ; stfimineous corona 5-leaved, shorter than 
the gynost^um; leaflets keel -formed, circinately recurved 
at the base, incurved and subtridentate at the apex ; umbels 
sometimes compound, surrounded by involucral scales; follicles 
ventiicose, smooth; seeds comose; flowers rose-colour and 
purple mixed. Fl. All the year. — Dec Prod, viii 535. — 
Asclepias gigantea, WUld. — Roab. Fl. Ind. ii 80. — Ericu, 



100 CALOTROPIS. 

Eheede, ii. t 31. — WigJU Icon, t 1278. ^Peninsula in waste 

places. Southern provinces. 

a — ^Alba. — Shevet akund, BcTig, — Belerica, Mai. — ^Tella 
jilledoo, Td. — Vella-yercum, Tarn. — Flowers white, 
cream-coloured, inodorous. 



Medical Ubbs. — ^The only difference in the two varieties of this 
shrub consists in the colour of the floweis. It is commonly to he 
found in waste ground, among rubbish, ruins, and suchlike places. 
Of late years the plant has attracted much attention from the many 
and important uses to which its several properties can be applied. 
An acrid milky juice flows from every part of the shrub when 
wounded, and this the natives apply to medicinal purposes in many 
different ways, besides preparations of the plant itself in epilepsy, 
paralysis, bites of poisonous animals, and as a vermifuge. In almost 
all cutaneous affections, especially in leprosy, it is frequently em- 
ployed, and much attention has lately been bestowed upon its 
virtues in the cure of the latter dreadful complaint. The root, bark, 
and inspissated juice are used as powerful alteratives and purga- 
tives. Its activity is said to be owing to a principle called Muda- 
rine, discovered by the late Dr Duncan of Edinburgh, which he 
found to possess the singular property of congealing by heat, and be- 
coming again fluid on exposure to cold. It is obtained from the 
tincture of Mudar, the powdered root being macerated in cold recti- 
fied spirit After recovering the spirit by distillation, the solution 
is allowed to cool. A granular resin is then deposited, which is 
allowed to dry, in order that it may concrete. If water be then 
applied, the coloured solution from which the resin was deposited 
dissolves, and the resin remains This solution is called Mudarine. 
In taste it is very bitter, soluble in alcohol and cold water, but in- 
soluble in sulphuric ether or olive-oiL By experiments made by 
Dr G. Playfair, the milky juice was found to be a very efficacious 
medicine in leprosy, lues, taenia, herpes, dropsy, rheumatism, hectic 
and intermittent fevers. By the Hindoos it is employed in typhus 
fever and syphilitic complaints with such success as to have earned 
the title of vegetable mercury. Dr Duncan considered that it 
agreed in every respect with ipecacuanha, and that from the facility 
of procuring it, might eventually supersede the latter medicine. 
The powdered bark is given in doses of 5-6 grains twice daily. It 
will occasionally produce nausea and vomiting, but such symptoms 
are removed by a dose of castor-oiL The root pulverised and made 
into an ointment is very efficacious in the treatment of old ulcers, so 
common in the western coast. 

The milky juice mixed with common salt is given in toothache, 
and the juice of the young buds in ear-ache. The leaves warmed 



CALOTROPTS. 101 

and moistened with oil are applied as a dry fomentation in abdominal 
pains, and, moreover, form a good rubefacient. They are fatal to 
cattle. — Ainslie, Boyle, Pharm, of India. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — Besides the various uses above enumerated, 
the root is used in the manufacture of gunpowder charcoal With 
the powdered flour the natives adulterate Safflower. The silky 
floss which surrounds the seeds has been woven into shawls and 
handkerchief, and even paper, besides a soft kind of thread by the 
natives. 

But in addition to its other uses, this plant is valuable from the 
fine strong fibres with which it abounds. To procure them, the 
straightest branches are cut and exposed to wither for at least twenty- 
four hours ; on the second and third day they are slightly beaten ; 
the skin is then peeled and the stringy substance between the bark 
and the wood taken out. They are then dried in the sun. This 
slow process is necessarily expensive, but if the bark is steeped in 
water, it becomes discoloured, and cutting will destroy it. Still the 
fibre is strong, and possessed of many of the properties of Europe 
flax. It can be spun into the finest thread for sowing or weaving 
cloth. It resists moisture for a long time. From recent experiments 
made by Dr Wight, its tenacity, compared with other Indian fibres, 
is as follows : — 



Yercnm, CalotropiB gigantea, 
Janapum, or Sunn, Crotalaiia juncea, 
Kattalay, Agave Americana, 
Cotton, Gossypinm herbaceum, 
Marool, Sanseviera Zeylanica, 
Poolay-munja^ HibiscuB cannabinus, 
Ck>ir, Cocoa nucif era, 



Breaking weigblJi. 
652 lb. 
407 
360 
346 
316 
290 
224 



This fibre, however, is too valuable for ordinary cordage, and might 
fetch a high price in Europe. It is said by good judges to be better 
for cloth than cordage. It is much used in this country for bow- 
strings, ropes, bird-nets, and tiger-traps. It has never been culti- 
vated as a cordage plant. It is widely diffused through the 
southern provinces of the Peninsula; while in the BeUary district and 
to the north it is replaced by the C. procera^ which is equally 
abimdant. In the ' Journal of the Society of Arts ' it is stated '' that 
Tercum, which much resembles Belgian flax, is well calculated for 
prime warp yams, and worth £100 per ton." Royle says that it 
pelds a kmd of manna ccdled Mudar-sugar. It has been tried to 
employ the viscid juice as a caoutchouc, and a great quantity was 
collected for that purpose. To prepare it, the juice was evaporated 
in a shallow dish, either in the sun or in the shade ; when dry, it 
may be worked up in hot water with a wooden kneader, as this pro- 
cess removes the acridity of the gum. It becomes immediately 
flexible in hot water, but is said to become hard in cold water, and 
is soluble in oil of turpentine, takes impressions, and will no doubt 



fl 



102 CALOTROPIS — CALYSACCION. 

prove a valuable product, either alone or mixed with other sub- 
stances. 

In experiments made in London, Petersburg hemp bore 160 lb. 
— brown hemp of Bombay and Jubbulpore hemp, 190 lb., which 
latter was also the strength of the Yercum. Its value in England 
might probably be reckoned at from £30 to £40 the ton. — Aindie. 
Boyle. Report on Fibres. Jury Bep, Mad, Exhib. 

m 

(131) Oalotropifl procera (R Br.) Do. 

Description. — Shrub, 6-10 feet ; leaves ovate or ovaJ, cord- 
ate at the base ; segments of the corolla spreading, revolute at 
the margin; leaflets of the staminal corona equalling the 
gynostegium; umbels peduncled; follicles obovoid, downy; 
flowers pale purple. Fl. March — ApriL — B. Br. in Hort Kew, 
ii 78.— C. Wallichii, Wight Contrib. 53.— C. Hamiltonii, do. 
Deccan. Guzerat. Patna Hindostan. 

Medioal TJsEa — ^This species differs from the former in the seg- 
ments of the corolla not being reflexed. It is a widely distributed 
plant, very abundant in the Bellaiy district, but quite unknown in 
the southern provinces. In uses, the two species are probably 
similar in every respect Five grains of the bark of the root of this 
species mixed with very minute doses of arsenic, is internally 
administered in the form of a pill in leprosy with the best effect — 
(Wight) The bark of the root is diaphoretic and expectorant It 
is used m European practice as a substitute for ipecacuanha, both as 
an emetic and cure for dysentery. The fresh juice is used as a 
rubefacient in rheumatism and chest-diseases, and the leaves as a 
cure for Guinea-worm. — (PowelVs Punj. Products.) In the Peshawur 
valley the juice is employed in the preparation of catgut, and for 
raising blisters and discussing chronic tumours. — Stewarfs Punj. 
Plants. Pharm. of India. 

(132) Oalsrsaccion longifolium (WigJit). N. O. CmsiAOEiB. 

Description. — Large tree; leaves opposite, oblong, cori- 
aceous ; flowers polygamous, in clusters on the thick branches 
below the leaves, small, white, streaked with red ; fruit oblong, 
falcate. FL March — April — J. Graham Cat. 27. — Ochro- 
carpus longifolius, Benth. and Hook. — Mammea longifolia, do. 

— Wight III. L 130. — IcoTi. t. 1999. Concans. Kennary 

jungles. W. Mysora 

EcoNOMio Uses. — ^The flower-buds are coUected and sold in the 



CANARIUM. 103 

bazaars for djeing silk : they emit a fragrance not unlike that of 
violets, and are used as a perfume. The fruit is delicious to the 
taste. The native names in those districts where the tree abounds, 
are Woondy and Taringee for the male trees, and Poonag for the 
female ones. — /. Graham, Cat. Cleghom in Phamu Jaunu, x. 597. 
SeeTnann, zii. 62. 

(133) Oanarinm commnne (Linn.) N. O. TEBEBiNXHACEiE. 

Java Almond, Eno. Junglee-badam, Hind. 

Description. — Tree, 50 feet; leaves unequally pinnate; 
leaflets 7-10 on long stalks, ovate-oblong, acute^ or shortly 
acuminate, entire, glabrous ; panicles terminal, divaricated ; 
flowers 2-3 together, almost sessile at the extremity of the 
ultimate pedicels ; drupe covered with a thin somewhat fleshy 
sarcocarp; calyx 3-lobed, externally silky ; petals 3 ; nut very, 
hard, 3-angled ; seed solitary ; flowers white. FL March — 
May. — W. & A. Prod. i. 175. — Colophonia Mauritiana, Dec. 
Bursera paniculata, Lam. Peninsula. 

Mbdioal Uses. — This is known as the Elemi tree. The resinous 
exudation iiGm the tree is imported into England from Manilla. It 
is of a yellowish-white colour, and of a fragrant odour. This resinous 
gum has balsamic properties, and is used as an application to indo- 
lent ulcers, prepared in the form of an ointment. Dr Waitz ('Diseases 
of Children ') speaks favoiuably of the kernels in emulsion, as a sub- 
stitute for the European preparation (Mistura Amygdaloi), principally 
because the almonds imported from Europe are often spoilt by long 
keeping. — Phamu of India. 

EooNOHio Uses. — ^This fine -looking tree is cultivated in the 
Moluccas for the sake of its fruit, which in taste is something like 
an almond. An oil is expressed from the nuts which in Java is 
used in lamps, and when fresh is mixed with food. Bread is also 
made from the nuts in the island of Celebes. If eaten fresh, or 
indulged in too freely, they are apt to bring on diarrhoea. Lindley 
says, '* The bark yields an abundance of limpid oil with a pungent 
turpentine smeU, congealing in a buttery camphoraceous substance ; 
it has the same properties as balsam of copaiba." The resinous 
exudation is used for burning as a light in Amboyna. — (Ainslie. 
Lindley, Flor. Med,) Another species, the G. BenghcUense, yields a 
very l£u:ge quantity of pure, clear, amber-coloured resin, which soon 
becomes hs^d and brittle, and ia not unlike copal ; yet the natives 
set little or no value upon it. In the Calcutta Bazaar it sells at 2 
to 3 rupees a maund of 80 lb. It is a native of Silhet and the 
adjacent mountainous countries, and flowers in May and June. — 
Jury Eep. Mad. Exhih. 



^ 



1 04 CANARIUM CAN AVALIA. 

(134) Canarinm strictam (Eoxb.) Do. 

Black Dammer-troe, Eno. Thelly, Mal. Congiliom-marum, Tam. 

Dbscription. — Large tree; young parts densely clothed with 
rusty -coloured pubescence ; leaflets 9-15, stalked, ovate or 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminated, at length serrulate-ciliate, hairy. 
—Boxb. FL Ind, iii 138. — W.ikA. Prod. I 195. 

Tinnevelly. Malabar. Trichore forests. Pulney hiUs. 

* 

EcoNOMio Uses. — ^This is known in Malabar under the name of 
the black dammer-tree, in contradistinction 'to the white dammer- 
tree {Vateria Malaharica), It is common in the alpine forests 
about Gourtallum in the Tinnevelly district, and is there rented for 
the sake of its dammer. The resin is transparent, and of a deep 
brownish-yellow or amber colour when held between the eye and 
the light, but when adhering to the tree it has a bright shining black 
appearance. — (Wight, Ill.y i 134.) It is partially soluble in boiling 
alcohol, and completely so in oil of turpentine. Dr Bidie speaks of 
it as a substitute for Burgundy pitch. — Phamu of India, 

The following teport upon the black dammer is given by Mr 
Broughton: ''This well-known substance ofiEers little chance of 
usefulness, in Europe at least, when the many resins are con- 
sidered that are found in the market at a fu less price. It is 
used in this country for many small purposes, as in the manu- 
facture of bottling-wax, varnishes, &c Its colour when in solution 
is pale, if compared with its dark tint when in mass. Thus, though 
insoluble in spirit, its solution in turpentine forms a tolerable var- 
nish. When submitted to destructive distillation it yields about 
78 per cent of oil, resembling that obtained from common colophony ; 
but I fear in the majority of its possible applications it possesses few 
advantages over ordinary resin at 7s. 6d. per cwt. Major Beddome 
estimates the price of black dammer on the coast of Canara at 8 
rupees per 25 lb. (or nearly ten times the price of resin in England). 
The number of substances suitable for varnishes have lately become 
very numerous in Europe. Common resin is now purified by a 
patent process, consisting of distillation with superheated steam, by 
which it ia obtained nearly as transparent and colourless as glass, in 
such amount that a single firm turns out 60 tons per week." 

(135) Oanayalia i^iata (Dec) N. O. LBOUMmosJs. 

, Sword -bean, Ekq. Segapoo or VeUay Thumbetten, Tam. Yerra or TeUay 

n^J/nUU Tumbetten-kaya, Tel. SofiiEiid or Lai Kudsumbal, Himd. Mekhun Shini, Bemo. 

3 ^ Descetption. — Perennial shrub, twining; leaves pinnately 
trifoliate; leaflets cordate-ovate, rather acute; calyx un- 
equally bilabiate, upper lip largest, lower lip acutely 3-toothed; 



CANNA. 105 

corolla papilionaceous; yexilluin bicallons at the base; keel 
falcate at a right angle, petals distinct ; racemes axillaiy, many- 
flowered ; flowers in pairs, or threes, purplish ; legumes 5-10 
times longer than broad. — JT. & A. Prod, i 253. — Wight 
Icon, t 753. — ^Doliohos gladiatus, Jouiq, — JRheede, viii, t 44, 
Cultivated in the Peninsula. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — Of this kind of bean there are several varieties^ 
with seeds and flowers of diflerent colours. The variety with large 
white seeds and flowers is considered the most wholesome, and is 
extensively used at the tables of Europeans, as well as by the 
native& It is a common plant in hedges and thickets, but is culti- 
vated for the sake of its esculent pods. — {Roxb. Wight,) Canc^ 
valia obitisifolia, Dec., common on the sea-shore, frequently entwined 
with the Ipomcea pes caproRy is also a useful plant, helping to bind 
the sand at the Adyar, the mouth of the Godavery, and between 
Quilon and Anjengo. — Mad, Jour, of Sc,, 1856, pi. 4. 

(136) OamiA Indica (Linn,) N. O. Marantaceub. 

Indian Shot, Enq. KuU-valei-mimnie. Tam. Ukkil-bar-ki-Munker, I>uk. 
Snrbo-jaya, Beno. Eatoo-bala, Mal. Krisnna-tamarah, Tel. 

Description. — Shrub, 2-3 feet; leaves large, ovate-lanceolate, 
stem-clasping ; inner wing of the corolla trifid, segments lan- 
ceolate, straight ; anther single, attached to the edge of the 
petal-like filament ; style spathulate, growing to the tube of 
the corolla; capsule bristly, 3-celled, many-seeded; flowers, 
bright scarlet or yellow. Fl, All the year. — Boxb, Fl, Ind, 

L 1. — C. orientalis, Boxb, — Eheede, xi t, 43. Common 

everywhere. 

Medioal Uses. — The root is considered acrid and stimulant. — 
(Fleming.) When cattle have eaten any poisonous grass, which is 
generally discovered by the swelling of the abdomen, the natives 
admimster to them the root of this plant, which they break up 
in small pieces, boil in rice-water with pepper, and give them to 
drink. 

Economic X7se& — ^The leaves are large and tough, and are some- 
times used for wrapping up goods. IRie seeds are black, hard, and 
shining, resembling shot^ for which they are sometimes used. The 
natives make necklaoes and other ornaments of them. They yield 
a beautiful purple dye, which is said not to be durable. In the 
West Indies the leaves are used to thatch houses. Nearly all the 
species contain starch in the root-stock, which renders them fit to be 
used as food after being cooked. From the root of one kind, 
C, edtdis, a nutritious aliment (Tone les moie) is prepared; this is 



106 CANNABIS. 

peculicu*ly fitted for invalids, not being liable to turn acid. To 
prepare it the starch is first separated by cutting the tubers in 
pieces, and putting them in water, which is poured off after a time, 
when the starch subsides. — Lindley, Roxh, 

(137) Oannabis sativa (Linn,) K O. CANNABiNACEiE. 

Common hemp plant, Eifo. Tsjeroo Conejava, Mal. Gu^ja, Tam. Ganjah 
Chettoo, Tel. Ganjar, Bbnq. 

Desceiption. — ^Annual, 4-6 feet, covered all over with an 
extremely fine rough pubescence ; stem erect, branched, green, 
angular ; calyx 5-part€d ; leaves alternate or opposite, on long 
petioles, digitate, with linear - lanceolate, sharply - serrated 
leaflets, tapering to a long, smooth point ; flowers in spikes, 
axillary, clustered, small, greenish white; males lax and 
drooping ; females erect, leafy at the base. FL All the year. 

—Roai). Fl, iTid, iii. 772.— Meede, x. t 60. Hills north 

of India. Cultivated in the Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — The officinal part of the Indian hemp con- 
sists of the dried flowering-tops of the female plant, from which the 
resin has not been removed. This is called Gunjah, The resin 
itseK, which exudes from the leaves, stem, and flowers, is called 
Churrus. And what is known as Bhang is the larger leaves and 
capsules without the stalks. The properties of Indian hemp are 
stimulant, sedative, and antispasmodic, often equalling opium in its 
effects. A good oil is procured from the seeds by pressure, which is 
used for the preparation of emulsions. Churrus has been employed 
by Dr O'Shaughnessy in tetanus with good results. — (Pharm, of 
India.) The ansesthetic effects of Indian hemp seem to equal that 
of the Atropa Mandragora. The Greeks and Romans were ac- 
quainted with it, but seem to have been ignorant of its narcotic and 
anaesthetic properties. Dr Eoyle suggests that the nepenthes of 
which Homer speaks may have been that Indian hemp, the 
" assuager of grief" (Od., iv. 221), as having been given by Helen to 
Telemachus in the house of Menelaus. Helen is stated to have 
received the plant from Egyptian Thebes. The plant has long been 
known in Africa. " In Barbary," says Sir Joseph Banks, " bhang 
prepared from Indian hemp is always taken, if it can be procured, 
by criminals who are condemned to suffer amputation ; and it is 
said to enable those miserables to bear the rough operations of an 
unfeeling executioner more than we Europeans can the keen knife 
of our most skiKul surgeons." Dr Daniel states that it is smoked 
in large quantities by the natives of Congo, Angola, and South 
AMca. It does not appear that the Hindoos ever used it as an 
anaesthetic during surgical operations; but Hoa-tho, a Chinese 
physician who flourished about 230 b.c., is recorded to have 



CAiJNABIS. 107 

done so. ''If the malady was situated in parts on which the 
needle, the moxa, or liquid medicines could not act, he gave to the 
patient a preparation of hemp (Marjo), and at the end of some 
instants he became as insensible as if he had been drunk or deprived 
of lifa Then, according to the case, he made openings and incisions, 
performed amputations, and removed the cause of mischief After 
a certain number of days the patient found himself re-established, 
without having experienced the slightest pain during the operation." 
The experiments of scientific inquirers in modem days have rendered 
credible the above report. It produces exhilaration, inebriation with 
phantasms, confusion of intellect, followed by sleep. Mr Donovan 
and Dr Chiistison both testify to its producing numbness, and 
rendering obtuse the sense of touch and feeling. The Diamha plant 
of tropical Western AMca, called also Congo tobacco, is smoked by 
the native A&icans to produce the pleasing excitement of intoxica- 
tion ! It is smoked from a large wooden pipe or reed called condo, 
or &om a small calabash, or sometimes fiom common clay pipes. 
The liberated AMcans and Creoles frequently meet at each other's 
houses ; and on these occasions the pipe is handed about from mouth 
to mouth, and soon produces the desired e£fects — agreeable sensations, 
laughter, &c. ; a continuance, however, causes temporary frenzy, and 
intense and maddening headache, accompanied by stupor. The 
plant is the Cannabis sativa, or common hemp, which on fertile 
soils, at Sierra Leone, grows 12 or 13 feet high, and 20 feet in 
circiimference. The flowers, slowly dried and mixed with the seeds, 
are the parts preferred, and in this state the drug is called maccnie. 
The leaflets are sometimes used ; they are called makiah. A small 
plant in flower and seed will peld its owner ten shillings' worth of 
maconie. — {Hooker's Joum, Bot, iiL 9.) The hemp is a plant of 
most powerful properties, as is evident from the numerous prepara- 
tions of it employed in India ; but no stronger evidence is needed 
to prove the influence of climate on vegetable productions than the 
fact that hemp grown in our cool and moist climate scarcely at all 
develops these properties. — Paxton. O Shaughnessyy Beng, Disp, 
Pereira, Elem. Met. Med. West. Rev., No. 29, 1859. 

EooxOMio Uses. — ^The earliest notice we have of the hemp plant 
is found in Herodotus (Book iv. c. 74-75), who says : " Hemp grows 
in Scythia ; it is very like flax, only that it is a much taller and 
coarser plant.- Some grows wild about the country ; some Is pro- 
duced by cultivation. The Thracians make garments of it which 
closely resemble linen ; so much so, that if a person has never seen 
hemp, he is sure to think they are linen ; and if he has, unless he is 
very experienced in such matters, he will not know of which material 
they are. The Scythians take some of this hemp-seed, and, creeping 
under felt coverings, throw it upon th& red-hot stones ; immediately 
it smokes, and gives out such a vapour as no Grecian bath can exceL" 
— (Rawlinson* s Trans., iiL 54.) The plant is here called Cannabis, 
the same word which we now use, and from which the English word 



108 CANNABIS. 

canvaa is derived. To the present day it grows in Northern Bussia 
and Siberia, Tauria, the Caucasus, and Persia, and is found over the 
whole north of Europe. We next learn of it in Athenseus, who, 
quoting fiK)m an ancient historian, Moschion, the description of a 
ship built by Hiero, Eang of Sjrracuse, and which was superintended 
by the fEonous Archimedes, says, ''for ropes he provided cordage 
from Spain, and hemp and pitdi from the river Ehone." This was 
Hiero IL, who flourished about 270 b.o. We next hear of it in 
Pliny, who describes the hemp plant as being well known to the 
Romans, who manufactured a kind of cordage from it. This 
author has minutely described, in the 19th book of his 'l^atural 
History,' the mode of cultivating it, and its subsequent preparation 
in order to obtain the fibre. He further states that in those days it 
had some repute in medicine, especially the root and juice of the 
bark, but these uses are now obsolete or of little value. It is now 
cultivated everywhere in India, chiefly for the intoxicating property 
which resides in its leaves, and which is made into the drug called 
Bhang. Much attention has of late years been paid to its cultiva- 
tion, and several able reports upon this subject have been drawn up. 
According to Captain Huddleston, in the 'Transactions of the 
Agri Hort. Soc. of India ' (viii. 260), " in the Himalaya there are 
two kinds ; one is wild, of little or no value, but the other one is 
cultivated on high lands, selected for this purpose. The land is first 
cleared of the forest-trees : owing to the accumulation of decomposed 
vegetable matter, no manure is required for the first year ; but after 
that, or in grounds which have not been cleared for the purpose, 
manure must be abundantly supplied to insure a good hemp crop. 
The plant flourishes best at elevations ranging from 4000 to 7000 
feet The seeds are put down about the end of May or beginning of 
June ; and as soon as the young plMits have risen up, the ground is 
carefully cleared of weeds and the plants thinned, with a distance 
between each of three or four inches. They are then left to grow, 
not being fit to cut before October or November." 

The best hemp is procured from the male plants, and these latter 
are cut a month earlier than the female ones, and yield a tougher 
and better fibre. When the stalks are cut they are dried in the sun 
for several days. The seeds are then rubbed out between the hands, 
and this produces what is called Churrus, which is scraped off, and 
afterwards sold. The stalks being well dried are put up in bundles, 
and steeped for a fortnight in water, being kept well under by pres- 
sure, then taken out, beaten with mallets, and again dried. The 
fibre is now stripped off from the thickest end of the stalk, and then 
made up in twists for sale, and manufactured into bags and ropes. 

It would appear that none of the hemp so cultivated is exported, 
only sufiicient being grown for consumption among the inhabitants 
of the districts. Dr Eoxburgh was the first who turned his atten- 
tion to the cultivation of the plant in the plains ; and found that 
to insure success the ground selected should be, if possible, of a low 



CAJS^NABIS. 109 

humid description, and tliat the rainy season tvbs the best in which 
to sow the seeds, the intense heat of the sun being prejudicial to 
its favourable growth. Dr Eoyle and others consider that with 
ordinary care and judicious treatment the hemp plant can be suc- 
cessfully cultivated in the Indian plains, though the fibres yielded 
may not be of such fine quality as those grown in mountainous 
districts. When sown for the sake of its cordage, the plant should 
be sown thick, in order that the stem may run up to a considerable 
height without branching, whereby a longer fibre is obtained, and the 
evaporation is less from the exclusion of air and heat, rendering the 
fibre of a more soft and pliable nature. The natives, on the contrary, 
who cultivate the Cannabis solely for the Bhang, transplant it like 
rice, the plants being kept about eight or ten feet apart. This has 
the effect of inducing them to branch, and the heat naturally stimu- 
lating the secretion, the intoxicating properties are increased. Al- 
though the cultivation of the hemp plant has considerably decreased 
in this country of late years, yet it would appear that plants requir- 
ing so little care might be easily reared to any extent for the sake 
of their fibres, should the demand require it, even were they only 
for use in our own dominion, without the object of exportation. It 
has been shown in the ' Journal of the Asiatic Society ' that the cost 
of hemp, as prepared by the natives in Dheyra Dhoon, would be 
about £6 or £7 per ton in Calcutta (preparation and carriage in- 
cluded) ; but were the cidtivation increased and improved, the extra 
remuneration to the cultivators, with other contingent charges, 
would make the total cost at the Presidency about £17 per ton. 
With the introduction of railways this might be still further de- 
creased. In point of strength and durability, as epnced by the 
samples produced, there is no doubt that good Himalayan hemp is 
superior to Bussian hemp. At any rate, proof exists that it can be 
produced of a superior quality. On a specimen of Bussian hemp 
being shown to a native cultivator, he remarked that were he to 
produce such an inferior article it would never find a sale. 

The hemp plant, it is said, has the singular property of destroying 
caterpillars and other insects which prey upon vegetables, for which 
reason it is often the custom in Europe to encircle the beds with 
borders of the plant, which effectually keeps away all insects. 

It is grown in almost all parts of Europe, especially in Bussia, 
Italy, and England. Gunja has a strong aromatic and heavy odour, 
abounds in resin, and is sold in the form of flowering-stalks. 
Bhang is in the form of dried leaves, without stalk, of a dull-green 
colour, not much odour, and only slightly resinous : its intoxicating 
properties are much less. Gunja is smoked like tobacco. Bhang is 
not smoked, but pounded up with water into a pulp, so as to make 
a drink highly conducive to health, and people accustomed to it 
seldom get sick. In Scinde, a stimulating infusion made from the 
plant is much drunk among the upper classes, who imagine that it 
is an improver of the appetite. Gunja is frequently mixed with 



1 10 CANTHIUM — CAPPARIS. 

tobacco to render it more intoxicating. This is especially done by 
the Hottentots, who chop the hemp-leaves very fine, and smoke 
them together in this manner. Sometimes the leaves, powdered, 
are mixed with aromatics and thus taken as a beverage, producing 
much the same effects as opium, only more agreeable. — Eoyle, Fib. 
. Plants. Mutter in Hooker^ s Joum. of Botany. 

(138) Ganthiam parviflornm {Lam.) N. O. Cinchonaor£! 

Eanden-khiira, Mal. Cany-cheddie, Taii . Ballnsoo-kTua, Tel. 

Desceiption. — SmaU shrub, usually with opposite horizontal 
thorns a little above the axils, sometimes unarmed; leaves 
opposite, ovate, often fascicled on the young shoots ; racemes 
short, axillary, few-flowered on each side; drupe obovate, slight- 
ly emarginate, compressed, furrowed on each side ; coroUa with 
short tube, segments woolly inside or sometimes glabrous; nut 
2-ceUed; seeds solitary; flowers small, yeUow. Fl. April — 
May.— fT. & A. Prod. i. 42&. — Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 534.— 

Webera tetrandra, WiUd. Southern Mahratta country. 

Travancore. Coromandel. 

Medical Uses. — ^A decoction of the leaves, as well as of the root, 
is given in certain stages of flux ; and the latter is supposed to have 
anUielmintic qualities. The bark and young shoots are used in 
dysentery. — Ainslie. 

(139) Oapparis aphylla (Roxb.) K 0. CAPPARiDAOEiE. 

Description. — Shrubby; stipules thorny, nearly straight; 
leaves (on the young shoots only) linear-subulate, mucronate ; 
flowers corymbose ; corymbs nearly sessile, from the axils of 
the stipules; fruit globular, pointed. FL June — ^Aug. — 

W. & A, Prod. i. 27. — Dec. Prod. i. 24f6. ^Waste places 

in the Deccan. Guzerat. Banks of the Jumna. 

Medical Uses. — ^This plant, though used occasionally as food, is 
considered by the natives heating and aperient. It is reckoned 
useful in boils, eruptions, and swellings,, cmd as an antidote to 
poisons ; also in affections of the joints. — PowdVs Punj. Prod. 

Economic Uses. — It has immense roots. The branches are com- 
monly used for fuel, burning with a strong gaseous flame even 
when green, and are also used for brick-burning. The wood is very 
durable, bitter, and not liable to the attacks of white ants. On 
this latter account it is much used for rafters in the Korth-West 
Provinces. Ploughshares are also made of it. It is useful in turn- 



CAPSICUM. Ill 

ing. The bud is eaten as a pot-herb, and the fruit largely consumed 
by the natives, both green and lipe. In the former state it is gene- 
rally steeped for fifteen days in salt and water, being put in the sun 
to ferment till it becomes acid, pepper and oil being then added. 
The ripe fruit is made into pickle with mustard or oil, to be eaten 
with bread. — Stewards Punj, Plants, 

The CapparidacesB are chiefly tropical, yet are extensively found, 
too, in temperate climates. Species of Polanisia and Oynandropsis 
occur as high as 6000 feet in the Himalaya, but only during the 
moisture and equable temperature of the rainy months. — Rdyle. 

(140) Oapsicnm annnum (Linn.) N. 0. Solanacrs. 

Spaniah pepper, Eira. Gach-moiich, Bbno. MoUaghai^ Tah. Merapu-kai, Tel. 
Capoo Mologoo, Mal. 

Description. — Small plant, 1-2 feet; stem herbaceous; 
calyx 6-toothed; corolla 5-cleft; leaves solitaiy, scattered, 
entire; peduncles extra-axillary, 1 -flowered; fruit oblong, 
pendulous or erect, red, yellow, or variegated ; flowers white. 

Fl. all the year. — Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 573. Cultivated in the 

Peninsula. 

Mbdioal Usbs. — ^This is a native of South America. There are 
several varieties of it, distinguished by the shape of the fruit. 
Cayenne pepper is the produce of many of the smaller species of 
Capsicum, the fruits being dried and pounded small, and mixed 
with salt. They are considered wholesome for persons of phleg- 
matic temperament, being reckoned stimulating. When gathered. 
and eaten fresh, they are excellent promoters of digestion in tropical 
countries. In Europe they are made into pickles, and otherwise 
used for seasoning food. There are two distinct principles in the 
pods, one of which is an ethereal oil, and which constitutes the 
real stimulating principle. The bruised berries are employed as 
powerful rubefacients, being reckoned preferable to sinapisms in 
sore throats. They are also given, with the best results, as a gargle. 
Mixed with Peruvian bark, tiiey are given internally in typhus and 
intermittent fevers and dropsy. Chillies are a principal ingredient 
in all curries in India. By pouring hot vinegar upon the fruits, all 
the essential qualities are preserved, which cannot be effected by 
drying them, owing to their oleaginous properties. This Chilly 
vinegar is an excellent stomachic, imparting a fine flavour to fish 
and meats. A great quantity is exported to England, especially 
from the West Lidies, the price of Chillies in London being from 
15s. to 25s. the cwt Of the different varieties the following are 
the best known: (7. haccatvm (linn.), bird's-eye pepper; C, fasti- 
giatum (Blume), cayenne pepper; C. fruiescens (Linn.), Chilly 
pepper; C. grossum (Willd.), bell pepper (CajffHe murich, Hind.); 



112 CARDIOSPERMUM. 

O. Neptzlense, a variety growing in Nepaul, and to the taste far moi^ 
pungent and acrid than any of the preceding species. 

l^e cayenne pepper is prepared in the following manner in the 
West Indies : The ripe fruits are dried in the sun, and then in an 
oven, after bread is baked, in an earthen or stone pot, with flour 
between the strata of pods. When quite dry, they are deaned horn 
the flour, and beaten or ground to fine powder. To every ounce of 
this a pound of wheat-flour is added, and it is made into small cakes 
with leaven. These are baked again, that they may be as dry and 
hard as biscuit, and then are beaten into powder and sifted. It is 
then fit for use as a pepper, or for being packed in a compressed 
state, and so as to exclude air, for exportation. — Ldndley. Com. 
Prod. Mad, Fres, 

Chillies are employed, in combination with cinchona, in inteimit- 
tents and lethargic affections, and also in atonic gout, dyspepsia 
accompanied with flatulence, tympanitis, and paralysis. Its most 
valuable application, however, appears to be in CfynancTie maligna 
and Scarlatina nuHigna, used either as a gargle or administered 
internally. — Lindley, E. B. 

(141) Gardiospennnm Halicacabiuu (Linn.) N. 0. Sapindacks. 

Smooth-leaved heart pea, Ekg. Palloolavam Ulinja, Mal. Moodacottan, Tam. 
T- Budda-kanka-rakoo or iMellagoolisienda, Tel. Shibjool or Nuphutkee, Bbno. 

Descbiftion. — ^Annual, climbing ; stem, petioles, and leaves 
nearly glabrous ; leaves bitemate ; leaflets stalked, oblong, 
much acuminated, coarsely cut and serrated; petals 4, 
each with an emarginate scale above the base, the two lower 
ones with their scales furnished with a glandular crest at their 
extremity, and ending in a yellow inflexed appendage beneath 
the apex; fruit a membranous bladdery capsule, 3-celled, 
3-valved ; seeds globose, with 'a 2-lobed aril at the base ; 
flowers racemose; common peduncles with two opposite 
tendrils under the racemes ; flowers small, white or pink, on 
long axillary peduncles. Fl. nearly all the year. — W. <£ A. 
Prod. I 109.— Wight Icon. t. 508.— jRoa*. Fl. Ind. ii 292. 
— BJaede, viii. t 28. Common everywhere. 

Medical Uses. — ^The root, which is diaphoretic and diuretic, is 
given in decoction as an aperient. It is mucilaginous, and slightly 
nauseous to the taste. On the Malabar coast the leaves are ad- 
ministered in pulmonic complaints, and, mixed with castor-oil, are 
internally employed in rheumatism and lumbago. The whole plant, 
boiled in oil, is rubbed over the body in bilious affections. In the 
Moluccas the leaves are cooked as a vegetable. The whole plant. 



CAREY A — CARICA. 113 

says Bheede, rubbed up with water, is applied to rheumatism and 
stifihess of the limbs. The leayes, mixed with jaggery cmd boiled 
in oily are a good specific in sore eyes. — (Ainslie. Eheede.) The 
whole plant, steeped in milk, is successfully applied to reduce 
aweUings and hardened tumours. — Pera, Obs, 

(142) Gareya arborea (Eoxb.) K O. BARRiNOTONiACEiis. 

Peloa, MA.L. Kumbi, Tel. Poottatanni-manim, Aye-mavoo, Tam. 

Descbiption.— Large tree; leaves oval, serrulate, dentate; 
flowers several, large, greenish white; berry ovate, crowned 
with the segments of the calyx, 4-celled, many-seeded ; calyx 
4-parted; petals 4. Fl. March — ^April. — W. & A. Prod, 
i 334— JBoa?&. Fl Ind. iL 638.— Bheede, iii. t 3&.— Wight 
III. ii. 99, 100. Mountains of Coromandel and Malabar. 

Economic Uses. — ^The fruit is about the size of an apple, and has 
a peculiar and unpleasant smell. The bark of the tree is made into 
a coarse kind of cordage, and used by matchlockmen as a slow 
match for their guns. The cabinetmakers of Monghyr use the 
wood for boxes. It takes a polish, is of a mahogany colour, well 
veined, and is not very heavy. It does not resist damp, and splits 
in the sun, but if kept 6ij is pretty durable. The timber was 
formerly used for making the drums of Sepoy corps. It is fre- 
quently employed for wooden hoops, being very flexible. — Jury 
Rep. J. Grah. Cat Martin's E. Indies. 

(143) Oarica papaya (Linn.) N. O. PAPAYACEiE. 

Papaw-tree, Eno. Pappoia Umbbalay-Bianun, Mal. Pepeya, Beng. and Hind. 
Pappidi-marum, Tam. 

DBSCRiPnoN. — Tree, 20-30 feet, without branches; leaves 
alternate, palmate, 7-partite ; segments oblong, acute, sinuated, 
the middle one 3-fid ; fruit succulent, oblong, furrowed ; calyx 
small, 5-toothed ; corolla tubular in the male and 5-lobed in 
the female, divided nearly to the base into 5 segments ; male 
flowers axillary in slightly-compound racemes or panicles, 
white female ones in short simple racemes, sometimes on a 
different tree ; corolla longer than in the male, yellowish. Fl, 
Jnly.— W. & A. Prod. I 352,— Wight HI. ii t. 106, 107.— 
Lindl. Fl. Med. 107. — Papaya vulgaris, Zamu — P. carica, 
Oosrtn. — Rheede Mal. i. t. 15. ^Domesticated in India. 

Medical Uses. — ^This tree has several valuable medicinal pro- 
perties. The milky juice is among the best vermifuges known. A 

8 



114 CARICA. 

single dose is sufficient for the cure. The natives in Travancore re- 
peatedly use it for children. In the West Indies the powder of the 
seeds is used for the same purpose. The juice of the pulp of the 
fruit is used to destroy freckles on the skin caused by the sun's heat. 
— (Wight. Lindley.) Anthelmintic properties have also been as- 
signed to the seeds. They are also believed among the natives to 
be powerfully emmenagogue. — Fharm. of India. 

Economic Uses. — ^This remarkable tree was introduced from 
America, but is now found in most parts of the Peninsula. The 
fruit grows to a tolerably large size, and secretes a milky viscid juice, 
which has the extraordinary property of hastening the decay of 
muscular fibre, w hen the lattog ia exposed to its influence. A great 
deal has been written upon the various effects which this secretion 
produces upon animal substances, and there appears to be little 
doubt that the juice really possesses the wonderful virtues attributed 
to it. I have attempted to collect the most important remarks which 
have been written upon this subject, as I And there is still a ten- 
dency among scientiflc men to doubt the very peculiar properties of 
the juice. Humboldt thus writes (Travels, ii 62, Bohn's ed.) con- 
cerning it : '^ I may be permitted to add the resiilt of some experi- 
ments which I attempted to make on the juice of the Carica papaya 
during my stay in the valleys of Aragua, though I was then almost 
destitute of chemical tests. The juice has been since examined by 
Vauquelin, and this celebrated chemist has very clearly recognised 
the albumen and caseous matter ; he compares the milky sap to a 
substance strongly animalised — to the blood of animals. 

" The younger the fruit of the Carica, the more milk it yields. It 
is even found in the germen scarcely fecundated. In proportion as 
the fruit ripens the imlk becomes less abundant and more aqueous. 
When nitric acid, diluted with four parts of water, is added drop by 
drop to the milk expressed from a very young fruit, a very extra- 
ordinary phenomenon appears. At the centre of each drop a gela- 
tinous pellicle is formed, divided by greyish streaks. These streaks 
are simply the juice rendered more aqueous, owing to the contact of 
the acid having deprived it of the albumen. At the same time the 
centre of the peUicles becomes opaque, and of the colour of the yolk 
of an egg ; they enlarge as if by the prolongation of divergent fibres. 
The whole liquid assumes at first the appearance of an agate with 
milky clouds, and it seems as if organic membranes were forming 
under the eye of the observer. When the coagulum extends to the 
whole mass, the yeUow spots again disappear. By agitation it be- 
comes granular, like soft cheese. The yellow colour reappears on 
adding a few more drops of nitric acid. After a few hours the yel- 
low colour turns to brown. The coagulum of the Papaw-tree, when 
newly prepared, being thrown into water, softens, dissolves in part, 
and gives a yellowish tint to the fluid. The milk, placed in contact 
with water only, forms also membranes. In an instant a tremulous 
jelly is precipitated resembling starch. This phenomenon is parti- 



CARICA. 115 

I 

cularly jstriking if the water employed be heated to 40'' or 60®. The 
jelly condenses in proportion as more water is poured upon it. It 
preserves a long time its whiteness, only growing yellow by the con- 
tact of a few drops of nitric acid/' 

Browne, in his ' Natural History of Jamaica,' p. 360, states that 
** water impregnated with the milky juice of this tree is thought to 
make all sorts of meat washed in it tender ; but eight or ten minutes' 
steeping, it ia said, will make it so soft that it will drop in pieces 
from the spit before it is well roasted, or turn soon to rags in the 
boiling." This circumstance has been repeatedly confirmed, and, 
moreover, that old hogs and old poultry, which are fed upon the 
leaves and fruit, however tough the meat they afford might other- 
wise be, is thus rendered perfectly tender, and good if eaten as soon 
as killed, but that the flesh passes very soon into a state of putridity. 
In the third volume of the Wemerian Society's Memoirs there is a 
highly interesting paper on the properties of the juice of the Papaw- 
tree by Dr Holder, who witnessed its effects in the island of Bar- 
badoes, and writes of them as known to all the inhabitants. The 
juice causes a separation of the muscular fibres. Nay, the very 
vapour of the tree serves this purpose ; hence many people suspend 
the joints of meat, fowls, &c., in the upper part of the tree, in order 
to prepare them for the table. It is not known whether the power 
of hastening the decay of meat be attributable to the animal matter 
or fibrine contained in the juice of the Papaw. The resemblance 
between the juice of the Papaw-tree and animal matter is so dose, 
that one would be tempted to suspect some imposition, were not 
the evidence that it is really the juice of the tree quite unquestion- 
able. 

The tree grows very quickly, and bears finiit in three years from 
first putting down the seed. The fruit itself la pleasant to the taste, 
and is much relished in this country both by natives and Europeans. 
In order to render meat tender, either flesh or fowl, the simplest 
opezatian is to hang the flesh under the tree for two or three hours, 
which is quite sufficient I have repeatedly tried it, and can testify 
to the true result. Another way is to wrap the meat in the leaves 
and then to roast it. In a tropical climate like India, where meat 
requires to be cooked quickly, in order to provide against rapid de- 
composition (on which account it is often found very tough), there 
shoiild be one of these trees in every garden. 

Wight mentions (El ii. 36) that the farmers in the isle of Bar- 
badoes mix the milky juice with water, and give to horses in order 
(to use their expression) '^ to break down the blood ;" and this ia a 
remarkable fact, that the effects of this dissolving power in the fruit 
is not confined to muscular fibre, but acts on the circulating blood. 
The negroes in the West Indies employ the leaves to wash linen 
instead of soap. The natives in India both pickle and preserve the 
fruit for their curries. It is very palatable even raw. — Humboldt. 
Dan, Wight Ldndley. Pers, Obs. 



1 16 CARISSA — CARTHAMUS. 



(144) Oarissa carandas (Linn,) K 0. Apoctnaceje. 

Keelay, Mal. Ealapa, Tilk. Kunimcbee, Bbno. Kurunda, Hind. Wakay, 
Tbl. 

Description. — Shrub; leaves opposite, ovate, mucronate, 
nearly sessile, shining; calyx 5-toothed; coxymbs tenninal 
and axillary, many-flowered ; spines always in pairs at the 
divisions of the branches, and at every other pair of leaves, 
strong and sharp, 2-forked ; flowers pare white ; berry black 
when ripe. Fl. Nearly all the year. — BoiA, Cor. L t. 77. — 
Wight Icon, t 426. Common everywhere. 

EooNOMio UsBS, — ^This thorny shrub is very good for fences, the 
number and strength of the thorns rendering it impassable. The 
berries scarcely ripe are employed to make tarts, preserves, -and 
pickles. They are universally eaten by the natives, and are pleasant- 
tasted. The shrub is found in jungles and uncultivated places. — 
Roxh. 

Another species, the C. diffusa^ a thorny shrub, bears a small 
black edible fruit. Native combs are made from the wood, which is 
also used in fences. The wood of a very old tree turns quite black, 
and acquires a strong fragrance. It is considered a valuable 
medicine, and is sold at a high price under the name of Ajar in the 
North-West Provinces.- — PowdVa Punj, Prod. 

(145) Oarthamns tinctorias (Linn.) N. 0. Abterac^m. 

Bastard Saffron, or Safflower, Enq. Sendoorkum, Tam. Koosum, Hind. Koo- 
sumba, Tal. Ki^eerah, Bjeno. 

Description. — Annual, 1-2 feet; stem erect, cylindrical, 
branching near the summit ; leaves oval, sessile, much acumi- 
nated, somewhat spiny ; heads of flowers enclosed in a roundish 
spiny involucre : flowers large, deep orange. Fl. Nov. — Dec. 
— Boodb. FL Ind. iii. 409. Peninsula (cultivated). 

EcoNOMio UsBS. — The dried flowers, which are very like Saffron 
in appearance, have been employed to adulterate that drug. They 
contain a colouring principle called Carthamitey used by dyers, and 
constituting the basis of rouge. The flowers are used by the Chinese 
to give rose, scarlet, purple, and violet colours to their silks. They 
are thrown into an infusion of alkali and left to macerate. The 
colours are afterwards drawn out by the addition of lemon-juice in 
various proportions, or of any other vegetable acid. The flowers are 
imported to England from many parts of Europe, and from Egypt, 
for dyeing and painting. They are also used in cakes and toys ; but 
if used too much they have purgative qualities. Poultry fatten on 
the seeds. An oil of a light-yellow colour is procured from the seeds. 



CARTHAMUS. 117 

It is used for lamps and for culinary purposes. The seeds contain 
about 28 per cent of oiL The dried florets yield a beautiful colour- 
ing matter which attaches itself without a mordant. It is chiefly 
used for colouring cotton, and produces various shades of pink, rose, 
crimson, scarlet, &c. In Bangalore silk is dyed with it, but the dye 
is fugitive, and will not bear washing. An alkaline extract preci- 
pitated by an acid will give a fine rose-colour to silks or cotton. The 
flower is gathered and rubbed down into powder, and sold in this 
state. When used for dyeing it is put into a cloth, and washed in 
cold water for a long time, to remove a yellow colouring matter. It 
is then boiled, and yields the pink dyeing liquid. The Chinese 
Safflower is considered superior to the Indian one. In Assam, 
Dacca, and Eajpootana, it is cultivated for exportation. About 300 
tons are annually shipped &om Calcutta, valued in England from £6 
to £7, lOs. per cwt. That from Bombay is least esteemed. The 
mode of collecting the flowers and preparing the dye, as practised in 
Europe, where the plant is much cultivated, is as follows: The 
moment the florets which form the compound flowers begin to open, 
they are gathered in succession without waiting for the whole to 
expand, since, when allowed to remain till fully blown, the beauty 
of the colour is very much faded. As the flowers are collected they 
are dried in the shade. This work must be carefully performed ; for 
if gathered in wet weather, or badly dried, the colour will be much 
deteriorated. These flowers contain two kinds of colouring matter 
— the one yellow, which is soluble in water ; the other red, which 
being of a resinous nature, is insoluble in water, but soluble in alka- 
line carbonates. The first is never converted to any use, as it dyes 
only duU shades of colour ; the other is a beautiful rose-red, capable 
of dyeing every shade, from the palest rose to a cherry-red. It is 
therefore requisite, before these flowers can be made available, to 
separate the valueless from the valuable colour ; and since the former 
only is soluble in water, this operation is matter of little difficulty. 

The flowers are tied in a sack and laid in a trough, through which 
a slender stream of water is constantly flowing ; while, still further 
to promote the solution of the yellow colouring matter, a man in the 
trough treads the sack, and subjects every part to the action of the 
water. When this flows without receiving any yellow tinge in its 
passage, the washing is discontinued, and the Safflower, if not 
wanted for immediate use, is made into cakes, which are known in 
commerce under the name of Stripped Safflower. It is principally 
used for dyeing silk, producing poppy-red, bright orange, cherry, 
rose, or flesh colour, according to the alterative employed in com- 
bination. These are alum, potash, tartaric acid, or sulphuric acid. 
The fixed oil which the plant yields is used by the native practi- 
tioners in rheumatic and paralytic complaints. The seeds are reck- 
oned laxative, and have been employed in dropsy, and the dried 
flowers in Jamaica are given in jaundice. — Vegetable Substances, 
Jury Rept Simmands. 



118 C ARYOTA — C ASEAKI A. 

(146) Oaryota nrens (Linn,) N. 0. PALMACEiE. 

Bastard Sago, Enq. Coonda-paima, Tam. Erimpana^ Schanda-panay Mal. 
Teeroogoo, Tkl. 

Desceiption. — Trunk erect, 60-60 feet, slightly marked with 
the cicatrices of the fallen leaves ; leaves pinnate ; leaflets 
sub-altemate, sessile, obliquely prsemorse, jagged with sharp 
points; spathe many-leaved ; spadix pendulous, 6-16 feet long; 
branches covered with innumerable sessile flowers, regularly 
disposed in threes, one male on each side, and a single female 
between them ; male calyx 3-leaved ; petals 3, larger than the 
calyx, greenish outside; female flowers on the same spadix, 
with the calyx and corolla as in the male ; berry roundish, 
1-celled, size of a nutmeg, covered with thin yellow bark ; nut 
solitary. Fl. Dec. — ^March. — RooA, Fl, Ind. iii. 625. — Sheede, 
i. t 11. Malabar. CoromandeL Travancore. 

Economic Uses. — Sugar and toddy-wine are both prepared from 
this palm, which is cultivated by the natives for those uses. It 
may be seen in its wild state in the jungles on the Malabar coast. 
Sago is prepared &om the pith. The natives value it much &om 
its yielding such a quantity of sap. The best tree will yield 100 
pints of sap in twenty-four hours. This sago is made into bread, and 
boiled as a thick gruel The seeds are used by Mahomedans as 
beads. A fibre is prepared from this palm used for fishing-lines and 
bow-strings, which is the Indian gut of the English market. It is 
strong and durable, and will resist for a long time the action of 
water, but is liable to snap if suddenly bent or knotted. In Ceylon 
the split trunks are used as rafters, and are found very hard and 
durable. The fibre of the leaf-stalks is made into ropes in that 
country, and used for tying wild elephants. The woolly substance 
found at the bottom of the leaves la employed occasionally for caulk- 
ing ships. According to Buchanan, the trunks of this palm are the 
favourite food of elephants. The fruit, which is about the size of a 
plum, has a thin yellow rind, very acrid, and if applied to the 
tongue will produce a burning sensation, hence the specific name of 
the plant. — Ainslie. Jury Rep. Royle, 

(147) Oasearia oanriala {Wall) N. O. Samtdaoejs. 

AnaviDga, Mal. 

Description. — Large tree ; leaves alternate, bifarious, ovate- 
oblong, serrulate, downy beneath, on short petioles ; sepals 6, 
villous; corolla none; peduncles short, axillary, 1-flowered, 
surrounded at their base with villous involucres; flowers small. 



CASSIA. 119 

crowded into globular heads, pale green. FL March. — Roxb. 

FL Ind. ii. 420. — C. ovata, Roxb. Goalpara. Banks of the 

Hoogly. 

Medical Uses. — ^This tree is very hitter in all its parts ; the leaves 
are used in medicated baths, and the pulp of the fruit is very 
diuretic. — (Lindley.) The C escvlenta (Eoxb,)y a native of the Circar 
mountains, has bitter purgative roots, much used by the moun- 
taineers. The natives eat the leaves. — Eoxb. 

(148) Oassia absns (Linn.) 1^. 0. LEOUMiNosiB. 

Desceiption. — Biennial, all over clammy except the leaves ; 
branches difiuse ; leaves long-petioled ; leaflets 2-pairs, obovate, 
obtuse, glabrous or slightly hairy on the under side ; lower 
flowers axillary, solitary, upper ones forming a short raceme ; 
peclicels short, with a bractea at their base, and minute brac- 
teoles about the middle ; stamens 5, all fertile ; legume nearly 
straight, obliquely pointed, much compressed, sprinkled with 
rigid hairs, few-seeded; flowers small, yeUow. FL All the 
year. — TT. cfe A. Prod, i 291. — Senna absus, Roxb, Fl. Ind. 
ii 340. CoromandeL Bengal. 

Medical Uses. — ^A native of Egypt as well as of India. The 
seeds are very bitter, somewhat aromatic, and mucilaginous. They 
are regarded in Egypt as the best of remedies for ophthalmia. — 
(Lindley.) The seeds are small, black, and flat, with a projection at 
one end. An extract is made from them used to purify the blood. 
They are also employed in mucous disorders. — (PoweUsPuvj, Prod.) 
The mode of administering the seeds in cases of purulent ophthalmia 
is to reduce them to a fine powder, and introduce a small portion, a 
grain or more, beneath the eyelids. It is considered a dangerous 
application in catarrhal ophthalmia, as its application causes great 
pain. — Pharm. of India. 

(149) Oassia alata (Linn,) Do. 

Ringworm Shrab» Eno. Dadoo Murdun^ Beno. Veleytie Aghatia, Hind. Wau: 
dakom, Beemee Aghatie, Tax. Seema-avisee, Metta-tamara, TKL. 

Desceiption. — Shrub, 8-12 feet ; branches spreading, irreg- 
idarly angled, glabrous; leaflets 8-14 pairs, obovate-oblong, 
very obtuse, mucronate, glabrous on both sides, or nearly so, 
the lowest pair close to the branch, and at a distance from the 
next pair; petiole triangular, without glands ; racemes ter- 
minal ; legumes long, enlarged on each side with a broad 



120 CASSIA. 

crenulated wiug, about 5 inches long and 1| broad ; flo'wers 
large, yellow. Fl. Sept.— Oct— TT. <fc A. Prod, i. 287.— Wight 
Icon, t 253. — C. bracteata, Linn. — Senna alata, Roxb, FL Ind, 
i. 349. Travancore. Cultivated in India. 

Medical Uses. — The juice of the leaves mixed with lime-juice is 
used as a remedy for ringworm : the fresh leaves simply brmsed and 
rubbed upon the parts will sometimes be found to remove the erup- 
tion. Eoxburgh says the Hindoo doctors affirm that the plant is a 
cure in all poisonous bites, besides cutaneous affections. The plant 
is said to have been introduced from the West Indies. Its large 
yellow flowers give it a striking appearance when in blossom. — 
{Ainslie, Roxb.) The leaves i»kQn internally act as an aperient. 
A tincture of the dried leaves operates in the same manner as senna ; 
and an extract prepared from the fresh leaves is a good substitute 
for extract of colocynth. — Pliarm. of India, 



(150) Cassia auricolata {Linn,) Do. ^ . 

Averie, Tam. Turwer, Hind. Tanghedu, Tkl. J A^*^^^^*"^ 

Descriptxon. — Shrub; young branches, petioles, and pe- 
duncles pubescent ; leaflets 8-12 pairs, with a gland between 
each pair, oval, obtuse or retuse, mucronate, upper side 
glabrous, under slightly pubescent; racemes axillary, nearly 
as long as the leaves, many-flowered, approximated towards 
the ends of the branches; pedicels compressed; sepals slightly 
hairy ; legumes compressed, straight ; flowers 3-5 together, 
bright yellow. Fl, Oct.— Dec— W, & A, Prod, i. 290.— Senna 
auriculata, Roxb, Flor. Ind, ii. 349. Common in the Pen- 
insula. 

Medioal Uses. — ^The smooth flattish seeds are pointed at one 
end, and vary in colour from brown to dull oUve. The bark is 
highly astringent, and is employed in the place of oak-bark for 
gargles, enemas, &c., and has been found a most efficient substitute, 
like as in other species, the seeds are a valued local application in 
that form of purulent ophthalmia known as " country sore eyes." — 
Pkarm. of Iiidia. 

Economic Uses. — A spirituous liquor is prepared in some parts 
of the country by adding the bruised bark to a solution of molasses, 
and allowing the mixture to ferment. The astringent bark is much 
used by the natives for tanning leather, and to dye it of a buff 
colour. Workers in iron employ the root in tempering iron with 
steeL Tooth-brushes are made from the branches. — Ainslie, Roxb, 



CASSIA. 121 



(151) Cassia lanceolata {Forsk.) Do. 

Indian or Tinnevelly Seima, £no. Sona-pat, Beno. Soona-MukLee, HiirD. 
Nilaverie, Tak. NeU-ponna, Kela-tanghadoo, Tel. 

Description. — ^Annual ; stein erect, smooth; leaves narrow, 
equally pinnated ; leaflets 4-8 pairs, lanceolate, nearly sessile, 
slightly mucronate, smooth above, rather downy beneath ; 
petioles without glands ; racemes axillary and terminal, erect, 
stalks longer than the leaves ; petals bright yellow ; legumes 
pendulous, oblong, membranous, about 1^ inch long, straight, 
tapering abruptly to the base, roimded at the apex, deep 
brown, many-seeded. Fl. Oct. — Dec. — Lindl. Flor, Med, 258. 
Boyle HI t 37.— W. & A. Prod. L 288.— Senna officinalis, 
R^. Fl. Ind. iL 346. Tinnevelly. Guzerat. 

Medical Uses. — Of this plant, Graham states that it is indigenous 
in Guzerat, and that by experiments made upon the leaves they 
were found to be equally efficacious with the best Egyptian or 
Italian Senna. They are far superior to the Senna brought to 
Bombf^ from Mocha, and may be obtained in any quantity. Lind- 
ley says the dried leaves form the finest Senna of commerce. Fine 
samples of the Tinnevelly Senna were sent to the Madras Exhibi- 
tion, upon which the jurors reported very favourably. It is satis- 
factory to remark that Senna grown in the southern provinces of 
the Presidency is highly esteemed in Britain, and preferred by 
many to all other sprts, as being both* cheaper and purer. As a 
purgative medicine, Senna is particularly valuable, if free from 
adulteration. Unfortunately leaves of other plants, even poisonous 
ones, are frequently mixed with the Senna-leaves, which is the cause 
of griping after being taken ; this is not the case when pure Senna- 
leaves are employed, especially if the infusion be made with cold 
water. The concentrated infusion of Senna Ib prepared by druggists 
by pouring cold water on the leaves and letting it stand for 24 
hours, carefully excluding the air. Senna contains a volatile oil 
and a principle called cathartine. Senna-leaves are worth from 10 
to 15 rupees the cwt. at Bombay. — Lindley. Simmonds. 

(152) Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) Do. 

Payaverei, Tam. Payavera, Mal. Cashanda, Tel. 

Description. — Annual ; erect, branches glabrous ; leaflets 
3-5 pairs, without glands between them, ovate-lanceolate, very 
acute, glabrous on both sides; petiole with a large sessile gland 
near its tumid base ; flowers longish-pedicelled, upper ones 
forming a terminal raceme, lower ones 8-5 together, on a very 



X22 CASSIA. 

short axillary peduncle ; legumes long when ripe, when dried 
surrounded with a tumid border nearly cylindrical ; flowers 
yellow. Fl. All the year.— 1^. & A. Prod. i. 290.— Senna 
occidentalis, Boocb. Fl, Ind, ii. 343. Common everywhere. 

Medical Uses. — This is very nearly allied to (7. sophera; the 
best diBtinction is the position of the seeds. It is a native of both 
Indies, and is found in this country everywhere among rubbish. 
The leaves, which are purgative, have a very unpleasant odour. In 
the West Indies the root is considered diuretic, and the leaves 
taken internally and applied externally, are given in cases of itch 
and other cutaneous diseases both to men and animals. The negroes 
apply the leaves smeared with grease to slight sores, as a plaster. 
The root is said by Martins to be beneficial in obstructions of the 
stomach, and in incipient dropsy. — Wight Lindley. 

(153) Oassla sophera (Linn.) Do. 

Ponaveile, Tam. Pydee-tanghadu^ Tel. Ponnam-taghera, Mal. KolkasMnda, 
Bkno. 

Description. — ^Annual ; erect, branched, glabrous ; leaflets 
6-12 pairs, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, acute, with a single 
gland near the base of the petiole ; racemes terminal or axillary, 
few-flowered ; upper petal retuse; legumes long, linear, turgid; 
when immature and dried, compressed, glabrous, many-seeded; 
suture keeled; seeds horizontal with cellular partitions; flowers 
middle-sized, yellow. Fl. Nov.— Feb.— JT. & A. Prod. i. 287. 

— Senna sophera, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 347. — Bheede, ii t 52. 

Peninsula. Bengal. Assam. 

Medical UsEa — ^The smell of this plant ia heavy and disagree- 
able. The bark, when combined in the form of infusion, is given 
in diabetes, and the powdered seeds mixed with honey in the same. 
The bruised leaves and bark of the root, powdered and mixed with 
honey, are applied externally in ringworm and ulcers. Wight 
remarks, that " the legumes, when unripe and dried, appear quite 
flat, but when ripe and fresh are turgid and almost cylindrical; from 
not attending to which, this species has been split into many." — 
Ainslie, Wight. 

(154) Oassla tora (Linn.) Do. 

Tagara, Mal. Tageray, Tagashay, Tah. Tantipn, Tel. Chakoonda, Bsira. 

Descbiption. — ^Annual, with spreading branches ; leaflets 3- 
pairs, with a gland between the 1-2 lower pairs, but without any 
between the uppermost, cuneate-obovate, obtuse, glabrous or 



CASSYTA, 123 

pubescent on the nnder side ; flowers on long pedicels, upper 
ones forming a short terminal raceme, lower ones 1-2 together 
on a short axillaiy peduncle ; upper petals obcordate ; legumes 
very long, sharp-pointed, 4-sided, many-seeded, each suture 
two-grooved ; flowers small, yellow. FL Oct. — Jan. — W. & A. 
Prod. L 290. — Senna tora, Boxb. FL Ind. ii. 340, var. b. — 0. 
tagera^ Lam. (not Linn.) — Senna toroides, Boxb. — Rheede Mai. 
ii t 53. ^Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — ^The leaves, which are mucilaginous and have a 
disagreeable odour, are given in decoction as aperients to children 
who suffer from fever while teething. Fried in castor-oil they are 
applied to ulcers : the seeds ground and mixed with buttermilk are 
used to allay irritation in itchy eruptions. The root rubbed with 
lim&juice is a good remedy for ringworm. The leaves are often em- 
ployed for making warm poultices to hasten the suppuration of boils. 
The seeds are used in preparing a blue dye, generally fixed with lime- 
water. The leaves rubbed are applied to parts stung by bees. — 
{Rheede. Ainslie.) A warm remedy in gout, sciatica, and pains in 
the joints. The leaves are used to adulterate Senna, but are known 
by their wedge - shaped and ciliated margins. — PoujelVa Punj. 
Prod. 



(155) Oassyta illiformis (Linn.) K 0. Gasstthacrs. 

Cottan, Tax. Kotan, Dux. Acatsja-buUi, Mal. AJush-buUee, Bbho. Pan- 
neb-tiga, Tkl. 

Descbiftion. — Parasitic leafless plant; spikes lateral, as- 
cending; calyx 3-leaved ; segments very small, round; petals 
3, larger than the calyx ; flowers small, white, rather remote ; 
bracteas 3-fold, embracing the fructification; fruit a drupe 
with a 1-seeded nut, round. Fl. Nov. — ^Dec. — Poaib. FL Ind. 
ii 314 — Calodium Cochin-Chinese, Lour. — Rheede, vii. t. 44. 
Peninsula. Bengal. Cochin. 

Medical Uses. — This leafless thread-like parasite is found twist- 
ing round the branches of trees in most parts of the Peninsula. It 
is put as a seasoning into buttenmlk, and much used for this pur- 
pose by the Brahmins in Southern India. The whole plant pulver- 
ised and mixed with dry ginger and butter is used in the cleaning of 
inveterate tdcers. Mixed with gingely-oil it is employed in strength- 
ening the roots of the hair. The juice of the plant mixed with 
Qugar is occasionally appHed to inflamed eyes. — Rheede. 



124 CASTANOSPERMUM — CASUARINA* 

(156) Oastanospermtun Anstrale (Cunn,) K. 0. Leouminos^ 

* Moreton Bay Chestnut, Enq. 

Description. — Tree, 30-40 feet ; leaves nnequally pinnated, 
leaflets elliptical, ovate, acuminate, entire, smooth; flowers 
bright saffron-yellow, racemose ; pods large, solitary, and.pen- 
dulous, produced by 2 -years-old wood, obtuse, rather inflated, 
containing 3-5 chestnut-like seeds. FL March — April — 
Hook, Bot. Misc. i. t. 51, 52. Cultivated. 

Economic Uses. — ^Thia elegant tree was first discovered in the 
forests near Moreton Bay, in Australia^ and was introduced into 
India about thirty years ago. It grows rapidly from seed, and in 
its native woods attains a height of 100 feet. The shade afforded 
by the foUage is said to excel that of most Australian trees. The 
seeds are edible ; when roasted they have the flavour of the Spanish 
chestnut, and travellers assert that Europeans who have subsisted 
on them have experienced no other unpleasant effect than a slight 
pain in the bowels, and that only when the seeds are eaten raw. 
They are, however, hard, astringent, and not better than acorns. 
The wood is used for staves for casks. There are several large trees 
in the Lalbagh at Bangalore. — Hook. Bot Misc. CUghom in Joum. 
Agri. Hort. Soc. x. 116. 

(157) Oasuarina mnricata {Roxh.) N. 0. Gasuarinagea. 

Casoarina, Tinian Pine, Enq. Chowk-manim, Tajc. Senra-Chettoo, Tel. 

Descbiption. — ^Tree, 60 feet high ; trunk straight, as in firs 
and pines ; bark smooth, brown ; branches scattered ; leaves 
verticelled, slightly furrowed, jointed, joints ending in a cup, 
in which the next joint sits; stipules annular; male aments 
cylindric, terminating the leaves ; scales 6 to 8 in a verticel, 
united at the base, pointed and woolly; flowers, as many as 
divisions in the verticel; corolla 2 opposite, boat-shaped, 
ciliate scales ; filaments single ; anthers 2-lobed. Female 
flowers on a different tree ; aments oval, short, peduncled ; 
scales 6 to 8 in a verticel, with a single flower between each ; 
corolla none; germs oblong; style dividing into two long, 
recurved, garnet-coloured portions ; stigmas simple ; strobiles 
oval, size of a nutmeg, armed with the sharp points of the 
2-valved capsule; seeds small, with a large, wedge-shaped, 
membranaceous wing. Fl. March — May. — C. litorea. Humph. 



CATHARTOCARPUS. 125 

Amb. iii t 57. — C. litoralis, Salisb. Lam. Ill, t 746. — Roxb. 
FL Ind. iii, 519. 

EooNOMio Uses. — ^Native of the sand-hills, on the sea-side, in the 
province of Chittagong ; and from thence sent by Dr Buchanan to 
the Botanic Garden, Calcutta, whence in the course of thirty years, 
firom seed, it has been introduced all over Southern India, and grows 
well, 'with trunks 3^ feet in circumference 4 feet above ground. 
The timber, according to Wight, is, without exception, the strongest 
wood known for bearing cross strains. Its weight is a serious objec- 
tion to its use for many purposes. . A brown dye has been extracted 
from the bark by M. Jules Lepine of Pondicherry. — {Jury, Rep. 
Mad, Exhib.) It requires a light sandy soiL Its timber is the 
beefwood of commerce. Its growth resembles that of the larch fir. 
The ripe cones should be gathered before they open, and should be 
placed in a chatty in a dry place. After a few days the seed will 
be shed, and should be sown as soon as possible. The young 
plants, when 5 or 6 inches high, shoidd be planted out in beds 9 
inches apart; and when 2 or 3 feet high, which they ought to 
be in less than six months from the time of sowing, may be trans- 
planted where required. — {Beef 8 Report to Bomb, Govt. 1863.) This 
tree grows equally well near the coast, on the Mysore plateau, 3000 
feet above the sea, and on the KeOgherries at 6000 feet, and may be 
propagated firom seed to any extent It grows rapidly, and, not 
casting much shade, would not iigure crops growing near it. It is 
much grown for firewood, but is well adapted for mfbers and build- 
ing purposes. It forms very pretty avenues, especially in narrow 
roads. 

(158) Oathartocarpns fistula (Pers,) N. 0. LEOUMiNOSiS. 

Padding-pipe tree, Eng. Koannay, Tam. Choonnay, Mal. Rela, Tel. Amul- 
tas, HiNO. Sonaloo, Beno. 

Desceiption. — Tree, middling size, with usually smooth 
bark ; leaflets about 5 pairs, broadly ovate, obtuse or retuse, 
glabrous : petioles without glands ; racemes terminal, long, 
lax, drooping ; flowers on long pedicels ; legumes cylindric, 
pendulous, glabrous, smooth, dark brown, nearly 2 feet in 
length : cells numerous, each containing 1 smooth, oval, shin- 
ing seed, immersed in black pulp ; flowers bright yellow, fra- 
grant. Fl. May — June. — W, <b A. Prod. i. 285.— Cassia 
fistula, Linn. — Roai), Fl. Ind, ii. 383. Peninsuleu 

Mbdical Uses. — The mucilaginous pulp which surrounds the 
seeds is considered a valuable laxative. It consists chiefly of sugar 
and gum. It enters into the composition of confection of senna. 
The pulp of Cassia is employed chiefly in the essence of coflee. It 



126 CATUBUS — CEDRELA. 

is gently aperient, and recommended to persons of dyspeptic habitis. 
The flowers, which are fragrant, are given in decoction in certain 
stomachic affections, and the roots are said to be an excellent febri- 
fuge. The bark and leaves rubbed up and mixed with oil are ap- 
plied to pustules. Dr Irvine states that he found the root act as a 
strong purgative. — Ainslie, Irving 8 Top. of Ajmeer, 

EooNOHio Uses. — ^The bark is used for tanning, but not being 
very astringent is of no great value. The wood is close-grained, 
and when of laige size \a sufficient for the spara of native craft and 
other similar uses. — (Ainslie,) The G. Eoximrgkii, a beautiful tree, 
resembling the weeping-ash, and found on the Gingie hills, is of 
rare occurrence in the wild state. Its timber is hard, and hand* 
somely marked. — Boxb. 

(159) Caturns spiciflorus (Linn.) K 0. EuPHOBBiACEiE. 

Watta-tali, Mal. 

Description. — Shrub ; leaves long-petioled, cordate, serrate ; 
flowers axillary, spiked, pendulous, longer than the leaves ; 
calyx 3-cleft ; styles 3 ; capsule tricoccous. — Eoxb. Fl, Ind. 
iii. 760. — Acalypha hispida, Burm. Travancore. 

Medioal Uses. — ^The leaves, beaten up with green tobacco-leaf 
and infusion of rice, are usefully administered to inveterate ulcers. — 
(Bheede.) The flowers are spoken of as a speciflc in diarrhoea, either 
taken in decoction or conserve. — Lindley. 

(160) Oedrela toona {Boxb,) K 0. Cedrelacejs. 

Indian Mahogany, White Cedar, Eno. Toon-manun, Tax. Toona, Hind. 
Toon,BKNQ. j^^ rf^^ ^,1>.N>'- 

Description. — Tree, 60 feet; leaves abruptly pinnate; 
leaflets 6-12 pairs, ovate-lanceolate, acuminated, slightly undu- 
lated on the margins, quite entire or slightly and distinctly 
toothed, glabrous; calyx small, 6-cleft; petals 5, ciliated; 
panicles drooping, terminal; capsule oblong, 5-celled; de- 
hiscent; flowers small, white, fragrant. FL May— June. — 
W. & A. Prod, i 12^— Roxb. FL Ind. i. 635,—Corom, iii. 
t. 238. — Wight Icon, t 161. Peninsula. Bengal. 

Medical Uses. — ^The bark is powerfully astringent, and has been 
found a good remedy in remittent and intermittent fevers, diairhoea, 
and dysentery, and, though not bitter, is a fair substitute for Peru- 
vian bark, particularly when united with powdered Bonduc nut. 
Powdered and applied externally it has been beneficially used in 



CELASTRUS. 127 

the treatment of ulceis. Bninpliius states that an infusion of this 
bark in combination with the root of the Aeoms calamus (VuMam- 
boo) is given in Java in fevers and other complaints. Forster con- 
sidered it especially useful in bilious fevers and inveterate diarrhoea 
arising from atony of the muscular fibre. — Ainslie, 

EooNOMio Uses. — ^The wood of this tree is very like mahogany, 
but lighter, and not so close in the grain. It is much used for fur- 
niture and various other purposes. It is usually found in dry de- 
ciduous forests up to 4000 feet elevation. It is called Suli and 
Mall in the Salem district, Kal Killingi on the Keilgheny slopes, 
and Sandaru Venibu in TinneveUy. It k often used as an avenue 
tree, especially in the Salem district, as it grows readily from seed. 
In Assam excellent boats are made from it. "NeeB von Esenbeck 
analysed the bark, which indicated the existence of a resinous 
astringent matter, a brown astringent gum, and a gummy brown 
extractive matter resembling uhnine. The flowers are used in 
Mysore for dyeing cotton a beautiful red. — (Eoxb, Bedd. Fl. Sylv. 
t 10.) The wood is dense, red, hard, close-grained, capable of high 
polish, not subjected to worms, nor Hable to warp, and durable. — 
PowelVa Punj, Prod. 

(161) Oelaatras panicnlata (WUld.) K 0. Celastraoeje. 

Staff-tree, Eno. Valuluvy, Tam. Baynngie, Tel. Malkunganee, Hind. 

Description. — Climbing shrub, nnarmed ; young shoots and 
flower-bearing branches pendulous; leaves alternate, broadly 
oval, or ovate, or obovate, usually with a sudden short acu- 
mination, sUghtly serrated, glabrous ; racemes terminal, com- 
pound or supra-decompound, elongated, much longer than the 
uppermost leaves ; petals 5 ; calyx 5-partite ; lobes rounded, 
ciliated ; capsule globose, 3-celled, 3-6 seeded ; seeds with a 
complete arillus ; flowers small, greenish. Fl. March — May. — 
F. <k A. Prod. I Ib^.—WigU Icon, t 150.— Rozb. Fl Ind. I 

621.— 0. nutans, Soodb. FL Ind. L 623. Neilgherries. Hilly 

parts of the Concana Dheyra Dhoon. 

Medical Uses. — The seeds yield an empyreumatic oil (Oleum 
nigrum) used in lamps. It is said to be of a stimulant natmre, and 
is used medicinally, having been found a successful remedy in beri- 
beri. The seeds, owing to a resinous principle, have a very hot and 
biting taste. Boyle says the oil is a stimulant and useful medicine. 
It is of a deep scarlet colour. It is administered in doses of a few 
drops daily in emulsion. — {Royle. Malcolmson.) The oil is princi- 
pally used for horses ; also for rheumatism and paralysis. It acts 
as a powerful diaphoretic and tonic. The oU is made by putting the 
seeds with benzoin, cloves, nutmegs, and mace into a perforated 



128 CELSIA — CELTIS. 

eaiihen pot, and then obtaining by distillation into another pot below 
a black empyreumatic oiL — PoioeWa Funj, Prod. 

(162) Oelsia Coromandeliana {VclIiI) N. 0. ScROPHULARiACEiB. 

Kukshima, Beko. 

DBSCRtPTiON. — Herbaceous, pubescent, viscid ; radical leaves 
Ijnrate, upper ones oblong-ovate or orbiculate, toothed ; sepals 
5, ovate or oblong, entire or serrated ; racemes sub-panicled, 
peduncles longer than the calyx ; flowers largish, yellow ; fila- 
ments bearded with purple hairs. FL Dec— Jan. — VahL 
Symb. iii. 79.— Bee. Prod. x. 246.— .Baa*. Fl. Ind. iii 100.— 

Hooh. Jour. Bot. L t. 129. "Waste places in the Deccan. 

Banks of rivers and still waters. 

Medical Uses. — Often found as a common weed in gardena The 
inspissated juice of the leaves has been prescribed in cases of acute 
and chronic dysentery with considerable success. Its action appears 
to be that of a sedative and astringent. — (Pharm. of India.) A 
species of this order possessing medicinal properties is the Picrorrhiza 
kurroo (Royle Illtist. t. 71). Its root is very bitter, and is employed 
by the natives. Dr Irvine {Mat. Med. Patna, 38) assigns Kootki as 
its Hindustani name, and mentions its use as a tonic. 

(163) Oeltis orientalls (Linn.) N. 0. ULMACEiE. 

Indian Nettle-tTee, Eno. Mallam-toddali, Mal. Chakan Tabunoa, Beno. 

Description. — Small tree, 15 feet; leaves alternate, bifarious, 
short-petioled, ovate-cordate, acuminated, minutely serrated, 
scabrous above, villous underneath; flowers axillary, aggregated 
on short 2-cleft diverging peduncles ; calyx 5-parted ; male and 
female flowers generally on a separate tree ; drupe small, suc- 
culent, black when ripe, nut wrinkled, 1-celled, 1-seeded; 
flowers very small, green. Fl. Nearly all the year. — Wight 

Icon, t 602. — Roxb. Fl Ind. ii. 65. — Rheede, iv. t. 40. Coro- 

mandeL Bengal Travancore. 

Economic Uses. — This tree is common in most parts of India, and 
is in blossom the greater part of the year. It yields a gum resem- 
bling that of the cherry-tree. The inner bark, consisting of numerous 
reticulated fibres, forms a kind of natural cloth used by certain 
tribes in Assam. The leaves are used for polishing horns. — Royle*8 
Fibrous Plants of India, 313. Roxb. 



CERBERA — CHAVICA. 1 29 

(164) Cerbera odollam {Goertn,) N. O. ApocTNACEiE. 

Odallam, Mal. Caat-aialie, Tam. 

Description. — Tree, 20 feet ; leaves alternate, lanceolate, ap- 
proximate, shining ; calyx 5-cleft, segments revolute ; corymbs 
terminal; segments of corolla sub-falcate; stigma large and 
conical, 2-cleft at the apex, resting on a saucer-shaped recep- 
tacle, the circumference fluted with 10 grooves ; flowers large, 
white, fragrant ; fruit a drupe as large as a mango. FL Nearly 
all the year. — Roxb, Fl. Ind. i. 692. — JVigJU Icon, ii 1 441. — C. 
manghas, Sims, Bot Mag. 43, 1 1844 (not Linn.) — Ilheede, L t. 
39. Salt swamps in Malabar. 

EooNOMiG Uses. — ^The wood is remarkably spongy and white. 
The fleshy drupe is harmless, but the nut is narcotic and even 
poisonous, and the bark is purgative. The trees are very common 
along the banks of the canals in Travancore, and may easily be known 
by their large green fruits like a mango. The natives in Travancore 
occasionally employ the fruit to kill dogs. To efifect this it is first 
toasted and then covered with sugar or any sweet substance. The 
result is to loosen and destroy all the teeth, which are said to fall out 
after chewing the fleshy part of the drupe. In Java the leaves are 
used as a substitute for senna. — Ahislie. Lindley. Beng. Disp, 

(165) Ohavica betle {Miq.) N. 0. Piperaoeje. 

Betle-leaf Pepper, Enq. Vetta, Mai.. Vettilee, Tail Pan, Beno. Tamala- 
pakoo, Tbl. 

Description.— Shrubby, scandent, rooting, branches striated ; 
leaves membranaceous, or the adult ones coriaceous, shining 
above, glabrous on both sides ; the inferior ones ovate, broadly 
cordate, equal-sided ; slightly unequally cordate, or rounded at 
the base, 5-6-nerved; catkins peduncled; male ones long, 
slender, patulous or deflexed ; female deflexed, shorter, long- 
peduncled. — Wight Icon, t 1926. — Piper betle, Linn. — RosA. 
Fl. Ind. L 158. — Rheede, vii. t. 15. Cultivated. 

Medical Uses. — The leaves in conjunction with lime are masti 
cated by all classes of natives, and for this purpose the plant is ex 
tensively cultivated. The juice of the leaves is regarded as a valuable 
stomachic. In catarrhal and pulmonary affection, especially of chil- 
dren, the leaves warmed and smeared with oil are applied in layers 
over the chest. They thus afford great relief to coughs and difficulty 
of breathing. A similar application has afforded marked relief in 

9 



130 CHAVTCA. 

congestion and other affections of the liver. The leaves simply 
warmed and applied in layers to the breasts will arrest the secretion 
of milk. They are similarly employed as a resolvent to glandular 
swellings. — (PJiarm. of India.) Dt Elliott of Colombo has observed 
several cases of cancer, which, from its peculiar characteristics, he has 
designated the Betle-chewer^s cancer. 

EooNOMio TTsBS. — ^The leaf is chewed by the natives mixed with 
chunam and the nut of the Areca palm. It has been found wild in 
the island of Java, which is probably its native country. Marco Polo 
writes: ''The natives of India in general are addicted to the custom of 
having continually in their mouths the leaf called ' tem-biil ; ' which 
they do partly from habit, and partly from the gratification it affords. 
Upon chewing it they spit out the saliva which it occasiona Persons 
of rank have the leaf prepared with camphor and other aromatic 
drugs, and also with a mixture of quicklime. I have been told that 
it is conducive to health. It ia capable, however, of prodacing in- 
toxicating effects, like some other species of Pepper, and should be 
used in moderation." In Travancore it is extensively cultivated, 
but only sufficient for home consumption. It is planted in rows, 
requires a moist situation and a rather rich soil The leaves should 
-not be plucked indiscriminately at all seasons, as this is apt to destroy 
the plant — lAndley. Ainslie. 

(166) OhaTica Boxbnrghii {Miq,) Do. 

Long Pepper, Eno. Tipilie, Tax. Pipuloo, Tel. Pipel, Peepht-mool, Hind. 
Cutta Terpali, Mal. Pipool, Benq. 

Description. — Stem somewhat shrubby, the sterile ones 
decumbent, the floriferous ones ascending, dichotomously 
branched, at first slightly downy, afterwards glabrous ; inferior 
leaves long-petioled, ovate, roundish, broadly cordate, acute or 
obtuse, 7-nerved ; upper ones short-petioled ; top ones sessile, 
embracing the stems, oblong, unequally cordate, 5- nerved, all 
thick, membranaceous ; petioles and nerves beneath, especially 
near the base, finely downy, afterwards glabrous ; male catkins 
filiform, cylindrical, with the peduncle as long as the leaves ; 
female ones thicker, less than half that length, about the length 
of the peduncle. — Wight Icon, t 1928. — Piper longum, Linn. 

— Eoxb. Fl, Ind. i. 164 — Bheede, vii. t 14. Banks of 

watercourses. Circar mountains. South Concans. Bengal 

Medioal Uses. — ^This plant is extensively cidtivated ; the female 
catkins dried form the long Pepper of the shops. ** I have never," 
says Wight, *' met with it except in gardens, and then only as single 
plants." It is readily propagated by cuttings. The stems are annual. 



CHICKRASSIA — CHLOROXYLON. 131 

bat the roots live sevend years ; and when ctdtivated, nsnallj yield 
thiee or four crops, after which they seem to become exhausted, and 
lequire to be renewed by fresh planting. The berries of this species 
of Pepper are lodged in a pulpy matter like those of P. nigrum. 
They are at first green, becoming red when ripe. Being hotter when 
unripe, they are then gathered and dried in the sun, when they 
change to a dark-grey colour. The spikes are imported entire. The 
taste of the berries is pungent, though rather faint On the Coro- 
mandel coast the natives prescribe the berries in an infusion mixed 
with honey for catarrhal affections. The roots are given by natives in 
palsy, tetanus, and apoplexy. These and the thickest parts of the stem 
are cut into small pieces and dried, and much used for medical pur- 
poses. The berries have nearly the same chemical composition and 
properties as the black Pepper, and are said to contain piperine. — 
{Wight, Aindie, ZAndley.) The root is in great repute among the 
natives. It is called Peepla-mool in the Taleef-Shereef, where it is 
described as bitter, stomachic, and producing digestion. In Travan- 
core an infusion of the root is prescribed after parturition, with the 
view of causing expulsion of the placenta. — Fharm. of India. 

(167) Cndckrasda tabolaris (Ad. Juss.) K. O. Cedbklacks. 

ChtttegoDg wood, £no. Aglay Manun, Tam. Chikrassee, Btvo. 

DEBCBiFnoK. — Tree; calyx short, 5-toothed; petals 5, erect; 
leaves abruptly pinnated ; leaflets 5-8 pair, nearly opposite, 
obliquely ovate-oblong, unequal-sided, obtusely acuminated, 
quite entire, more or less conspicuous, hairy in the axils of 
the nerves beneath ; panicles terminal, erect ; capsule ovoid, 
3-celled, 3-valved, dehiscent, septi&agal; stamen-tube sub- 
cylindrical, rather shorter than the petals, striated, with 10 
short antheriferous teeth ; seeds numerous, expanding down- 
wards into a wing, and imbricated in a double series across 
the cells ; flowers large, greenish white. Fl. April — May. — 
W. & A. Prod. i. 123. — lU. i. t. 76.— Swietenia chickrassia, 
Itaxi>. FL Ind. ii. 399. Chittagong. Dindigul hills. 

EooNOMio XJsis. — The wood is one of those known as the Chitta- 
gong wood, and is very close-grained, light^coloured, and elegantly 
veined. It is employed much by cabinetmakers for furniture. The 
bark is powerfully astringent, though not bitter. — Boxb. Jury Bep. 
Mad. Exhih. 

(168) Ohlorozylon swietenia (Dec.) Do. 

Satin-wood tree, Eno. Hoodooda, Ynm-maay, Kodawahponh, Tax. BUlo 
Bmuda, TsL. 

Description. — Tree ; leaves abruptly pinnate ; leaflets pale- 



132 CHRYSAKTHELLVM. 

coloured, small, numeions, alternate or nearly opposite, un- 
equal-sided ; calyx short, 5 -partite; petals 5, shortly un- 
guiculate; panicles terminal, branched; capsule oblong, 3- 
celled, S-yalved, dehiscing from the apex, septifragal ; seeds 
about 4 in each cell, extending upwards into a wing ; flowers 
small, greenish white. Fl, March — ^ApriL — W. & A. Prod. i. 
123. — Swietenia chloroxylon, Boah, Cor. i. t 64. — FL Ind. ii. 
400. Circars. Mountainous districts of the Peninsula. 

EcoNOMio IJbbs. — ^The wood, which is of a yellow or light-orange 
colour like box, is close-grained. It is durable, and will stand im- 
mersion in water. It is used Tor naves of wheels in the gun-caiv 
riage manufactory at Madras. Though not a tree of laige size, planks 
of 1 2 or 1 5 inches broad may be obtained from it It is very suitable 
for pictuie-frames, and if well yamiBhed will preserve its handsome 
appearance for a long time. Satin-wood takes a fine polish, but is 
apt to split. It yields a wood oiL — Eoxb. Jury Rep. Mad. Exhib. 

At Paradenia, a bridge of a single arch 205* feet in span, chiefly 
constructed of Satin-wood, crosses the Mahawalliganga river. In 
point of size and durability it ia by far the first of the timber-trees 
of Ceylon. All the forests round Batticaloa and Trincomalee are 
thickly set with this valuable tree. It grows to the height of 100 
feet, with a rugged grey bark. Owing to the difficulty of carrying 
its heavy beams, the natives only cut it near the banks of rivers, 
down which it is floated to the coast, whence large quantities are 
exported to every part of the colony. The richly -coloured and 
feathery logs are used for cabinet-work, the more ordinary for build- 
ing purposes, every house in the eastern provinces being floored 
and timbered with Satin-wood. — {Tennenfs Ceylon, i. 43, 116.) The 
true mahogany-tree (Sioietenia Mahogani) was introduced into India 
in 1866, and thrives exceedingly well in the lower provinces of 
Bengal. It was considered that its cidture might be extended with 
great advantage in Lower Bengal, Assam, and Chittagong. 

(169) Ohxysanthellnm Indicnm {Dec.) K. O. CoMPOsiTiE. 

David's Flower, Eno. 

Description. — ^Annual, herbaceous, very small, glabrous; 
branchlets somewhat naked, 1 -headed at the apex ; leaves of 
different shapes, radical ones oval, cuneate at the base, upper 
ones oblong-linear, 3-toothed at the apex ; achsenia somewhat 
compressed, very shortly emarginate at the apex, callous at 
the margin, at one place smooth and level, at another convex 

and striated; flowers bright yellow. — Dec. Prod. v. 631. 

Sukanaghur. 



CICOA— dlCENDIA. 133 

Medical Uses. — ^This plant is coDsidered by the natives heating 
and aperient) and useful in affections of the brain and calctdus, and 
also to remove depression of spirits. — (PowelVs Punj, Prod,) A 
plant of the same family, the Chrysanthemum Boxburghii (Desv.)^ 
is common in gardens throughout India. The flowers, when dried, 
form a tolerable substitute for chamomile. The root, when chewed, 
communioates a tingling sensation to the tongue as pelUtory, and 
might be used as a -substitute. The natives in the Deccan admin- 
ister the plant, in coi^junction with black pepper, in gonorrhoea. — 
DcUz. Bomb, Flora, Pharm. of Ind, 

(170) Oicca DiffUcha {lAmu) N. 0. Eufhorbiaoejb. 

Country Gooseberry, Eno. Anmelli, Tam. Nelli, Mal. Harfarooiie, Hnro. 
Nubaree, Beno. Bassa aseriki, Tbl. 

Desckiption. — Small tree; calyx 4-parted ; leaves pinnated, 
1-2 feet long, often fliower-bearing ; leaflets numerous, alter- 
nate, stalked, nearly orbicular, 1-3 inches long; petioles round, 
smooth, sometimes ending in a short raceme of male flowers ; 
racemes numerous, terminal, axillary, and from the old buds 
on the naked branches; flowers numerous, small, reddish, in 
globular heads ; drupe 3-4 lobed, grooved, size of gooseberry 
m, Uaj.—Lindl. FUrr, Med.—Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 672.— Aver- 

rhoa acida, Linn. — JSheede, iiL t, 47, 48. Cultivated in 

gardens. 

Medioal UsEa — ^The leaves are sudorific. The round succulent 
fruit is subacid, and is eaten raw, or pickled and preserved. The 
seeds are cathartic. The root is violently purgative, and a decoc- 
tion of the leaves diaphoretic. — Lindley, 

(171) Oicendia hyssopifolia {Adans,) N. O. Gentianaoej^. 

Ohota^chiretta, Hurn. CheTnkurti, Golimidi, Nella-gullie, Tkl. Vallaniga, 
Tam. Eirota, Beno. 

Descriptiok. — Annual, herbaceous; stem quadrangular, 
angles slightly winged; leaves opposite, decussate, linear- 
lanceolate, tapering at the base, embracing the stem with the 
short petioles, 3-nQrved, paler below ; calyx 5-cleft ; segments 
margined, reflexed at the point, permanent, closely embracing 
the base of the mature capsule ; corolla tubular, 5-cleft ; seg- 
ments spreading, oblique at the base, remaining attached to 
the capsule till the latter bursts; flowers 6-8 together in 
axillary whorls, sessile, white; capsule 2-valved, 1-celled; 



134 CICER — CINCHONA. 

seeds numerous, small, round, small white. FL July — Sept. 
— W. & A. — lAmdl. Flor. Med. 520. — Gentiana hyssopifolia, 
Linn. — ^Exacum hyssopifolium, Wiild. — Itoxb. M. Ind. iL 71. 

Moist uncultivated grounds. CoromandeL Banks of 

the Jumna. 

Medical Uses. — ^The whole plant is Tery hitter. It is used as 
a tonic in recovery from fevers, and is a suhstitute for gentian. It 
is reckoned a good stomachic, and \a administered either in powder 
or decoction. — Wight Lindley. 



(172) Oicer arietinum (Linn.) NT. 0. Leouhinosje. % 

Comnion Chick-pea, Bengal gnm, Eno. Kadala, Mal. Eadalaj, Tax. oane- 
J^^i^galoo, Tbl. Chenna, Hikd. boot-kaley, Chima, BSKO. y 

Descbiption. — Herbaceous, annual plant; calyx 6-lobed, 
scarcely gibbous, segment as long as the BJ^d of the coroUa; 
leaves unequally pinnated; leaflets ovate, serrated, equal; 
stipules lanceolate, somewhat toothed ; corolla papilionaceous ; 
flowers axillary, bluish purple ; legumes hairy. Fl. Sept. — 
Oct— TT. & A. Prod, i 286.— -Boa*. Fl Ind. iii ZU.— Wight 
Icon, t 20. Cultivated. 

• 

Medical Uses. — This plant is employed by the natives as a re- 
frigerant in fevers. In the Deccan it is used by the Portuguese in 
the treatment of dysmenorrhoea ; the fresh plant is put into hot 
water, and the patient sits over the steam. — {Pfiarrru of Indiu.) 
The free use of the vegetable, owing to the abundance of oxahc 
acid, is apt to do harm to persons liable to calculus, as it leads to 
the formation of oxalate of lime in the bladder. It is said to in- 
crease the bHiary secretions. When roasted like coffee it is reckoned 
aphrodisial, and is also used in flatulency, dysuria, and catamenia. 
— PoweWa Punj. Prod. Christison in Mad. Joum 8c. No. 13. 

Economic Uses. — In Mysore the natives spread a cloth over the 
young plants to catch the early dew ; they then rinse it out in a vessel, 
when the extract becomes acid, and makes a pleasant beverage mixed 
with water. Dr Christie mentions that an acid (oxalic acid) ex- 
udes from all parts of the plant, which is collected by the ryots and 
used in their cuiiies instead of vinegar. The seeds are eaten by 
the natives in curries, cakes, &c. They are very fattening to cattle. 
It is said that in Europe, when people walk through the fields where 
this plant grows, the leather of their shoes becomes spoiled by the 
acid. — Lindley. 

(173) Cinchona officinalis (Linn.) N. 0. Bubiace^ 
Descbiption. — Tree; leaves oblong, acuminated at both 



CINCHONA. 135 

ends, glabrous, shining, scrobiculate beneath at the axils of 
the nerves ; limb of the corolla woolly ; capsules ovate, twice 
longer than their breadth; stipules leafy, free, deciduous; 
flowers terminal, in corymbose panicles, tube red, petals snow- 
white above; bark ashy. — Dec, Prod, iv. 352. Cultivated 

on mountain-lands. 

Medioal Uses. — Several species of Cinchona are now so exten- 
sively cultivated on the highlands of the North-West Provinces, the 
lower slopes of the Himalaya, and especially on the Keilgherry 
hiUs and Ceylon, and th^ bark has become of late years so important 
in a commercial point of view, that the plants amply deserve notice 
in this work. 

It was not before 1859 that any successful resiQts attended the 
introduction of the Cinchona into India. So far back as 1835 the 
Indian Government had been fully alive to the great importance of 
its introduction ; biit for various reasons the efforts were abortive. 
At last the purchase of quinine became so greats and had amounted 
annually to about £12,000, that it was determined to select a person 
to proceed purposely to the Cinchona countries in South America to 
bring some live plants for cultivation on the Neilgherry hiUs. Mr 
Clements Markham, being eminently qualified for the duty, was 
chosen. The experiment succeeded almost beyond expectation ; and 
in 1860 a great number of plants and seeds had been sent to the 
hiUs, where their proper cultivation at once commenced, establish- 
ments being at the same time provided in Sikkim and Ceylon. The 
cultiue everywhere prospered. Vast numbers of plants have been 
raised from seeds and cuttings ; and the yield of alkahes is now as 
great as, or greater than, in the native country of the plant. Early in 
1867 there were nearly two milhon plants in the Government plan- 
tations on the Neilgherries, and the total area under actual cultiva- 
tion was 677 acres. Besides this, private plantations have been 
formed in most of the habitable hill districts of the Peninsula, in- 
cluding Travancore ; also at Darjeeling, at Kangra in the Punjaub, 
and on the Mahableshwar hiUs in Bombay. 

The results of the cultivation of all the species of known value 
up to 1867 were communicated by Mr Markham in an interesting 
summary published in the appendix to the Pharmacopoeia of India. 
(See Appendix B.) Since that time the cultivation and produce 
have continued steadily to increase. In a communication to the 
author, Mr Markham writes that a cheap Cinchona febrifuge medi- 
cine manufactured at the plantations on the Neilgherries is very 
nearly as efficacious as quinine, and the natives are taking to 
its use very readily. Five hundred and thirteen cases have been 
successfully treated in the hospitals with it. Eventually the plan- 
tations on the Neilgherries alone will yield 1300 lb. of this pre- 
paration annually, at about eight annas ( = one shilling) per ounce. 



136 



CINCHONA. 



The quantity used in the cases recently treated amounted to 43 
grains each. 

During the last five years the annual average consumption of 
English-made quinine in the Madras Presidency has been nearly 
400 lb., and there will be a yearly increase. The cost of 400 lb. of 
quinine has been Es. 16,400. The cost of the same quantity of the 
febrifuge preparation made at the Keilgherry plantations by Mr 
Broughton would be less than Es. 4400, thereby effecting a saving 
of Es. 12,000 a-year. For European quinine manufacture the bark 
of C7. oficinalw is admirably suited, as it is so rich in quinine. In 
addition, it is so easy to work, and the sulphate of quinine crystal- 
lises with greater readiness and purity. It is especially the bark for 
export to Europe, though perhaps in total yield the C, succirubra is 
the richest. After those two, perhaps, the G. ealisaya is the most 
important at present The following table shows at a glance the 
different species cultivated in India, their commercial names, and 
London market value : — 



Species. 


Botanical names. 


Commercial names. 


Value per lb. of dry bark 
in the London market 


1 


C. snccimbra 


Bed baric 


2s. 6d. to 8b. 9d. 


2 


C. calisaya ) 








C. frutex } 


Yellow bark 


28. lOd. to 78. Od. 




C. Vera ) 






3 


C. officinalis 








A. (Jritusinga 


Original Loxa bark 


2s. lOd. to 7s. Od. 




B. Condaminea 


Select crown bark 


28. lOd. to 78. Od. 




C. CrUpa 
C. lancifolia 


Fine crown bark 


2s. lOd. to 68. Od. 


4 


Pitayo bark 


is. 8d. to 28. lOd. 


6 


C. nitida 


Genuine grey bark 


Is. 8d. to 28. 9d. 


6 


C. sp. (no name) 


Fine ffrey bark 
Grey Dark 


Is. 8d. to 28. lOd. 


7 


C. micrantha 


Is. 8d. to 28. dd. 


8 


C. PeroBiana 


Finest grey bark 


Is. 8d. to 2s. lOd. 


9 


C. Pahudiana 


Unknown 


Unknown 



All the species are pltmted out on cleared forest-land or on grass- 
land, in both which places they thrive. They invariably grow best 
under full exposure to light and air ; therefore, prior to being planted 
on forest-land, it is necessary to clear away the whole of the original 
forest. No diminution of water in the stream takes place by the 
felling of forest-trees ; on the contrary, recent observations tend to 
prove that an increase of water takes place when the upper growth 
of trees is removed. It is usual to cover the outer bark of the trees 
with moss, as it prevents waste. By this simple discovery, the bulk 
of the bark is more than doubled, making the direct 3rield of alkaloid 
per acre fully thirty times the quantity that can be procured under 
any other treatment Besides, mossing saves any damage that would 



CINNAMOMUM. 137 

otherwise be done to the plant. By mossing every twelve or eighteen 
months, the entire cellular bark of the stem can be removed easily and 
without injury. — M^Ivoi^a Reports. 

The seeds begin to germinate about the sixteenth day after sow- 
ing, and from one ounce of seeds from 20,000 to 25,000 plants are 
obtained. No species can be successfully grown imder the shade of 
other trees. The G. calUaya may require a certain d^ree of shade ; 
but this can only be secured by placing the plants close together, so 
that they may shade each other, leaving the robust ultimately to 
destroy the weaker in the struggle for light and space. Neither can 
the different species be grown together, as the luxuriant-growing 
species injure and ultimately destroy the weaker. The total number 
of Cinchona plants propagated on the Neilgberries from May 1866 
was nearly 1,123,645, exclusive of 100,757 distributed to the pub- 
lic* — Ghvemment Records, M'lwyi's Reports. 

The powerful tonic and astringent properties of quinine are well 
known. Quinia is procured from the bark, and is administered in 
every kind of fever. The properties and uses of all species are the 
same. The leaves have also been found to contain tonic and mildly 
anti-periodic properties. Various trials have been made with them ; 
and it has been ascertained that although they will not supply a 
material for the extraction of quinine, yet they will prove very use- 
ful, when used fresh in decoction or infusion, for the cure of the 
fevers of the country. In mild uncomplicated cases it proved useful, 
like many other astringent tonics, but in no way comparable to 
quinine as an anti-periodic. But, besides in fevers, quinine is em- 
ployed in croup, hooping-cough, ophthalmia, erysipelas, dysentery, 
and diarrhoea^ and many other complaints. In fact, with the excep- 
tion of opium, no single remedy has a wider range of therapeutic 
uses than quinina — Pharm. of India. 

It remains to add that the present species has variously been 
called G. condamineay G. uritusingay G. academiccLj and G. lancifolia; 
but Dr Hooker gives reasons for retaining Linnseus's original name 
of G. officinalis, the first change of which (because many species are 
truly officinal, and may be substituted the one for the other) being, 
he maintains, made on insufficient grounds. 

(174) Oinnamomam inen (Reinw.) N. 0. Lauragea. 

Wild Cbmamoii, Eno. Dsrchini, flnn>. Kit-cama, Mal. Caddoo-lavanga, 
Can. 

Description. — Small tree ; leaves coriaceous, oval or ob- 
long, nearly equally attenuated at both ends, usually 3-nerved, 
almost veinless, lateral nerves nearly reaching the apex, shin- 
ing and glabrous above, glaucous beneath ; panicles equalling 

* For further information on Cinchona cnltivation, &c., see Appendix B. 



138 OISSAMPBLOS. 

or exceeding the leaves, slender, peduncled, lax, branchlets 
3-flowered, and with the flowers equalling the pedicel ; lobes 
of the calj'x falling off at the middle. Fl. Jan. — 'March. — Dec 
Prod. XV. s. L 20. — C. nitidum, Hooh Exot, FL — C. eucalyp- 
toides, Nees in Wall. PL As. Rar. — C. Bauwolfii, Mume. — 

JViffM Icon, t 122. — Rheede, i t 57. Peninsula. Concans. 

Malabar. 

Medical Uses. — ^The seeds, bruised and mixed with honey or 
sugar, are given to children in dysenteij and coughs, and combined 
with other ingredients in feveis. The leaves have a pleasant aro- 
matic smell when bruised. It is supposed to have furnished the 
cassia of the ancients. The natives use the bark as a condiment in 
their curries. The tree is very common in the jungles on the west- 
ern coast and Travancore forests. — (/. Gra?u Nimmo.) The inner 
bark possesses, in the fresh state, a powerful aromatic odour and 
taste, and by careful preparation ib capable of affording cassia lignea 
of good qufidity. The dried buds are employed by the natives in 
Travancore, with various combinations, in diarrhoea, dysentery, and 
coughs. They partake of the carminative properties of Cinnamon 
and Cassia. At the recommendation of Dr jL Boss, the Bombay 
Government now farms out these trees in Korth Canara, by means 
of which a very considerable addition has been made to the revenue. 
It may be used as a substitute for cinnamon, to which it can hardly 
be reckoned inferior. — Pliarm. of India. 

(175) Oissampelos Pareira {Wtlld.) N. O. MENisPEBMAOEiE. 

Dukh-nirbisee, Hind. 

Dbscription. — Twining; stem pubescent; leaves cordate, 
usually obtuse or acute, rarely emarginate, sinus narrow or 
wide, upper side glabrous or slightly pubescent, under more 
or less pubescent, or even tomentose ; petioles inserted at the 
margin ; male racemes 3-4, shorter than the petioles ; sepals 
orbicular, unguiculate; column of stamens longer than the 
entire and externally hairy cup-shaped corolla ; female racemes 
usually in pairs, sometimes solitary and forked; in flower 
scarcely so long as, in fruit often longer than, the leaf; drupes 
hairy; flowers very small, yellowish. Fl. April — ^Aug. — 

W. A A. Prod, i 14.— Boa*. Fl. Ind. iii 842. Common in 

hedges. Peninsida. Bajmahal. NepauL 

Medical Uses. — ^The dried root is at first sweetish and aromatic, 
and afterwards becomes intensely bitter. It ia employed as a mild 
tonic and diuretic. — Pkarm. of India. 



CITRULLUS — CITRUS. 130 

(176) OitrnllnB Colocynihis (Schrad.) N. 0. Cucurbitacea. 

Ooloo«Bth or Bitter Apple, Eno. PeTcommuttee, Mal. Paycoomuti, Varriecoo- 
muttie. Tax. Putsa-kaya, Tkl. Makhal, Bkno. Indrawan, Duk. 

Desgsiption. — Annual; stems scabrous; leaves smooth 
above, muricate beneath, with small white tubercles, many- 
cleft, obtuse-lobed ; tendrils short; female flowers solitary; 
calyx, tube globose and hispid; fruits globose, glabrous, 
streaked; flowers yellow. FL July — September.-^Cucumis 
colocynthis, Zinn. — W. Jk A. Prod. L 342. — Eoaib. FL Ind. 

iii 179. — Wight Icon, t 498. ^Peninsula. Lower India in 

sandy plantations. 

Medical Uses. — ^The Colocynth plant is properly a native of 
Turkey, but has long been naturalised in India. The medullaiy 
part of the firuit, freed from the linds and seeds, is alone made use 
of in medicine. It is very bitter to the taste. The seeds are per- 
fectly bland and highly nutritious, and constitute an important 
article of food in Afdca, especially at the Cape of Good Hope. The 
extract of Colocynth is one of the most powerful and useful of 
cathartics. The juice of the fruit when fresh, mixed with sugar, is 
given in dropsy, and is externally applied to discoloration of the 
skin. A bitter and poisonous principle called Colocynthine resides 
in the fruit, the incautious use of which has frequently proved fataL 
An oil is extracted from the seeds, used in lamps. Before exporta- 
tion to Europe, the rind is generally removed from the fruit. In 
medicine its chief uses are for constipation and the removal of 
visceral obstructions at the commencement of fevers and other in- 
flammatory complaints. — Ainalie, lAndUy^ Flor, Med, 

Sheep, goats, jackals, and rats eat Colocynth apples readily, and 
with no bad effects. They are often used as food for horses in 
Scinde, cut in pieces, boiled, and exposed to the cold winter nights. 
They are made into preserves with sugar, having previously been 
pierced all over with knives, and then boiled in six or seven waters, 
until all the bitterness disappears. The low Gypsy castes eat the 
kernel of the seed, freed from the seed-skin by a slight roasting. — 
Stocks in Lond. Joum, Bat, iiL 76. 



(177) Oitms aurantiiim (Linn,) K 0. Aurantiaces. 

7^ Sweet Orange, Eiro. Kitcblee, Tax. Eichilie, Tbl. Naringee, HniD. KumUi- 
neboo, BiNO. 

Descbiption. — Tree, 20-25 feet; spines axillary, solitary; 
young shoots glabrous; leaves oval, elongated, acute, some- 
times slightly toothed; petioles more or less dilated and 



140 CITRUS. 

winged ; flowers white, large ; fruit orange-coloured» roundish 
or ovoid, usually depressed, rarely terminated by a small 
knob ; rind with convex vesicles of oil ; pulp sweet fl, Feb. 

— F. <fe ^. Prod, i 91.—Roxb, FL Ind. iiL 392. Circars. 

Aurungabad. Cultivated. 

Medioal Uses. — ^It has been remarked that the Orange is a rare 
instance of a plant having at once beautiful foliage, fragrant flowers, 
and nourishii^ fruit. India and China are the native countries of 
the Sweet Orange. Dr Boyle found two plants having the character 
of the lemon and citron, growing wild in the forest at the base of 
the Himalaya. He has fdso stated that a kind of lime grows in 
the jungles at Rungpore. The Orange is indigenous in Silhet and 
on the dopes of the Neilgherry mountains. 

There are several varieties cultivated in India. Those of Sautgor, 
near Yellore, are much esteemed. The Mandarin Orange has a large 
loose skin, and is found in the Northern Circars, where it is called 
Curnbla nablcu The large China Orange {Burra chin) is a fine 
smooth-skinned and sweet kind. Another species has the skin very 
rough, and is called the Caffiie Orange, a sweet and pleasant-tasted 
fruit The common Orange of the country, called Koda in Hindoo- 
stanee and Kitchlee in Tamil, is of an indifierent flavour. The 
Hindoo Yytians think that Oranges are great purifiers of the blood 
and improve the appetite. The rind is well known as a useful 
carminative, and a valuable addition to bitter infusions in cases of 
dyspepsia. Oranges are used to form various perfumes and pomades, 
and the flowers distilled produce orange-water, used in cooking, 
medicine, and as a perfume ; but the chief use of the Sweet Orange 
is for the dessert. Every part of the ripe fruit is used either in 
diet or medicine. It is invaluable in scurvy. The rind pulverised 
and added to magnesia and rhubarb aflbrds a grateful tonic to the 
stomach in gout and dyspepsia. The roasted pulp is an excellent 
appHcationto foetid ulcers. — (AirutUe, Royle.) Dr Royle remarks : 
'' So great a diversity of opinion being entertained regarding the 
diflerent plants of the genus GiiruSy whether they should constitute 
species or varieties, it becomes diflicult to say what are such if only 
seen in a state of cultivation ; but as some are still found wild, an 
opinion may be formed at least respecting those. In the valleys 
within the Himalaya I have seen two plants growing apparently 
wild— one called Bijoiiree, the other Beharee nimhoo — the first 
having the characteristics of the citron, and the other, called also 
Peharee ka gtizee, those of the lemon. Both, when trsuisferred to 
gardens, retain their peculiar characters. Mr Saunders, who accom- 
panied Captain Turner in his travels in Thibet, states that he found 
the wild Oranges delicious, and that many orange-trees and lime- 
trees were found at the foot of the hills approaching Buxendwar. — 
(Tumei/^s Thibet^ p. 20, 387.) Citrua decumamts^ the shaddock or 



CITRUS. 141 

pmnplemoofio, does not appear indigenous to India, as its name, 
Batavi nimhoo, or Batavian lime, denotes, as remarked by Dr Box- 
buigh, it being an exotic ; and as it retains its characteristics even 
where it does not succeed as a fruit, it may also be reckoned as a 
distinct species. I feel therefore inclined to consider as distinct 
species the orange, lemon, lime, citron, and shaddock, without being 
able to say whether the sweet kinds should be considered varie- 
ties of the acid or ranked as distinct species." — (Boyle Him. Bot) 
The most full information on this difficult genus is contained in 
Eisso's work on 'The Natural History of Orauge-Trees,' lately 
translated by Lady Eeid. 

(178) Oitma bergamia (Risso). Do. 

Bergunotte or Add lime, Eno. Eroomitchee-nairaciim, Mal. Elemitchnm, 
Tam. Nemnia Pundoo, TbIm Neemboo, Hind. Neboo, Bcno. 

Description. — Shrub or small tree ; leaves oblong, more or 
less elongated, acute or obtuse, under side somewhat pale ; 
petioles more or less winged or margined; flowers usually 
small, white ; fruit pale yellow, pyriform or depressed ; rind 
with vesicles of fragrant oil; pulp more or less acid. Fl. 
April — May. — W. & A. Prod, i, 98. — Citrus acida, Boocb. H 
Ind. iii 390. Peninsula. Bengal 

Medical TJsbs. — ^Lime-juice is much used in medicine by native 
practitioners. They consider it to possess virtues in checking 
bilious vomiting, and to be refrigerant and antiseptic. It probably 
possesses aU the virtues attributed to the lemon. An essence much 
used by perfumers is prepared from the flowers and fruit — Ainalie, 

(179) Oitnu limonnm {Risao). Do. 

Lemon, Eno. Eoma Neboo, Beng. 

Description. — Small tree ; young branches flexible ; leaves 
oval -oblong, usually toothed; petioles simply margined; 
flowers white tinged with red, fragrant. FL March — May. — 

W.&A. Prod. I 98.— C. medica, Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii 392. 

Foot of the Himalaya. 

Medical Uses. — ^The useful parts of the Lemon are the juice and 
the rind of the fruit, and the volatile oil of the outer rind. The 
juice of Lemons is analogous to that of the orange, from which it 
only diflers in containing more citric acid and less syrup. The 
quantity of the former is indeed so great that the acid has been 
named from the fruit, acid of Lemons, and is always prepared from 



^ 



142 ciTBua. 

it The simple expressed juice will not keep, on account of the 
syrup, extractive, mucilage, and water, which cause it to ferment. 
The yellow peel is an elegant aromatic, and is frequently employed 
in stomachic tinctures and infusions, and yields by expression or 
distillation water, and essential oil, wMch is much used in perfumery. 
Fresh Lemon-juice is specific in the prevention and cure of scurvy, 
and is also a powerful and agreeable antiseptic Citric acid is often 
used with great success for allaying vomiting ; with this intention 
it is mixed with carbonate of potass, from which it expels the car- 
bonic acid with effervescence. Lemon-juice, as well as lime-juice, is 
also an ingredient in many pleasant refrigerant drinks, which are of 
greit use in allaying febrile heat and thirst. Lemon-juice, like 
other vegetable acids, is given to correct acidity in the stomach. 
By elevating the power of that organ it not only prevents the for- 
mation of an excess of acid, but is useful in the same way in bilious 
and remittent fevers, especially when combined with port-wine and 
cinchona bark. It is often employed internally to excite the nervous 
system after narcotic poisoning, but should not be used till all the 
poisonous substance has been removed from the stomach, otherwise 
its effects may prove the reverse. Slices of Lemon are applied with 
good effect to scorbutic and other sores. — Don. Lindley, 

(180) Oitrns medica (Ldnn.) Do. 

Citron, Bira. Beg-poora, Beno. Leemoo, BncD. 

Dbscriptiok. — Shrub ; young branches rigid ; leaves oblong, 

pointed ; petioles simple ; flowers white, tinged with red ; fruit 
obovoid, deeply furrowed and wrinkled, terminated by a knob ; 
pulp very slightly acid. Fl. April — June. — W. & A. Prod. L 
98.— Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 392. Foot of the Himalaya. Cul- 
tivated in the Peninsula. 

EooNOMio Uses. — ^The Citron is supposed to be the same as the 
Median apple which was introduced into Greece and Italy from 
Persia and the warmer regions of Asia at an early period. It was 
cultivated in Judea, and the fruit may be seen as a device on Samari- 
tan coins. To the present day the Jews make a conserve of the 
fruit, which is invariably used by them in the Feast of Tabernacles. 
The ancients attached medical virtues to the fruit, for Theophraatus 
in hiB history of plants says that it was an expellent of poisons, 
" The Median territory, and likewise Persia, have many other produc- 
tions, and also the Persian or Median apple. Kow, that tree has a 
leaf very like and almost exactly the same as that of the bay-tree, 
the arbutus, or the nut : and it has thorn s like the prickly pear or 
black-thorn, smooth, but very sharp and strong ; and the fruit is not 
good to eat, but is very fragrant, and so too are the leaves of the tree. 
And if any one puts one of the fruit among his clothes, it keeps tliem 



(S> %it e,:^^^^ ic^ ^ l)^:rrJ! .i/i^*^ >^^^M^ r^^mz. 



CLEISTANTHU8. 143 

from the motli. And it is useful when any one has taken poison inju- 
rious to life ; for when given in wine it produces a strong effect on ^e 
bowels, and draws out the poison. It is serviceable also in the way 
of making thQ breath sweet : for if any one boils the inner part of 
the fruit in broth or in anything else, it makes his breath smell 
sweet" Virgily who has imitated this passage in his second Georgic, 
mentions also that the fruit was used in asthma : — 

** Media fert trifites snccos, tardumqne saporem 
Felicis mail : quo non pnesentiiis ullum, 
Pocala si quando 8flBV» infecere novercsB, 
Hiscuemntque herbas et non innozia verba, 
Auxilinm venit, ac membris a^t atra venena, 
Ipsa ingens arbos, faciemque umillima laoro ; 
Et, si non alinm late jactaret odorem, 
Laurus erat : folia hand ullis labentia ventis : 
Flos ad prima tenaz ; animas et olentia Medi 
Ora fovent illo, et senibus medicantnr anhelis.*' 

^Georg., iL 126-185. 

There are three principal varieties now cultivated in Europa The 
fruit itself is seldom eaten, but is generally preserved and made into 
confections. The outer rind pelds a volatile olL In China there is 
a large variety known as the fingered Citron, so called from its lobes 
separating into fingers of different shapes and sizes. The rind is very 
fragrant, j&om the quantity of aromatic oil which exists in it. On 
this account the Chinese place it on dishes in their apartments to 
perfume the air. — G, Don. 

(181) deistanthns XMttnlnB (Mtiller). N. 0. Euphobbiaobjb. 

Description. — ^Large tree; stipules small; leaves shortly 
petioled, ovate or oblong-ovate, acute or obtuse at the base, 
cuspidate, acuminate at the apex, entire, glabrous; flowers 
more or less sessile, axillary, sub-glomerate, and arranged in 
short axillary interrupted spikes; calycine segments oblong- 
ovate ; petals shortly nnguiculate, hairy at the back ; bracts 
ciliated ; ovary hairy ; capsules tuberculated. Fl, March — 
July. — Dec. "Prod. xv. «. 2, 5.05. — Cluytia patula, i2(Kv&. — 
Bridelia patula. Hook, at Am. Bot Beech, 212. — ^Amanoa In- 
dica, Wight Icon, t 1911. — Roxb, Cor, t 170. Circar moun- 
tains. Courtallam. 

Economic Uses. — The timber of this tree, which is of a reddish 
colour, is hard and durable. — (Roxb,) It has been recommended for 
railway-sleepers, as well as other useful purposes. 



144 CLEBODENDRON — CLEYERA. 

(182) Olerodendron infortanatnnt (Linn.) N. 0. Yerbenaceje. 

Peragu^ Mal. Bockada, Tel. Bhant, BxNO. 

Description. — Under shrub, 2-3 feet ; branchlets quadran- 
gular ; leaves long-petioled, rounded or ovate-cordate, the upper 
ones ovate, entire or dentate, strigose and hairy on both sides ; 
panicle terminal, large, spreading, naked ; flowers white, tinged 
with rose inside, the calyx increasing and turning red after the 
flower withers ; drupe black within the increased calyx. Fl. 
Feb.— March.— ZiT^n. Fl. Z&yl 232.— Dec. Prod. xi. 667.— Vol- 
kameria infortunata, Roxb. — C. viscosum, Vent — Wight Icon. 

t. 1471,— £oe. Beg. t. 629.— -BAeetfo, ii t. 25. Peninsula. 

Belgaum. Bengal 

Medical Uses. — A cheap and efficient substitute for chiretta, as 
a tonic and anti-periodic. The fresh juice of the leaves \a employed 
by the natives as a vermifuge, and also as a bitter tonic and febri- 
fuge in malarious fevers, especially in those of children. — PJiarm. of 
India. 

(183) Olerodendron serratnm (Blums). Do. 

Tsjera-teka, Mal. Ohini-dekkn, Tam. 

Desckiption. — Shrub ; young shoots four-sided ; leaves op- 
posite, 5-10 inches long, and broad in proportion, serrated ; 
panicles terminal ; flowers pale blue, with lower lip indigo- 
coloured. M. May — Jmie.^— Wight Icon. 1 1472. — ^Volkameria 

serrata, Linn. — Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii 62. — Bheede, iv. t. 29. 

Courtallum. Bombay. Cultivated in Travancore. 

Medioal Uses. — ^In the Northern Circars the root is known by 
the name of OuntanBharir^'te, and is laigely exported for medical 
purposes. It is used by the natives in febrile and catarrhal affec- 
tions. — (PJiarm. of India.) The leaves boiled with oil and butter 
are made into an ointment useful as an application in cephalalgia and 
ophthalmia. The seeds bndsed and boiled in butter-milk are slightly 
aperient, and are occasionally administered in cases of dropsy. — 
Ainalie. Bheede. J. Orah. 

(184) Oleyera gymnanthera (W. 4' ^') ^* 0. TERNSTRiSMiACEiB. 

Desceiption. — Tree; leaves cuneate-obovate, obtuse or 
shortly and obtusely pointed, coriaceous, entire ; peduncles 
twice as long as the petioles, 2-edged; anthers dotted with 



CLITOREA — COCCULUS. 145 

little points on the connectivum, without bristles ; sepals five, 
with two persistent bracteoles at their base ; petals five, dis- 
tinct, alternating with the sepals ; stamens distinct, adhering 
to the base of the petals ; fruit baccate, 2-3 celled, seeds two 
in each cell; flowers yellowish. Fl, May — July. — W. & A. 

Prod, i 87. WighCs Neilgherry Plants, i. 19. Ootaca- 

mund. 

EooNOMio Uses. — This large tree is common about Ootacamund. 
The timber is of a reddish colour, and considered by the natives to 
be strong and durable. — Wight 

(185) Glitorea Tematea (Ldnn.) K O. LsouMiNosiE. 

Shlongo EuspL Shnnkoo-poshpa, Mal. Earka Kartnn, Tam. Nnlla-ghentana, 
Tbl. Khagin, Hind. Upaxa-jita, Benq. 

Desckiption. — Climbing herbaceous plant; calyx 5-cleft; 
leaves unequally pinnated ; leaflets 2-3 pairs, oval or ovate ; 
stem pubescent, peduncles short, axillary, solitary, 1-flowered ; 
bracteoles large, roundish; flowers resupinate; legumes slightly 
pubescent, 1-celled, many-seeded ; flowers white or blue. FL 
All the year.— F. <fc A. Prod. i. 205.— Powb. Fl, Ind. iii. 321. 
— Eheede, viii t 38. Common in the Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — ^The powdered seeds are a useful purgative.* The 
root is used in croup : it sickens and occasions vomiting. It is also 
given as a laxative to children, and is also diuretic. Of tike two varie- 
ties, that with the white flowers is said to be the best. Dr O'Shaugh- 
nessy states that he repeatedly tried the root in order to ascertain the 
truth of its alleged emetic effects, but the restdts were not satisfactory, 
and he could not recommend its use. — Eoxb. Beng. Diap, 

(186) Ooccnlns tUIosiis {Dec,) N. 0. Menispermace^. 

Dier, Faridbnti, Hind. Doosra-tiga, Tkl. Hnyer, Beno. 

Description. — ^Twining shrub ; leaves on old branches, cor- 
date-orbicular or hastate, 3-lobed, obtuse or retuse, mucronulate; 
on young shoots oblong, cordate or acute at the base, more or 
less downy; petals about equal to the filaments; racemes 
axillary, not half the length of the leaves, of male flowers 
branched and corymbose, of female simple and 1-3 flowered ; 

* In combination with cream of tartar, this forms a safe and efficient laxative. 
The alcoholic extract is also a asefid preparation. The cost is trifling, as the 
seeds are easily procurable. 

10 



146 COCHLOSPERMUM — COCOS. 

nuts of the drape reniform, compressed; flowers small, greenish. 
Fl. Oct. — ^Dec. — W. <b A. Prod. i. 13. — Menispermum villo- 

sum, Lam, (not Roxb,) — M. hirsutum, Linn, Peninsula. 

Bengal. 

Medical Uses. — A decoction of the fresh root mixed with pepper 
and goat's milk is given in rheumatism — dose, half a pint every morning. 
It is said to be laxative and sudorific. When under this treatment, 
the natives make a curry of the leaves, which they recommend to 
their patients. The leaves, when agitated in water, render it mucila- 
ginous ; this sweetened with sugar, and drank when fresh made to 
the extent of haK a pint twice aday, is given for the cure of gonorrhoea. 
If suffered to stand for a few minutes, the mucilaginous parts separate, 
contract, and float in the centre, leaving the water clear like Madeira 
wine, and almost tasteless. — Eoxb, Ainslie, 

(187) Oochlospermiim gosBypinm (Dec) K O.Ternstroemuceje. 

Tanakoo-manun, Tam. TBchema-pungee Marum, Mal. Conda gonga-Chettu, 

TJ£L. 

Description. — Tree, 50 feet ; leaves palmately 5-lobed, lobes 
acuminated, quite entire, upper side becoming glabrous ; under 
tomentose ; sepals 5, oval-oblong, unequal, at length reflexed, 
the 2 exterior ones smaller ; petals 5, emarginate, unequal- 
sided; capsules shortly obovate; seeds numerous, somewhat 
reniform; flowers large, yellow, panicled; peduncles somewhat 
jointed at the base. Fl, March — April. W, & A, Prod, L 87. 

— Bombax gossipinum, Linn, — Boodb, Fl, Ind, iii. 169. 

Ti*avancore. CoromandeL Hurdwar. 

Economic Uses. — The seeds are surrounded with a soft silky 
cotton, apparently of little value, except for stufling pillows. The 
tree yields a gum called Outeera, used as a substitute for Tragacanth 
in the North-West Provinces. This gummy substance exudes fix)m 
every part of the tree, if broken. It is not uncommon in S. India, 
and IB conspicuous when in blossom, from its large yellow flowers. 
- — Royle. 

(188) Oocos nncifera (Linn,) K O. PALiCACEiB. 

Cocoanut-palm, Esq, Taynga, Tail Tenga, Mal. Narikadam, Tenkaia, Tel. 
Naril, Hind. Narikel, Benq. 

Description. — Spathe axillary, cylindric, oblong, terete, 
bursting longitudinally ; spadix erect, or nearly so, winding ; 
male flowers numerous, approximate, sessile, above the female; 
calyx 3-sepalled; leaflets minute, broadly cordate, fleshy; petals 



COCOS. . 147 

3 ; female flowers usually one (occasionally wanting) near the 
base of each ramification of the spadix ; corolla 6-petalled. — 
Roxh, Fl, Ind. iii. 614. — BJieede, i. i, 1-4. Shores of equi- 
noctial Asia and its islands. 

Medical Uses. — ^The freshly-prepared oil is of a pale-yeUowish 
colour, and ahnost inodorous, but after a few days acquires a pecu- 
liar rancid odour and taste. It is much used for liniments and 
other external applications. It is often employed as a local appli- 
cation in baldness, and in loss of hair after fevers and debilitating 
diseases. It has been used as a substitate for cod-liver oil with 
good effect ; but in such cases it was not the commercial oil in its 
crude state, but the oleine obtained by pressure, refined by being 
treated wilJi alkalies, and then repeatedly washed with distilled 
water. Its prolonged use, however, is attended with disadvantage, 
inasmuch as it is apt to disturb the digestive oigans, and induce 
diarrhoea. The expressed juice or milk of the &esh kernel has been 
successfully employed in debility, incipient phthisis, and cachexia. 
In large doses it proves aperient, and in some cases actively pur- 
gative, on which account it has been suggested as a substitute for 
castor-oiL — Pharm, of India. 

Economic Uses. — ^The principal distribution of the Cocoa-palm 
lies within the intertropicjEd regions of the Old and Kew Worlds, 
requiring a mean temperature of 72^. It is cultivated in great 
abundance in the Malabar and Goromandel coasts, Ceylon, the 
Laccadives, and everywhere in the islands of the Eastern Archi- 
pelago. It thrives b^t in low sandy situations, within the influence 
of the sea-breeze ; and although it grows far inland on the continent^ 
yet whenever found in places distant from the sea, the vigour of the 
palm is less than if cultivated in those maritime situations which 
nature has evidently determined should be its best and proper 
locality. Few if any products of the vegetable kingdom are so 
valuable to man in tiiose countries where it is indigenous as the 
Cocoanut-palm, for there is scarcely a part of the plant which can- 
not be applied more or less to some use by the inhabitants of tropical 
climates. Of these uses, the chief are the oil from the nuts, the 
nuts themselves, the fibres, the leaves, the stem, and the toddy ; but 
before detailing these separately, it may be as well to give a short 
account of the palm itself, its history, cultivation, &c. Many 
botanists have enumerated the manifold uses of the Cocoa-palm, and 
among them especially Koempfer and Loureiro have collected much 
valuable information. One of the earliest accounts is that by Marco 
Polo, whose description of the " Indian nuts," as he terms them, is 
remarkably accurate. When speaking of an island in the Indian 
Archipelago, he says : " The Indian nuts also grow here, of the size 
of a man's head, containing an edible substance that is sweet and 
pleasant to the taste, and white as milk. The cavity of this pulp is 



148 cocos. 

filled with a liquor clear as water, cool, and better fiayoured and 
more delicate than wine or any other kind of drink whatever." Sir 
John Mandeville also mentions the ''great nut of India;" and 
another ancient writer has said in a paper read before the Boyal 
Society in 1688 : '' The Cocoanut-palm is alone suf&cient to buUd, 
rig, and fireight a ship with bread, wine, water, oil, vinegar, sugar, 
and other commodities. I have sailed," he adds, " in vessels where 
the bottom and the whol^ cargo hath been from the munificence of 
this palm-tree." Though there are several varieties enumerated by 
Rumphius, yet they have all been resolved into three species, of 
which one only is indigenous in the East, the other two being 
natives of BrazU. Fortunately so prolific a plant requires little care 
in its cultivation, and being essentially maritime, thrives best in 
those situations where other trees would perish or decay. In Ceylon, 
where greater care than elsewhere is bestowed upon its cultivation, 
it is considered best that they should not be planted too close 
together. The soO should first be carefully cleared from weeds. 
The nut should not be carelessly placed in the earth, but in a 
position favourable for germination, attention to which is somewhat 
important to the future perfection of the tree. The nut should be 
quite ripe before being deposited in the ground, and the hole may 
be dug with the slightest labour, it being sufficient to cover only 
two-thirds of the nut. In three or four months the nut begins to 
germinate. The usual time for planting on the western coast is 
before the rains; and, unless the nut is transplanted, no further 
watering is required in the hot season, the internal moisture of the 
nut being sufficient for the nourishment of the young plant for 
nearly a year. After that time the palm requires watering twice 
a^ay until the fourth or fifth year, the roots being carefully heaped 
with earth to avoid too much exposure to the air. Beyond this 
no further care is requisite. From the fifth to the eighth year it 
begins to bear, according to the situation and soil, and continues 
bearing from seventy to eighty years. The tree is in its highest 
vigour from twenty-five to thirty years of age, and will attain the 
age of a hundred years. In the third year of its growth the fronds 
begin to fall, one. new frond appearing at the end of every month. 
These fronds fall more frequently in hot than in rainy weather. Of 
these there are about 28, more or less, in a full-grown tree. On a 
single tree there are about 12 branches or spadices of nuts, one 
bearing the dry nuts called Baruta or Cotta-tenga in Malayalum, 
another spadix the ripe ones, called Maninga-tenga. Most of the 
young fruits faU off, only a few coming to perfection ; but as from 
10 to 15 nuts on an average are produced on one branch, a single 
tree may produce from 80 to 100 nuts every year. Of trees re- 
quiring so little attention, it may easily be imagined how much 
value is attached to their possession. In Travancore and on the 
Malabar coast, the natives draw their chief subsistence frx)m the 
produce of this useful palm. The price of a full-grown tree varies 



COCOS. 149 

fix)m ^ rapee to 6 rupees, accoiding to circuinstances. A yearly 
tax to the Sircar is averci^ged at a few annas, so that the profit 
derived from a large plantation is very considerable. It will now 
be necessary to enumerate the various uses to which the several 
parts of the tree may be applied, and first among them may be 
mentioned, 

The Oil. — ^This is procured by first extracting the kernel from its 
outer integument or shell, and boiling it in water. It is then 
pounded and subjected to strong pressure. This being boiled over 
a slow fire, the oil floats on the surface. This is skimmed off as it 
rises, and again boiled by itself. Fourteen or fifteen nuts will yield 
about two quarts of oiL A somewhat different practice obtains on 
the Malabar coast. The kernel is divided into half-pieces, which 
are laid on shelves, and underneath is placed a charcoal fire in order 
to dry them. After two or three days they are placed on nmts, and 
kept in the sun to dry, after which they are put in a press. When the 
oil is well extracted by this method, a hundred nuts will yield about 
two gallons and a half of oiL This is the method usually resorted 
to when the oil is required for exportation ; the former, when merely 
used for culinary purposes. Of late years the application of steam, 
especially to a press, for the purpose of procuring the oil, has been 
attended with the greatest advantages. Cocoanut-oil in India is 
used chiefly for culinary purposes, burning in lamps, &c., and in 
Europe for the manufacture of soap and candles. The oil becomes 
solid about 70^ It is said that its consumption in Europe is likely 
to decrease, owing partly to the new means of purifying tallow, 
whereby candles equally good as those made from Cocoanut-oil are 
produced. Great quantities of oil are shipped a^nually from Ceylon 
and the western coast, and in extraordinary seasons have realised 
in England X70 a-ton, or upwards : the average price is from £35 to 
£40 arton. That which is shipped from Cochin bears generally a 
higher price than that from Ceylon. 

The Copra, which is the dried kernels, as also the PoonaCf is 
occasionally sent to Europe by itself from Ceylon and Cochin. The 
Poonac is the refuse of the kernel after the oil has been expressed. 
It is very fattening to fowls and cattle, and forms the best manure 
to young Cocoanut-trees, as it returns to the soil many of the com- 
ponent parts which the tree has previously extracted for the forma- 
tion of the fruits. Eor this reason it has been found worth while 
to transmit the Poonac to those localities where the Cocoanut-tree 
grows far inland, away from the saline soil of the coast. The Cocoa- 
palm abstracts from the soil chiefly silex and soda ; and where these 
two salts are not in abundance, the trees do not thrive. Common 
salt applied to the roots will be found very beneficial as a manure 
to the young trees when cultivated at any distance from the sea. 

Coir is the fibrous rind of the nuts, with which the latter are 
thickly covered. There are several ways of stripping the fibres from 
the husk. One is by placing a stake or iron spike in the ground, 



150 cocos. 

and by striking the nut on the point, the fibres are easily separated. 
The husks are first separated from the nuts, and then placed in salt 
or brackish water for about 12 or 18 months ; they are then scraped 
and cleaned for use. There exists, however, no such necessity for 
steeping the husk so long in water, it haying been found that a 
shorter time is sufficient for the purpose. In the Jury Eeport of 
the Madras Exhibition, we find : " It has lately been proved 
that the fibre from the husk of the ripe fruit is greatly improved in 
quality and appearance by beating, washing, and soaking, and that 
the old method of steeping in salt water for 18 months or 2 years is 
quite unnecessary, and that it produces a harsher and dirtier coir. 
The tannin which this substance, contains prevents the fibre from 
rotting ; but most of the coir of commerce is a dirty, harsh produce, 
very different from many of the clean and dyed samples e^ibited, 
which are suited to a superior class of manufEictures, as fine mats 
and furniture-brashes.'' Coir is applied to many uses — for stuffing 
couches and pillows, for cordage, saddles, &c. Large quantities are 
annually shipped to Europe, where it is manufactured into brushes, 
mats, and carpets, and even hats and bonnets ; the latter attracted 
much attention at the Great Exhibition in London. The fibre is 
rather difficult to twist; still it is made into ropes for ordinary pur- 
poses in shipping. The character of Coir, says Koyle, has long been 
established in the East, and is now well known in Europe as one of 
the best materials for cables, on account of its strength, lightness, 
and elasticity. These cables are further valuable, being durable, 
particularly when wetted with salt water. 

Numerous instances have been related of ships furnished with 
cables of this light, buoyant, and elastic material, riding out a storm 
in security, while stronger-made though less elastic ropes of other 
vessels have snapped in two, and even when chain cables have given 
way. Indeed, until chain cables were so largely introduced, all the 
ships navigating the Indian seas were furnished with Coir cables. 
Coir cordage, in Dr Wight's experiments, broke at 224 lb. weight 

The mode of extracting the toddy is the same as that used in 
other palms (see Borasgus), Spirit distilled &om the toddy is called 
arrack. Good vinegar is also made from it, particularly at Mahk 
One hundred gallons of toddy yield 25 of arrack. To procure the 
sugar or jaggery, the fresh toddy is boiled down over a slow fire, 
when the syrup is further evaporated to the brown coarse sugar. 
This jaggery is mixed with chunam for making a strong cement, 
enablmg it to resist great heat and to take a fine polish. The toddy 
is called Tenna-kulloo, and NanUie in Dukhanie. If taken before 
sunrise it is very refreshing and dehcious. The native doctors 
recommend it in consimiption ; and it is said that if regularly 
taken, it is good for delicate persons suffering from habitual consti- 
pation. 

The water of the nuts is used by the bricklayers in preparing a 
fine whitewash, also in making the best and purest castor-oil, a 



COFFEA. 151 

certain portion of it being mixed with the water in which the seeds 
are boiled. The shell, when burnt, yields a black paint, which, in 
fine powder and mixed with chnnam, is used for colouring walls of 
houses. The soft downy substance found at the bottom of the 
fix>nds is a good styptic for wounds, leech-bites, <&c. It is called in 
Tamil Tennamamittoo punjee, and. in Malay alum Tennam-pooppa. 
The web-like substance which surrounds the Cocoa-palm at those 
parts where the branches expand is called Panaday in Tamils Kon- 
jatty in Mdlayalumy and it is used by the toddy-drawers to strain 
the toddy through. In Ceylon it is manufEu^tured into a coarse 
kind of cloth for bags and coverings, and firom these bags, again, a 
coarse kind of paper is made. The Cocoanut cabbage is the terminal 
bud found at the summit of the tree ; but to procure it the tree must 
be destroyed. It makes an excellent pickle, and may also be used 
as a vegetable. 

In addition to the above uses, the leaves are employed for thatch- 
ing houses, especially in Malabar, and the stems for rafters of houses, 
bridges, beams, snudl boats, and, where the wood is thick, is even 
used for picture-frames and articles of furniture. It is known in 
Europe as the porcupine- wood, and has a pretty mottled appearance. 
The nuts, dried and polished, are made into drinking cups, spoons, 
baskets, and a variety of fanciful ornaments. The midribs of the 
leaves are used for paddles. 

The natives chew the roots as they do the arecaruut with the 
betle-leaf. Abundance of potash is yielded by the ashes of the 
leaves. Cocoanuts are occasionally fixed on stakes in the public 
roads in India for the purpose of giving light, for which they are 
well adapted from their fibrous covering without and oily substance 
within. Marine soap, or Cocoanut-oil soap, so useful for washing 
linen iu salt water, is made of soda, Cocoanut-lard, and water. So 
great and so varied are the uses of the Cocoa-palm, — ^fully calculated 
to realise the old saying, '' Be kind to your trees and they will be 
kind to you."* — EoyWs Fib, Plants. Simmonds. Lindley, Ainslie. 

(189) Coffea Arabica (Linru) "N, 0. Cinchonacr£. 

Coffee, Eno. Capi^-cdttay, Tam. Bun, kahwa, Arab. Eawa, Mal. Kawa» 
Coffee, Hnn). 

Description. — Large erect bush, quite smooth in every 
part; leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, shining on the 
upper side, wavy, deep green above, paler below; stipules 
subulate, undivided; peduncles axillary, short, clustered; 
corolla white, tubular, sweet-scented, with a spreading 5-clefb 
limb ; anthers protruded ; berries oval, deep purple, succulent, 
2-seeded. Bot. Mag. t 1303.— Dec. Prod, iv. 499.— JT. & A. 

* For farther uses of the Cocoa-palm see Appendix C. 



152 COPFEA. 

Prod, i. 435. — Wight Icon, t 53. Low mountains of 

Arabia. Neilgherries. Shevaroy hills. 

Medical Uses. — ^Tbe albumen of the seeds constitutes the aro- 
matic Coffee of commerce, which, when dried and roasted, is an 
agreeable tonic and stimulant. It has the power of removing 
drowsiness and of retarding the access of sleep for some hours, and 
is prescribed medicinally in various derangements of the viscera and 
in nervous headaches. In smaU doses, a strong decoction of Coffee 
is capable of arresting diarrhoea. It is often given to disguise the 
taste of nauseous medicines, particularly quinine, senna, and Epsom 
salts. A strong decoction of Coffee (an ounce to a cup) has been 
found of great service in allaying the severity of a paroxysm of 
spasmodic asthma. In poisoning by opium or other narcotic 
poisons, a strong infusion of Coffee, without mUk or sugar, is an 
effectual stimulant. It is also advantageously given in the de- 
pression after drunkenness. — Lindley, FL Med, Waring, Ther, 

Economic Uses. — ^The cultivation of this staple is now extend- 
ing in a surprising manner, and becoming of much importance. It 
has been pursued with great success by private individuals, many 
Europeans having settled in Wynaad and Travancore, and other 
mountainous tracts on the western coast, for the purpose of its 
cultivation. The value of commercial Coffee depends upon the 
texture and form of the berry, the colour and flavour. A French 
chemist has ascertained that Coffee-grounds make an excellent 
manure, owing to the nitrogen and phosphoric acid they contain. 

Bruce, in his ' Travels in Abyssinia,' states that the Coffee-plant 
is a native of Egypt. It is found in a wild state in the north of 
Kafliai, a district in the province of Navea ; and it is not improbable 
that the plant takes its name from that place. The first writer who 
makes any reference to it is Rauwolf, who wrote a treatise on the 
plant, of whose stimulating properties he speaks in the highest 
terms. Towards the end of the fifteenth century the plant was 
introduced into Arabia, and from thence it was taken, in 1690, to 
Batavia, by Van Hoom, then governor of Java. He cultivated it 
with much success at the latter place, and sent several plants to 
Amsterdam. In 1720 the plant was introduced into Martinique, 
and subsequently into the island of Bourbon and the Isle of France. 
• According to tradition, the Coffee -plant was introduced into 
Mysore by a Mohammedan pilgrim, named Baba Booden, who came 
and took up his abode on the uninhabited hills in the Kuggur 
division, named after him, and where he established a college, 
which still exists, endowed by Grovernment. It is said that he 
brought seven Coffee-berries from Mocha, which he planted near to 
his hermitage, about which there are now to be seen some very old 
Coffee-trees. The Coffee-plant has been known there from time 
immemorial ; but the earliest official account of it is in 1822, when 
the revenue was under contract. 



COLDEN lA — COLEUS. 1 53 

It was estimated that in 1861 there were of Coffee-planters in 
Wynaad alone, and excluBive of Mysore, Coorg, &c., 75 separate 
properties, with a total acreage of 24,149, of which considerably 
more than one-third is in bearing. The quantity exported in ten 
years had risen from 35,000 to 165,000 cwts., a far greater propor- 
tion than that from Ceylon in the same time. 

The genus Coffea includes fuUy fifty species, and, as at present 
constituted, occupies a very wide range. Africa, Asia, and America 
both North and South, claim indigenous species, but all confined to 
the warmer regions, either actually within the tropics or within 
a few degrees of either side. In Mexico, Brazil, and Peru, they 
abound There are several from Africa, while India and her islands 
claim one-fourth of the whole number. — WighVs Neilg. Plants, i 83. 

(190) Ooldenia procumbens (Linn.) K 0. EHRETiACKas. 

Sera-padi, Tam. Tripungki, Hind. Hamsa-padn, Txl. 

Description. — Stems procumbent, hirsute ; leaves short, 
petioled, obovate, unequally produced at the base above the 
petiole, folded, coarsely toothed, with adpressed villous hairs 
above, hirsute beneath ; flowers axillary, solitary, sessile, small, 
white; nuts wrinkled, rough. Fl, Sept — Dec. — Linn, Spec. 
182. — Dec, Prod, ix. 558. Common in rice-fields. 

Medical Uses. — The dried plants, mixed with Fenugreek seeds 
and rubbed to a fine powder, are used to promote the suppuration 
of boils. — Ainslie, 

(191) Coleus aromaticus (BentL) K 0. Lahiaoe^. 

Coantry Borage, Eho. Pathoor-clioor, Beng. 

Description. — Shrub, 2-3 feet ; branches tomentosely 
pubescent, or hispid ; leaves petiolate, broad, ovate, crenated, 
rounded at the base, or cuneate, very thick, hispid on both 
surfaces, or clothed with white villi, very fragrant, floral leaves 
hardly equal in length to the calyx ; racemes simple ; whorls 
20-30 flowered or more; calyx tomentose; tube of corolla 
about twice as long as the calyx, defracted at the middle; 
throat dilated ; lower lip a little dilated, boat-shaped ; flowers 
smallish, pale blue, very aromatic. FL April. — Dec. Prod. xii. 

72. — Plectranthus aromaticus, Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii 22. 

Common in gardens. 

Medical Uses. — ^This plant, a native of the Moluccas, has a 
pleasant aromatic odour and pungent taste^ and according to Loureiro 



154 COLOCASIA. 

is employed in Cocbin China in asthma^ chronic coughs, epilepsy, 
and other convulsive affections. — (Lour, Flor, Coch. 452.) It is a 
powerful aromatic carminative given to children in colic. It has, 
however, an intoxicating effect, a property remarked by Long in the 
Joum. of the Agric. Hort Soc. of India, who also states that in 
Bengal the natives use it in colic and dyspepsia. — {Long, ut supra^ 
X. 23. Wighfs Illustr, ii.) Every part of the plant is delight- 
fully &agrant The leaves are frequently eaten, and mixed with 
various articles of food, drink, or medicine. — Eoxb. Phamu of 
India, 

Another species, the C, barhaius, a native of the Peninsula, Gu- 
zerat, and Nepaul, is coilimonly cultivated in gardens of the natives 
at Bombay for the roots, which are pickled. — /. Graham, 

(192) Oolocasia antiauonun (Schott) K. 0. ARACEiB. 

Cocco, Eno. Chama, Tel. Knchoo, Beno. Shoma Kilangu, Tam. 

Description. — Stemless; leaves peltate, ovate, repand, semi- 
bifid at the base; scape shorter than the petioles; spathe 
much longer than the spadix, cylindric, erect; club sub- 
cylindrical, length of the antheriferous part of the receptacle ; 
anthers many-celled. Fl. Sept. — Nov. — Boxb. Fl. Ind, iii 494. 

— Wight Icon, t, 786. — Arum oolocasia, lAnn, Cultivated 

in the Peninsula. Tanjore in wet marshy grounds. 

Medical Uses. — The pressed juice of the petioles is highly 
styptic, and is even said to arrest arterial hcemorrhage, the wound 
after application healing by first intention. The C, inacrorhizd. also 
possesses much acridity in the fresh state, and is employed by the 
natives as an external stimulant and rubefacient. The acrid prin- 
ciple is, however, very volatile, and by the application of heat, or 
simple drying, the roots become innocuous. — Pharm, of India, 

EooNOMio Uses. — ^There are two varieties cultivated in lower 
BengaL They are planted about the beginning of the rainy season. 
Of the Kala-kuchoOy the leaves and petioles are eaten by the natives. 
Some varieties are seldom if ever eaten. 

The G, Indica is cultivated in Bengal for its esculent stems and 
small pendulous tubers. There is one variety with dark-coloured 
petioles, but they seldom produce ripe seeds. The C, nymph<Bfolia 
is common in Malabar, where it forms part of the food of the inhabit- 
ants. — {Roxb,) 

When the crop of C, dntiquorurn^ says Dr Seemann {Flora 
Vitiensis), is gathered in, the tops of the tubers are cut off and at 
once replanted. The yoimg leaves may be eaten like spinach ; but, 
like the root, they require to be well cooked in order to destroy the 
acridity peculiar to Aroideous plants. A considerable number of 



CONOCARFUS. loS 

■ • • • . 

varieties are known, some better adapted for puddings, some for 
bread, or simply for boiling or baking. The outer marks of dis- 
tinction chiefly rest upon the different tinge observable in the corm, 
leaf, stalks, and ribs of the leaves — white, yellowish, purple. 

(193) Gonocarpns acmninatns (Eozb,) 'N. 0. CoMBBGTACEiE. 

Pachi-man, Tel. 

Description. — Large tree; limb of calyx 5-cleft; petals 
none ; leaves without glands, nearly opposite, oval or oblong- 
lanceolate, entire, acute ; when young, pubescent, adult ones 
glabrous ; peduncles simple, with one head of flowers ; flowers 
small, pale-greenish. FL Jan. — Feb. — W. & A, Prod. L 316. 

— Boocb, FL Ind. ii 443. — Anogeissus acuminatus, Wall. 

Circar mountains. 

Economic Uses. — ^The timber of this tree is very hard and dur* 
able, almost equalling teak, especially if kept dried, but decays if 
exposed to water. It is good for house-building, though it is diffi- 
cult to procure straight logs of it. — Roxb. 

(194) Oonocarpos latifolius (Roxb,) Do. 

Yella-maddi, Siri-maun, Tel. Vallay-naga, Veckelii, Tah. 

Description. — Tree; leaves alternate or nearly opposite, 
quite entire; limbs of calyx 5-cleft; petals none; leaves with- 
out glands, elliptical or obovate, obtuse, emarginate, glabrous ; 
peduncles branched, bearing several heads of flowers some- 
times thickly aggregated ; fruit coriaceous, somewhat scaly, 
globular; seed solitary; flowers small, greenish pale. Fl. Jan. 
— Feb.— TT. cfe A. Prod, i. S16,— Wight Icon. t. 994— ^a*. 

Fl. Ind. ii 442. — Anogeissus latifolius, WaU. ^Valleys of the 

Concan rivers. Deccan hills. Dheyra Dhoon. 

Economic Usbs. — This is a large tree found on the Circar motm- 
tains, and other parts of the Peninsula. The timber ia good, and if 
kept dry is said to be very durable. It is especially esteemed for 
many economical purposes. Towards the centre it is of a chocolate 
colour. For house and ship building the natives reckon it superior 
to every other sort, except teak and perhaps one or two more. — 
(Roxb.) 

The ashes of this tree are said to be in demand as an article of 
food among certain wild tribes, inhabitants of the forests about the 
Neilgherries. The demand for it has been attributed to the large 
proportion of pure carbonate of potash which it yields j the diet of 



156 CORCHORUa 

the same people including a large quantity of tamarinds. The leaves 
are used for dying leather. The gum from the tree is extensively 
.employed in printing on cloth. — PoweWs Punj, Prod. 

(195) Corclionui capsnlaris {Linn.) K 0. Tiluoeub. 

CapsulAT Corchoros, Eno. Ghiualita pat, Beno. 

Description. — ^Annual, 5-10 feet; calyx deeply 5-clefb; 
petals 6 ; leaves alternate, oblong-acuminate, serrated, two 
lower serratures terminating in narrow filaments ; peduncles 
short ; flowers whitish-yellow in clusters opposite the leaves ; 
capsules globose, truncated, wrinkled and muricated, 5-celled ; 
seeds few in each cell, without transverse partitions ; in ad- 
dition to the 5 partite cells there are other 5 alternating, 
smaller and empty. FL June — July. — W, & A, Prod, i 73. 
— Wight Icon, t 311. — Roxb. Flor. Ind. ii 581. — Peninsula. 
Bengal. Cultivated. 

Economic Uses. — ^Extensively cultivated for the sake of its fibres; 
especially in BengaL The present species may be distinguished 
from all others by the capsules being globular instead of cylindricaL 
The cultivation and manufacture has been described in the excellent 
work of Dr Eoyle on the Fibrous Plants of India. According to 
his statement, the seeds are sown in April or May, when there is 
a probability of a small quantity of rain. In July or August the 
flowers have passed. When the plants are ripe, they being then 
from 3 to 12 feet in height, they are cut down close to the roots, when 
the tops are clipped off, and fifty or a himdred are tied together. 
Several of these bundles are placed in shallow water, with pressure 
above to cause them to sink. In this position they remain eight or 
ten days. When the bark separates, and the stdk and fibres be- 
come softened, they are taken up and untied ; they are then broken 
off two feet from the bottom, the bark is held in both hands, and 
the stalks are taken off. The fibres are then exposed to the sun to 
be dried, and after being cleaned are considered fit for the market. 
These fibres are soft and silky, and may be used as a substitute for 
flax ; hnk^jHaia^ the plant is one of rapid growth and easy cul- 
ture, the fibres are mmy perishable, and iiiAi^^Mig tu llilu (5lll5Um»- 
«kMM9<^MMh«^lose much of their value. The attention of practi- 
cal men has been turned to remedy' so serious a defect in one of the 
most useful products of BengaL Could the fibres be prepared with- 
out the lengthened immersion in water, whereby they are sub- 
sequently liable to tot and decay, the difficulty might be partially 
if not wholly overcome. So careful is the manufacturer obliged to 
be, that during the time the plants are in the water, he is forced to 
examine them daily in order to guard against undue decomposition; 



CORCHORUS — CORDIA. 157 

and even after they are removed from the water, the lower part of 
the stem nearest the root, which the hand has previously held, are 
80 contaminated that they are cut off as useless. These fragments, 
however, in themselves have their use : they are shipped ofif to 
America from Calcutta for the use of paper-making, preparing bags, 
and suchlike purposes, and even made into whisky. The great 
care of watching the immersed Jute until it almost putrefies, is to 
preserve the fine silky character ^6 UlUch valued in fiDres intenHed 
for export For consumption in this country such care is not taken, 
therefore the article is stronger and more durable. The trade is 
very considerable. Besides the gunny-bags made from the fibrous 
part or bark, the stems of the plant themselves are used for char- 
coal, for gunpowder, fences, basket-work, fuel. — Boyle, 

(196) Oorchorns olitoxias (Linn.) Do. 

Jew's Mallow, Eng. Singin janascha, Hnvn. Blunjee Pat, Beko. 

Description. — Annual, 5-6 feet, erect; leaves alternate, 
ovate-acuminated, serrated, the two lower serratures termin- 
ated by a slender filament; peduncles 1-2 flowered; calyx 
5-sepalled ; petals 5 ; capsules nearly cylindrical, 10-ribbed, 
5-celled, 5-valved ; seeds numerous, with nearly perfect trans- 
verse septa ; flowers small, yellow. Fl. July — ^August. — W. & 
A, Prod, i 73. — Roxb. Fl, Ind. ii. 581. — 0. decem-angularis, 
Roacb. Peninsula. Bengal. Cultivated. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — Eauwolf says this plant is sown in great 
quantities in the neighbourhood of Aleppo as a pot-herb, the Jews 
boiling the leaves to eat with their meat The leaves and tender 
shoots are also eaten by the natives. It is cultivated in Bengal for 
the fibres of its bark, which, like those of C, eapsiUaris, are employed 
for making a coarse kind of cloth, known as gunny, as well as cor- 
dage for agricultural purposes, boats, and even paper. Eoxburgh 
says there is a wild variety called Bun pat or Wild pat An account 
of the manufacture of paper from this plant at Dinajepore, may be 
found in Dr Buchanan's survey of the lower provinces of the Bengal 
Presidency. This plant requires much longer steeping in water than 
hemp, a fortnight or three weeks being scarcely sufficient for its 
maceration. The fibre is long and fine, and might well be substituted 
for flax. — Boxb. Boyle, 

(197) Oordia angastifoUa (Boxh.) K. 0. Corduceje. 

Nanow-leayed Sepistas, £no. Goond, Hiin). Narrooyalli, Tah. Nnkkeni, 
Tbl. 

Description. — ^Tree, 12-15 feet; leaves nearly opposite, Ian- 



158 CORDIA. 

ceolate, obtuse or emarginate, scabrous ; calyx campanulate^ 
obscurely 4-toothed ; corolla-tube longer than the calyx ; limb 
4-partite, with revolute edges ; panicles terminal, corymbose ; 
stamens 4 ; flowers small, white ; dinipe round, smooth, yello\^; 
nut surrounded with mucilaginous pulp. FL May. — Roab. FL 
Ind. ed. Car. ii 338. Mysora Bombay. Deccan. 

EeoNOMio Uses. — ^Thia tree was originally brought to notice by 
Dr Buchanan, who found it in Mysore. A fibre is prepared &om the 
bark which is made into ropes, and these are used in Malabar for 
dragging timber from the forests. It is very strong, and, by experi- 
ments roade at Cannanore, supported a weight of more than 600 lb. 
The fruit is eatable. Dr Gibson mentions that the wood is very 
tough, and useful for poles of carriages, and suchlike purposes. A 
species of Cordia (C. Madeodiiy Hooker) grows in the Grodavery 
forests, called Botka in Telugu. It is a very beautiful wood, and 
would answer as a substitute for maple, for picture-frames and so on. 
It is abundant in the forests near Mahadeopur, but does not extend 
to the Circars. It is also indigenous to the Jubbulpoor forests, where 
it is called Deyngan, It is supposed to be the tree described by 
Griffiths as Heniigymnia Madeodii, — Beddom^s Cat. of Trees in 
Godavery Forests. 

"^ . V ^/ -^^v,^(i9g^ Q^^^ latifolia (Roxb.) Do. 

Broad-leayed Sepujtan, Eno. Boto buhooari, Bkno. Bhoknr, Baralesoora, Hind. 

Description. — ^Tree, 12-25 feet; leaves roundish, cordate, 
entire, repand, 3-nerved, smooth above, scabrous beneath ; calyx 
villous, campanulate, with an unequally-toothed mouth; corolla 
short, campanulate; segments five; panicles terminal and 
lateral ; flowers numerous, small, white; drupe pale-straw colour, 
covered with whitish bloom ; nut surrounded with soft clammy 
pulp. Fl. March — ^April. — JRoxb. FL Ind. i 531. — Guzerat 
Silhet. 

Medical Uses. — ^Young fruits are pickled, and also eaten as vege- 
tables. There are two kinds of Sebesten fruit noticed by writers on 
Indian Materia Medica ; the first with the pulp separable from the 
nut, the other a smaller fruit with the pulp adhering to the nut. The 
latter is the sweetest of the two. The tree under notice bears the 
large kind of fruit, which is about the size of a prune, the C myxa 
producing the small ones. Lindley says that under the name of 
Sebesten plums, Sebestan, or Sepistans, two sorts of Indian fruit 
have been employed as pectoral medicines, for which their mucila- 
ginous qualities, combined with some astringency, recommend them. 



CORDIA — CORYPHA. 159 

They are beKeved to liave been the Persea of Dioscorides. — Ldndley, 
Fl, Med. Boxb. Colebr. in As. Res. 

(199) Cordia myxa (Linn.) Do. 

Sepiatan-plum, Eno. Vidi-mamin, Ma.l. Vidi-maram, Tam. Luaora^ Hind. 
Buhoooii, Bjeno. Nakern, Tel. 

Description. — Tree, middling size; leaves oval, ovate, or 
obovate, repand, smooth above, rather scabrous beneath ; calyx 
tubular, widening towards the mouth, torn as it were in 3-5 
divisions; divisions of corolla revolute; drupes globular, smooth, 
yellow ; panicles terminal and lateral ; nut 4-celled, tetragonal, 
cordate at both ends, surrounded with transparent viscid pulp ; 
flowers small, white. FL Feb. — March. — Rooib. FL Ind. ed. 
Car. ii. 332. — WigfU Icon, t 1378. — C. officinalis, or Sebestana 
domestica, Lam. — JRheede, iv. L 37. ^Both Peninsulas. Ben- 
gal N. Circars. 

Medical Uses. — ^The fruit was formerly known among medical 
writers as the Sebesten, and was occasionally sent to Europe as an 
article of Materia Medica. Horsfield mentions that the mucilage of 
the fruit is of a demulcent nature, useful in diseases of the chest and 
urethra, and also employed in Java as an astringent gargla The 
seeds are a good remedy in ringworm, being powdered and mixed 
with oil, and so applied. The smell of the nuts when cut is heavy 
and disagreeable : the taste of the kernels is like that of fresh filberts. 
The wood is soft, and is said to have furnished the timber from which 
the Egyptian mummy-cases were made. It is one of those used for 
procuring fire by friction. Graham states that in Otaheite the leaves 
are used in dyeing. The bark is much used as a mild tonic in Java. 
— Lindley. Ainslie. 

(200) Oorypha ombracnlifera (Linn.) K 0. PALMACEiE. 

Talipot or Fan Palm, Eira. Coddapana, Mal. Condapana, Tam. Talee, Brno. 

Description. — Trunk 60-70 feet ; leaves sublunate, palmate- 
pinnatifid, plaited ; segments 40-50 pair ; petioles armed ; in- 
florescence pyramidjJ, equalling the trunk of the tree ; calyx 
3-toothed ; petals 3 ; ovary 3-celled, 1-seeded. — JRoaib. Fl. Ind. 

ii. 177. — Hheede, iii 1 1-12 ind. Ceylon. Malabar. Malay 

coast. 

EcoKOMio Uses. — ^This is the well-known Fan-palm of Ceylon. 
Its large broad fronds are used for thatching, and also for writing on 
with an iron style. Such records are said to resist the ravages of 






160 COSCINIUM. 

time. The seeds are used as beads by certain sects of Hindoos. The 
^ / \ ^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ strong, and is commonly used for umbrellas by all 
Ai SAiMiJ cl^^^^ jtQ2lgiia,jmi4^]iiilg li]^Q ^ lady's fan, and is remarkably light, 
y^ A kind of^our or sago is prepared from the pith of the trunk. Little 
bowls and other ornaments are made from the nuts, and when polished 
and coloured red, are easily passed off for genuine coraL — (Roxib. 
Knox's Ceylon,) The most majestic and wonderful of the palm tribe, 
says Sir E. Tennent {Ceyl<m^ i. 109), is the Talipot, the stem of 
which sometimes attains the height of 100 feet; and each of its enor- 
mous fan-like leaves, when laid upon the ground, will form a semi- 
circle of 16 feet in diameter, and cover an area of 200 superficial feet. 
The tree flowers but once and dies, and the natives ^goJ^J^filMSe Sou^ 
that the bursting of the spadix is accompanied by a land explosion. ^j 

VJt-xl) jitili^i Of them they form coverings lor tne'irTousM^and ponaoie 
tents of a rude but effective character. But the most interesting use 
to which they are applied is a substitute for paper, both for books 
and ordinary purposes. In the preparation of Olaa, which is the 
term applied to them when so employed, the leaves are taken whilst 
tender, and after separating the central ribs, they are cut into strips 
and boiled in spring-water. They are dried first in the shade and 
afterwards in the sun, then made into rolls and kept in store, or sent 
to the market for sale. Before they are fit for writing on they are 
subjected to a second process. A smooth plank of Areca palm is tied 
horizontally between two trees; each Ola is then damped, and a 
weight being attached to one end of it, it is drawn backwcffds and 
forwards across the edge of the wood till the surface becomes per- 
fectly smooth and polished, and during the process, as the moisture 
dries up, it is necessary to renew it till the effect is complete. The 
smoothing of a single Ola will occupy from 15 to 20 minutes. An- 
other palm is the G. Talieray growing in Bengal, the leaves of which 
are used for writing on with an iron style, as well as for thatching 
T00&, being strong and durable. Hats and umbrellas are also made 
from them. — Roaib, 

(201) * Oofldninm fenestratmn (Colebr.) K 0. Menispebvacejb. 

Tree Taimeric, Eno. Mara Munjel, Tam. Jar-ki-lmldie, DuK. Mani-posimpoo, 
Tel. 

Description. — Climbing plant with thick ligneous stem and 
branches ; leaves alternate, petioled, cordate, entire, 5-7 nerved, 
smooth and shining above, very hoary below, acuminate or 
obtuse, 3-9 inches long, 2-6 broad; petioles downy, shorter 
than the leaves ; flowers in small globular heads, numerous, 
sub-sessile, villous, of an obscure green ; female umbels several 

* Sir W. Hooker in Pharmaceutical Journal, xii. 185 (with fig.) 



COSTUS — COVELLIA. 161 

from the same bud, rising from the branches, on thick downy 
peduncles; the latter longer and thicker in fruit; calyx 6- 
leaved ; 3 exterior sepals oval, downy outside ; 3 interior ones 
longer; petals 6, filaments very downy; style recurved ; berries 
round, villous, size of a large filbert ; seed 1 ; flowers greenish. 
Fl, Nov. — Dec. — Rosb, Fl, Ind. iii. 809- — Menispermum fene- 
stratum, GcRrtn. Aurungole Pass. Courtallum. Ceylon. 

Medical Uses. — This plant, which has long been known in 
Ceylon, is considered in that country to be a valuable stomachic. 
The wood is of a deep yellow colour, and bitter to the taste. The 
root in infusion is used medicinally. This is sliced, and steeped in 
water for several hours, and then drunk. This is the plant alluded 
to by Ainslie {Materia Indica, it 183), where he says that the root, 
which is an inch in circumference, is commonly met with in the 
bazaars, being brought from the mountains for sale. It is employed 
in preparing certain cooling liniments for the head, as weU as in the 
preparation of a yeUow dye. But its chief value consists in its tonic 
properties, for which the wood and bark are employed. — lAndley, 
Ainslie, 

(202) OoBtUB speciosns {Sm,) N. 0. Zinoiberaoe^ 

Tsjana-kTia, Mal. Bomma Eacbica, Tel. Eeoo, Hind, and Beng. 

Description. — Height 3-4 feet, spirally ascending; leaves 
sub-sessile, spirally arranged, oblong, cuspidate, villous under- 
neath ; flowers large, pure white. Fl. July — Sept. — Roxb, FL 
Ind. ed. Car. i. 57. — Wight Icon, t 2014. — C. Arabicus, Linn. 

— ^Amomum hirsutum, Lam. — Bheede, xi. t 8. CoromandeL 

Goncans. Bengal 

EcoNOMio Uses.~^A very elegant plant, found chiefly near the 
banks of rivers and other moist and shady places. A kind of pre- 
serve is made from the roots, which the natives deem very whole- 
some. They are insipid. — Eoxb, 

(203) OoveUia glomerata (Miq.) N. 0. Moraoks. 

Description. — Large tree ; trunk crooked, thick, bark of a 
rusty-greenish colour, rough ; leaves alternate, petioled, oblong 
or broad lanceolate, tapering equally to each end, entire, very 
slightly 3-nerved, smooth on both sides ; racemes compound 
or panicled, issuing immediately from the trunk or large 
branches ; fruit pedicelled, nearly as- large as the common fig, 

11 



162 CRAT^VA — CRINUM. 

clothed with soft down. Dak. Boynb. Fl, 243. — Miq. in Ann. 

Sc. Nat iii. S. i. 35. — Ficus glomerata, Roxb. ^Western 

coast. 

Medical Uses. — The bark is applied as an astringent to ulcers, 
and to remove the poison of wounds made by a tiger or cat The 
root is used in dysentery. The fruit is edible, but inspid, and is 
usually found full of insects. — PowdVa Punj\ Prod. 

(204) OratoYa nnrvala (Ham.) N. 0. CAPPARiDACEiE. 

Neer-vala, Mal. MavUingham^ Tam. Maredoo, Tjel. Tapia, Birmi, HiKD. 

Description. — Tree, 15-20 feet; leaves trifoliolate ; leaflets 
ovate-lanceolate, acuminated, lateral ones unequal at the base ; 
limb of the petals ovate-roundish ; torus hemispherical, very 
ovoid ; calyx 4-8epalled ; petals 4, unguiculate ; beny stipi- 
late, pnlpy inside ; flowers greenish white, with red stamens : 
racemes terminal Fl. Feb. — March. — W. Jk A. Prod. i. 23. 

— C. inermis, Linn, — Kheedcj Mal. ii t. 42. Malabar. 

Mysore. 

Medical Uses. — ^In the Society Islands, of which this tree is 
a native as well as of Malabar, it is planted in burial-grounds, be- 
ing esteemed sacred to idols. The leaves are somewhat aromatic, 
slightly bitter, and considered stomachic. The root is said to possess 
alterative qualities. The juice of the bark is given in convulsions and 
flatulency, and, boUed in oil, is externally applied in rheumatism. — 
AmsUe. 

Economic Uses. — ^The wood of C. Roxburghii is soft and easily 
cut, but tolerably tough, and is used for carving models, making 
writing -boards, and combs. At Jhelum the fruit is mixed with 
water to form a strong cement, and the rind as a mordant in dyeing. 
— {Stewards Punj. Plants.) It grows well on the slopes of the Eastern 
Ghauts and those towards Salem, as also in the ulterior generally. 

(205) Orinnm Afdaticnm (Willd.) N. 0. AjiARTLLmACEJE. 

Belntta pola-taU, Mal. Vesbi Moonghee, Tak. Kesara-chetta, T£L. Vesha- 
mnngaloo-pakoo, Tel. Sookh-dursim, Bbno. 

Descriptign. — Stemless; leaves radical, linear, concave, 
3-4 feet long, obtuse, pointed, margins smooth ; umbels 6-16 
flowered ; flowers sub-sessile ; roots bulbous, with a terminal 
fusiform portion, issuing from the crown, from which numer- 
ous fibrous roots proceed; flowers large, white, fragrant at 
night ; corolla tube cylindrical, usually pale green, segments 



CROTALAMA. 163 

linear-lanceolate, margins broad, with a recurved process at 
the apex of each. FL Oct. — ^Dec. — Booiib, Fl. Ind. ii. 129. — C. 

defixnm, Bot Mag. 2208. — Bheede^ MaL xL t 38. Both 

Concans. 

Medical Uses. — ^The leaves, bruised and mixed with castor-oil, 
are useful in whitlows and local inflammations of the kind. In Upper 
India the juice of the leaves is given in ear-ache. In Java the plant 
is reckoned a good emetic, and it is also considered of efficacy in 
curing wounds made by poisoned arrows. The root, sliced and 
chewed, is emetic. The G, toxicarium is a variety indigenous to 
both Concans, and of which Dr 0*Shaughnessy found by experi- 
ments the leaves to be equal as an emetic to the best ipecacuanha ; 
but recommended its only being resorted to when the latter cannot 
be procured. The plant is found on the banks of rivers and in 
marshy places, and flowers nearly all the year. — Boxb. J, Qrah, 
Ainslie, O'SIiaitghnessj/. 

(206) Orotalaria jnncea {Linn.) N, 0. LEOUMmoSiB. 

Sun-hemp plant, Enq. Wuckoo or Jannpa nar, TaH. Shanamoo, Til. Sunn, 
Beno. 

Desceiption. — Small plant, 4-8 feet, erect, branched, more 
or less clothed with shining silky pubescence or hairs ; branches 
terete, striated; stipulea and bracts setaceous; leaves from 
narrow linear to ovate-lanceolate, acute ; calyx deeply 5-cleft, 
densely covered with rusty tomentum, the 3 lower segments 
usually cohering at the apex ; racemes elongated, terminating 
every branch ; flowers distant ; legumes sessile, oblong, broader 
upwards, about twice the length of the calyx, tomentose and 
many-seeded; flowers yellow. Fl. Nov. — Jan.— JT. & A. 
Prod. i. 185.— Bosi. Fl. Ind. iii. 259.— Cor. ii t. 193.— C. 
Benghalensis, Lam. — C. tenuifolia, Rood). — C. fenestrata, Sims. 
Bot. Mag. Peninsula. Malabar. Bengal 

Economic Uses. — ^This plant is extensively cultivated for the 
sake of its fibres in many parts of India, especially in Mysore and 
the Deccan. These are known by different names, according to the 
localities where they are prepared. In some places the fibre is 
known as the Madras hemp or Indian hemp, but this latter appella- 
tion is incorrect. It is the Wy>ckoo-7iar of Travancore, the Sunn of 
Bengal, and so on. The mode of preparation differs from that of 
other fibres in one particular especially, the plant being pulled up 
by the roots, and not cut After the seeds are beaten out, the stems 
are immersed in running water for five days or more, and the fibres 



164 CROTON. 

are then separated by the fingers, which, process makes it somewhat 
expensive to prepare. Dr Gibson asserts that the crops repay the 
labour bestowed on them, as the plant is suited for almost any soil. 
"When properly prepared, the fibres are strong and much valued in 
the home markets. In this country they are used for fishing-nets, 
cordage, canvas, paper, gunny-bags, &c, &c, — ^the latter name being 
derived from the word Chni, the native name for the fibre on the 
Coromandel coast In the 'Eeport on the Fibres of S. India' it is 
stated that the fibre makes excellent twine for nets, ropes, and vari- 
ous other similar articles. The fibres are much stronger if left in 
salt water. They will take tar easily, and with careful preparation 
the plant yields foss and hemp of excellent quality. It is greatly 
cultivated in Mysore, and also in Rajahmundry. In the latter dis- 
trict it is a dry crop, planted in November and cut in March. The 
yellow flowers resemble those of Spanish broom. It requires manure, 
but not too much moisture. Samples of the Sunn fibre were sent 
to the Great Exhibition, and also to the Madras Exhibition of 1855. 
On those forwarded to England ^£r Dickson reported that these 
fibres will at all times command a market (when properly prepared) 
at £i5 to £50 a-ton, for twine or common purposes ; and when pre- 
pared in England with the patent liquid, they become so soft, fine, 
and white, as to bear comparison with flax, and to be superior to 
Eussian flax for fine spinning. In the latter state it is valued at 
£80 a-ton. In several parts of India the price varies from R. 1 to 
Es. 2-8 per maund ; in Calcutta, about Es. 5 per maund — and the 
prices both in the latter place and Bombay are gradually increasing. 
By experiments made on the strength of the fibre, it broke at 407 
lb. in one instance. Large quantities are shipped for the English 
market. What is known as Jubbulpore hemp is the produce of (7. 
tenui/olia, which, according to Wight, is a mere variety of O. juncea. 
Eoyle, however, and other botanists, think that it is a distinct plant. 
It is said to yield a very strong fibre, but probably not very different 
from the Sunn. — Boyle, Jury Reports. Report on Fibres of S. 
Iiuiia, 

(207) Oroton tiglium {Linn,) N. 0. Euphorbiacej:. 

Croton-oil plant, Eno. Cadel-avanacu, Neervaula, Mal. Nenralum, Tam. Nay- 
palum, Tel. Jumalghota, Hind, and Due. Jypal, Beno. 

Deschiption. — Small tree with a few spreading branches ; 
leaves alternate, ovate-oblong, smooth, acuminate, 3-5 nerved 
at the base, covered when young with minute stellate hairs ; 
petioles channelled ; calyx 5-cleft ; petals 5, lanceolate, woolly ; 
racemes erect, terminal ; upper flowers male, lower ones female; 
seeds convex on one side, bluntly angular 09 the other, en- 
veloped in a thin shell ; flowers small, downy, greenish yellow. 



CROZOPHORA, 165 

Fl April — June. — Wight Icon, t 1914. — Roodb. Fl Ind. iii. 
682. — Bheede, ii t 33. CoromandeL Travancore. 

Medioal Uses. — ^The seeds yield the well-known Croton-oiL They 
aie the size of a sloe, and are considered one of the most drastic pur- 
gatives known. Teu or twenty seeds have been known to kill a horse 
by producing the most violent diarrhoea. The usual way to get the 
olL is first to roast the seeds and then compress them. The colour 
is brownish, or brownish yellow, soluble in fixed and volatile oils. 
So powerful is its action that a single drop of the oil applied to the 
tongue is considered sufficient to insure the full results, especially in 
incipient apoplexy, paralysis of the throat, or difficulty of breathing 
arising £K>m these causes, even should the patient be insensible at 
the time. But this must be of the pure oil, for it is often adulterated 
with olive, castor, or purging nut oU. It is also employed in visceral 
obstruction, and occasionally in dropsy. The seeds mixed with honey 
and water are often applied to obstinate buboes in native practice. 
The expressed oil of the seed is a good remedy, externally applied, in 
rheumatism and indolent tumours. Kheede says that the leaves 
rubbed and soaked in water are also purgative, and when dried and 
powdered are a good application to snake-bites. If the leaves are 
chewed they inflame the mouth and lips, and cause them to swell, 
leaving a burning sensation. The mode of preparing the oil in 
Ceylon is by pulverising the seeds ; the powder is then put into bags, 
placed between sheets of iron, left to stand for a fortnight and then 
filtered. Alcohol is then added to twice the weight of the residue. 
Much caution is requisite to avoid injury from the fumes which arise 
during the process. The wood, which is bitter-tasted, is gently emetic 
and powerfully sudorific. — (Ainslie. Roxh. Lindley,) The seeds 
of the G, polyandrum are reckoned a useful purgative. The natives 
mix them with water, administering two or three at a time, according 
to circumstances. — Roxh. Zdndley, 

(208) Orozopliora plicata (Ad. Juss.) K 0. Do. 

SoubalU, Hind. Lingameriam chetta, Tel. Khoodi-okra, Beno. 

Description. — Small annual, hoary; sterns and branches 
round, dichotomous ; leaves alternate, waved, toothed, broadly 
cordate, tapering to a stalk; flowers small, greenish white; 
male ones above the females ; capsules scabrous. FL Nov. — 

Jan. — Roaib. Fl. Ind. iiL 681. — Croton plicatum, VaJU. 

Common in the Peninsula. Behar. 

Medical Uses. — ^This is commonly found in rice-fields, flowering 
during the cold weather. It is said to have virtues in leprous afiec- 
tions, the dry plant being made into a decoction to which is added a 
little mustaid. A doth moistened with the juice of the green cap- 



166 CRYPTOSTEGIA — CUCUMIS. 

sules becomes blue after exposure to the air. This colouring matter 
might possibly be turned to good account. — Boxb. Ainslie, 

(209) Oryptostegia grandiflora {R, Br,) N. 0. Asclepiacea 

Palay, M/ll. 

Descbiption. — Twining shrub; leaves opposite, elliptic, 
bluntly acuminated, shining above, minutely reticulated with 
brown beneath ; calyx 5-parted, segments lanceolate with un- 
dulated margins ; corolla funnel-shaped, tube furnished with 
five enclosed narrow bipartite scales inside, covering the anthers, 
being opposite them; stamens enclosed; stigmas globosely 
conical; corymbs trichotomous, terminal; flowers large, red- 
dish purple ; follicles divaricate, acutely triquetrous. Fl. All 
the year. — Wight Icon, t 832. — Nerium grandiflorum, JBac6. 
Fl, Ind. ii 10. Malabar. Coromandel. 

Economic Uses. — ^This plant yields a fine strong fibre resembling 
fiax, and which may be spun into the finest yam. A good specimen 
was exhibited at the Madras Exhibition. The milky juice has long 
been known to contain caoutchouc, which is often prepared for rubbing 
out pen'cil-marks, but it has not yet been collected for the purposes 
of commerca Samples of a fair quality were sent to the Madras Ex- 
hibition. — Jury Rep, Mad, Exhih. 

(210) Oucnmis utilissimus {Roxh,) K. 0. Cucurbitage^ 

Field Cucumber, £no. Kakrie, Hind. Eankoor kurktee, Beno. Doskai, Tel. 

Description. — ^Trailing ; stems scabrous ; leaves broad-cor- 
date, more or less 5-lobed ; lobes rounded and toothed ; male 
flowers crowded, females solitary ; fruit short, oval, when young 
pubescent, when old glabrous, variegated ; flowers yellow. Fl. 
Nearly all the year.— W. & A. Prod, i. 342.— 5oa;6. Fl, Ind. 
iii. 721. Cultivated. 

Economic Uses. — ^The fruit is pickled when half grown, and when 
ripe and hung up it will keep good for several months. The seeds 
contain much farinaceous matter mixed with a large proportion of 
mild oil. The meal is an article of diet with the natives, and the oil 
is used for lamps. Eoxburgh has the following remarks upon this 
plant : " This appears to me to be by far the most useful species of 
Cucumie that I know : when little more than half grown, the fruits 
are oblong and a little downy — in this state they are pickled ; when 
ripe, they are about as large as an ostrich's egg, smooth and yellow. 
When cut they have much the flavour of the Melon, and will keep for 



CDMINUM. 167 

several monthB, if carefully gathered withoat being bruised, and bung 
up. They are also in this state eaten raw, and much used in curries 
by the natives. The seeds, like those of other Cucurbitaceous fruits, 
are nutritious ; the natives dry and grind them into a meal, which 
they employ as an article of diet ; they also express a bland oil from 
them, which they use in food and bum in their lamps. Experience 
as well as analogy proves these seeds to be highly nourishing, and 
well deserving of a more extensive culture than is bestowed on them 
at present. The powder of the toasted seeds mixed with sugar is 
said to be a powerful diuretic, and serviceable in promoting the 
passage of sand or gravel. As far as my observation and informa- 
tion go, this agriculture is chiefly confined to the Guntoor Circar, 
where the seeds form a considerable branch of commerce. They are 
mixed with those of Holcus sorghum^ or some others of the large cul- 
miferous tribe, and sown together : these plants run on the surface 
of the earth and help to shade them from the sun, so that they 
mutually help each other. The fruit, as I observed above, keeps 
well for several months if carefully gathered and suspended. This 
circumstance renders it an excellent article to carry to sea during long 
voyages." — (Bozb,) The G. pseudocoloq/nthis found on the slopes 
of the Western Himalaya is a good cathartic. It is called the 
Himalayan Colocynth. — (Royle,) The C. momordica is an article of 
diet, and a good substitute for the common Cucumber, which is also 
cultivated to a great extent in lndisi.—=-(Roxb.) Two other plants of 
this natural order may be mentioned here — the Cticurbita pepo, the 
well-known Pumpkin, which is reputed to possess anthelmintic pro- 
perties in its seeds useful in cases of Taenia. The fruit is very 
common in India, in which case the remedy, if really effectual, might 
be readily available. The other is the C, maxima^ which would 
appear to possess similar properties, and to have been successfully 
applied in cases on record. — Pharm. of India. 

(211) Onminum Oyxninnm {Linn.) K 0. TJmbbllifer£. 

Cummin, Eno. 

Description. — Herbaceous; leaves multifid, lobes linear- 
setaceous, acute ; calycine teeth 5, unequal, persistent ; petals 
with the point inflexed ; umbel with 3-5 rays, involucre longer 
than the usually pubescent fruit; seeds slightly concave in 
front, convex on the back ; flowers white. — W. & A. Prod, i 
m.—Dec Prod. iv. 201.— Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 92. Cultivated 

Medical Uses. — ^The seeds are met with in the bazaars throughout 
India, being much in use as a condiment. Their warm bitterish taste 
and aromatic odour reside in a volatile oiL Both seeds and oil pos- 
sess carminative properties analogous to Coriander and Dill, and on 
this account a^e much valued by the natives. — Pharm of India. 



168 CURCULIGO — CURCUMA. 

(212) Onrcnligo orchioides (Goertn.) K. 0. Hypoxidaceje. 

Nelapanna, Mal. Nelapannay, Tam. Nala-tatta-gudda. Tel. Niahmooslie^ 
Hind. Tomoolie, Telnoor Moodol, Bsno. 

Description. — Stemless ; root tuberous, with many spread- 
ing fibres; leaves narrow-lanceolar, nerved, slender; petioles 
channelled, sheathing below ; racemes solitary, axillary : flowers 
hermaphrodite, yellow. Fl. All the year. — Roxb. Fhr, Ind, ii 
144. — Cor, i. t 13. — Rheede, xii. t 59. Peninsula every- 
where. Travancore. 

Medical Uses. — ^The root is slightly bitter and aromatic, and 
muciLaginouB to the taste, and is considered a demulcent. It is used 
in gonorrhoea, and also has tonic qualities. There are several species, 
or rather varieties, the G, Malabarica and C. hrevi folia, but the same 
virtues attach to all. It grows in moist shady places. The apices 
of the leaves are viviparous, and will produce young plants, if allowed 
to rest on the ground for any length of time. — Roxb. Aimlie. 

(213) Ourcnma angnstifolia (Roxb,) K O. Zingiberaceje. 

V East Indian Airowroot, Enq. Eooa, Eooghei, Mal. Eooa, Tam. Tikhur, HDfD. 

Descriptign. — Bulbs oblong, with pale oblong pendulous 
tubers ; leaves petioled, narrow lanceolate, most acute, striated 
with fine parallel veins ; flowers longer than the bracts; petioles 
6-10 inches long, lower half sheathing; spike radical, 4-6 inches 
long, crowned with an ovate purple tuft; flowers bright yellow, 
expanding at sunrise and fading at sunset. Fl, July. — JRowb. 
FL Ind, ed. Car. i. 31. Nagpore. Travancore. 

Economic Uses. — ^An excellent kind of Arrowroot is prepared from 
the tubers of this species, especially in Travancore, where the plant 
grows in great abundance. This is a favourite article of diet among 
the natives. The flour, when finely powdered and boiled in milk, is 
an excellent diet for sick people or children. It is also much used 
for cakes, puddings, &c., though considered by some to produce con- 
stipa'tion. In a commercial point of view the East Indian Arrowroot 
is below the West Indian starch, though similar in its quahties and 
uses. The. exports of Arrowroot from Travancore average about 250 
candies annually. In 1870-71 were exported from Bombay 3 cwt., 
and from Madras in 1869-70 3729 cwt, valued at 14,152 rupees. 
The mode of preparation is as follows : The tubers are first scraped 
on a rough stick, generally part of the stem of the common rattan, or 
any plant with rough prickles to serve the same purpose. Thus pul- 
verised, the flour is thrown into a chatty of water, where it is kept 



CURCUMA. 169 

for about two hours : all impurities being carefully removed from the 
surface. It is then taken out and again put into fresh water, and so 
on for the space of four or five days. The flour is ascertained to have 
lost its bitter taste when a yellowish tinge is communicated to the 
water, the whole being stirred up, again strained through a piece of 
coarse cloth and put in the sun to dry. It is then ready for use. — 
(Roxb. Pers, Ohs.) The root of the C, Amada or Mango ginger is 
used as a carminative and stomachic, and a kind of Arrowroot is 
prepared from the tubers of the G, leucorrhiza, — Boxb. 

t^ €,y^ ^ 1 C ) (214) Curcujna aromatica (SaluK) Do. A^>, /. i 3 

^^ Wild Turmeric, Eno. Jonglee-hiildee, Hind. Bun-huldee, Benq. nA 

Description. — Bulbs small, and, with the long palmate 
tubers, inwardly yeUow; leaves 2-4 feet in length, broad 
lanceolate, sessile on their sheaths, sericeous underneath ; the 
whole plant of a uniform green; spikes 6-12 inches long; 
flowers largish, pale rose-coloured, with a yellow tinge along 
the middle of the lip. FL March — May. — Eoxb. FL Ind. ed. 
Car: L 23. — Wight Icon, t 2005. — Curcuma zedoaria, Eoxb. 
Malabar. BengaL 

Medical Uses. — An ornamental and beautiful plant when in 
flower. It abounds in the Travancore forests. The natives use the 
root as a perfume and also medicinally, both when fresh and dried. 
They have an agreeable fragrant smell, are of a pale-yellow colour 
and aromatic taste. Boxburgh asserted that the roots of this species 
are not only the longer kinds of Zedoary sold in the shops, but 
identical with the shorter kind, the tubers having merely been cut 
previous to drying. The root possesses aromatic and tonic proper- 
ties, and is less heating than ginger. — Pereira. Roxb, 

(215) Onrcnma longa (Roxb,) Do. 

, Long-rooted Turmeric, Eno. Mangella-kua, Mal. Munjel, Tam. Pasoopoo, 

Tel. Huldee, Pitnui, Hind. Hurida, Huludee, Beng. 

Description. — Leaves broad lanceolate, long - petioled ; 
bulbs small, and with the palmate tubers inwardly of a deep 
orange-colour; flowers large, whitish, with a faint tinge of 
yellow, the tufi: greenish white. Fl. July — Sept. — Roxb. FL 
Ind, ed. Car. i. 32. — Rheede, xL i, 11. 

Medioal Uses. — Cultivated in most parts of India. According 
to Eumphius, the Javanese make an ointment with the pounded 
loots and rub it over their bodies as a preservation against cutaneous 



170 CURCUMA. 

diseases. The root is considered a cordial and stomacliic, and is 
prescribed by native doctors in diarrhoea. It is also an ingredient in 
curries. There is a wild sort which grows in Mysore. The natives 
consider Turmeric in powder an exceUent application for cleaning 
foul ulcers. The root in its fresh state has rather an unpleasant 
smell, wluch goes off when it becomes dried ; the colour is that of 
saffron, and the taste bitter. Mixed with juice of the Kelli-kai 
{Emhlica officinalis), it is given in diabetes and jaundice. The juice 
of the fresh root is anthelmintic, and the burnt root mixed with 
margosa oil applied to soreness in the nasal organs. The root is 
applied by the Hindoos to recent wounds, bruises, and leech-bites. 
Eoxburgh states that it is frequently planted, in the neighbourhood 
of Calcutta, on land where sugar-cane grew the preceding year, the 
soil being well ploughed and clieaned from weeds. It is raised in 
April and May. The cuttings or sets — viz., small portions of the 
fresh root — are planted on the tops of ridges prepared for the pur- 
pose, about 18 inches or 2 feet apart. One acre thus sown will 
yield about 2000 lb. weight of the fresh roots. — {Aindie. Roxh.) 
Lindley says that the juice is a test for free alkalies. Turmeric is 
regarded in the East Indies as an important bitter, aromatic stimu- 
lant and tonic, and is employed in debilitated states of the stomach, 
intermittent fevers, and dropsy. The starch of the young tubers 
forms one of the East Indian arrowroots. — (Boyle.) It is to be ob- 
served that the same tubers which yield starch when young yield 
Turmeric when old, the colour and aroma which gives its character 
to the latter appearing to be deposited in the cells at a later period 
of growth. — (Lindley.) Turmeric paper is unsized paper steeped 
in tincture of Turmeric and dried by exposure to the air. It is em- 
ployed as a test for alks^es, which render it reddish or brownish. 



(216) Ourcuma zedoaria (Roacoe). Do. 

LongZedoary, Eno. Katon-inschi-kua, Mal. Pulang Eillungu, Capoor-kiclilie, 
Taic Kiichoora, Kichlie-gudda, Tel. Kuchoora, Kakhura, Hind. Shutee, Beno. 
Eutchoor, Due. 

Description. — Height 3-4 feet ; bulbs and palmate tubers 
pale straw-coloured throughout ; leaves broad lanceolate, with 
a dark-purple sheath down the middle ; scape 5-6 inches long, 
distinct from the leafy stems ; spike 4-5 inches long ; flowers 
deep yellow and bright crimson tuft. FL April. — Wight 
Icon. t. 2005. — Curcuma zerumbet, Roxh. FL Ind. i. ei. Car. 

20. -^Corom. iii t 201. — Bheede, xi. t 7. Chittagong. 

Malabar. 

Medical Uses. — ^According to Eoxburgh this plant yields the 
long Zedoary of the shops, though Pereira states that the plant 



CUSCUTA — CYCAS. l7l 

has not been well ascertained.' The root is used medicinally by 
the natives. It is cut into small round pieces, about the third of 
an inch thick and two in circumference. The best comes from 
Ceylon, where it is considered tonic and carminative. According to 
Eheede it has virtues in nephritic complaints. The pulverised 
root is one of the ingredients in the red powder (Abeer) which the 
Hindoos use duiing the Hooly festival — Boxb, Pereira. 

(217) (hiscnta refleza (Roxh.) X. 0. CoNvoLVULAOiLfi. 

Description. — Stem funicular; flowers loosely racemose, 
each flower pedicelled; sepals acutish, ovate-oblong; corolla 
tubular, lobes minute, acute, externally reflexed; anthers 
sub-sessile at the throat of the corolla ; scales inserted at the 
base, fimbriated ; styles short ; capsule baccate ; flowers small, 
white. M. Feb. — March. — Boxi. Fl. Irid. i. p. 446. — Dec, Prod. 
ix. p. 454 — C. yerrucosa, Sweet Brit Fl. Oard. 1 6. — Roocb. Cor. 

t 104. — jffboA Exot. Flor. t. 150. Peninsula. Silhet. 

Guzerat. 

Mbdioal Uses. — ^This plant is used by the natives to purify the 
blood, and is especially useful in bilious disorders. It is also used 
externally in cutaneous disorders. It is occasionally used in dyeing. 
— Potoell, Punj. Prod. 

(218) Oycas circinalis {Linn.) K 0. CTCADACEiB. 

Wara-gudu, Tel Todda-pana, Mal. 

Description. — Trunk cylindrical, unbranched, surmounted 
with a terminal bud, consisting in the male of a cone com- 
posed of peltate scales; leaves pinnated, thorny, springing 
from the apex of the trunk. Fl. May. — Roxb. Fl. Ind. iil 

744 — Eheede Mal. iii t. 13-21. Malabar. S. Concans. 

Forests near Trichore. 

Medical Uses. — The scales of the cone are a most useful nar- 
cotic medicine, and are commonly sold in the bazaars. — (Sujypl. to 
Phann. of India.) A gummy substance which exudes from the 
stem produces rapid suppuration in malignant ulcers. — (lAndley.) 
The fruit-bearing cone reduced to a poultice is applied to the loins 
for the removal of nephritic pains. — Rheede. 

Economic Uses. — This is a singular^looking plant, very abundant 
in the forests of Malabar and Cochin. It is very fertile, and easily 
propagated both from nuts and branches. Its vitality is said by 
Eheede to be remarkable, insomuch that the tree, having been taken 



172 CYNODON — CYNOMETRA. 

up and put down again a second time after one or two years, it 
will grow. A kind of sago is prepared from the nuts. In order to 
collect it the latter are dried in the sun for about a month, beaten 
in a mortar, and the kernel made into flour. It is much used by 
the poorer classes of natives and forest tribes. It, however, will not 
keep long. — Simmonds, 

(219) Oynodon dactylon (Pers.) K 0. GRAMiNACEiE. 

Huriallee Grass, Eno. Amgam-pilloo, Tam. Gericha, Tel. Doorba, Brno. 

Desckiption. — Culms creeping, with flower-bearing branch- 
lets, erect, 6-12 inches high, smooth; leaves small; spikes 
3-5, terminal, sessile, secund, 1-2 inches long ; rachis waved ; 
flowers alternate, single, disposed in two rows on the under 
side; calyx much smaller than the corolla; exterior valves 
boat-shaped, keel slightly ciliate. FL All the year. — Panicum 
dactylon, Linn, — RosA. Fl, Ind. ed. Car. i 292. — ^Agrostis 
linearis, Retz, — Both Peninsulas. Bengal 

Economic Uses. — One of the commonest of Indian grasses, grow- 
ing everywhere in great abundance. It forms the greater part of 
the food of cattle in this country. Respecting this grass Sir W. 
Jones observes (As. Res. iv. 242) that "it is the sweetest and most 
nutritious pasture for cattle." Its usefulness, added to its beauty, 
induced the Hindoos to celebrate it in their writings. The natives, 
too, eat the young leaves, and make a cooling drink from the roots. 
— (Roxb.) On account of its rooting stolons and close growth, 
when watered it is well adapted for turfing. From universal testi- 
mony it is the best of all our grasses for fattening and mUk-produo- 
ing powers. — Stewards Punj. Plants, 

(220) Oynometra ramiflora {Linn.) K. 0. LEOuHiNosiB. 

Iripa, Mal. 

Description. — Tree, 60 feet ; leaves composed of 2-6 oppo- 
site leaflets ; calyx tube very short, 4-partite, segment re- 
flexed ; petals 5, oblong-lanceolate ; stamens distinct, inserted 
with the petals into a ring lining the calyx tube ; peduncle 
solitary, few-flowered, springing from the branches among the 
leaves; flowers white. — W. & A. Prod, i 293. — Rheede Mal. 
iv. t 31. Malabar. 

Medical Uses. — The root is purgative. A lotion is made from 
the leaves boiled in cows' milk, which, mixed with honey, is applied 



CYPBRUS. 173 

externally in scabies, leprosy, and other cutaneous diseases. An 
oil is also prepared ^m the seeds used for the same purposes. — 
Rheede, 

(221) OyperuB bnlbosns (Vahh) N. 0. Cyperace^. 

Sheelandie, Tam. Pura-gaddi, Tel. 

Description. — Culms 2-4 inches high, senii-terete, 3-cor- 
nered ; root bulbous, tunicate, with bulbiferous fibres ; spike- 
lets linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 10-16 flowered, alternate in 
the apex of the culm, lower two double ; scales ovate-lanceo- 
late, acuminate; style trifid; seed oblong, 3-comered, invo- 
lucre with alternate leaflet ; two lower ones longer than the 
spikes; leaves filiform, all radical, far-sheathing. — Roxb. FL 
Ind, ed. Car, i. 196. — Wight Contrib. p. 88. — C. jemenicus, 
Roxb, CorbmandeL 

Economic Uses. — This kind of sedge is found in sandy situations 
near the sea on the Coromandel coast, where it is known as the 
Sheelandie arisee. Roots are used as flour in times of scarcity, and 
eaten roasted or boiled : they have the taste of potatoes. Puri 
gaddi \a the Telinga name of the plant, and Puri dumpa that of the 
root. The mode of preparing the flour is thus given by Eoxburgh. 
The little bulbs are gently roasted or boiled, then rubbed between 
the hands in the folds of a cloth to take off the sheaths ; this is all 
the preparation the natives adopt to make them a pleasant whole- 
some part of their diet, which they have frequent recourse to, par- 
ticularly in times of scarcity. Some dry them in the sun, grind 
them into meal, and make bread of them ; while others stew them 
in curries and other dishes. They are palatable, tasting like a 
roasted potato. — Roxh 

(222) Cypenui hezastacliTns {Rottl) Do. 

Eoray, Tam. Shaka-toongs, Tel. Koia, Mal. Moothoo, Beno. 

Description. — Culms erect, 1-2 feet, triangular with rounded 
angles; leaves radical, sheathing, shorter than the culms 
root tuberous, tubers irregular, size of filberts, rusty-coloured 
umbels terminal, compound; involucre 3-leaved, imequal 
spikes linear, sub-sessile. FL June — Aug. — Roxb, Fl, Ind, ed. 

Car. i. 201. — Wight Contrib, p. 81 — C. rotundus, Linn. . 

Peninsula. Bengal 

Medtoal Uses. — ^The tubers are sold in the bazaars, and used by 
perfumers on account of their fragrance. In medicine they are used 



174 CYPERUS. 

as tonic and stimulant, and have l)een employed in the treatment of 
cholera. In the fresh state, given in infusion as a demulcent in 
fevers, and also used in cases of dysentery and diarrhoea. It is per- 
haps the most common species in India of this extensive genus. It 
is found chiefly in sandy soils, but will grow almost anywhere. 
Hogs are very fond of the roots, and cattle eat the greens. It be- 
comes a troublesome weed in the gardens, being difficult to extirpate. 
— (Eoxb. Ainslie,) The roots are sweet, and slightly aromatic; 
the taste is bitter, resinous, and balsamic. Stimulant, diaphoretic, 
and diuretic properties are assigned them; and they are further 
described as astringent and vermifuge. — {Bengal Disp. p. 627. 
Pharm, of India.) The species C. pertenuis partakes of the same 
aromatic properties, and is also considered diaphoretic. Its delicate 
foim, small and compound umbels, short slender leaves, readily dis- 
tinguish this from the other Indian species. The roots, as weU as 
being medicinal, are used for perfuming the hair. — Boxb, 



175 



(223) Deemia extensa (R, Br.) N. 0. Asclepiaoks. 

Vaylie-partie, Ootainunnie, Tam. Jutuga, Tel. Sagowania, HmD. Oobnin, 
DuK. Cbagul-bantee, Beng. 

Description. — Twining, shrubby ; leaves roundish-cordate, 
acuminated, acute, auricled at the base, downy, glaucous 
beneath; stamineous corona double; outer one 10-parted, 
inner one -6-leaved ; peduncles and pedicels elongated, fili- 
form ; margins of corolla ciliated ; flowers in umbels, pale 
green, purplish inside; follicles ramentaceous. FL July — 
Dec. — Wight's Contrib. p. 59. — Icon. t. 596. — Cynanchum ex- 
tensum, Jacq. Icon. — ^Asclepias echinata, Rodb. Fl. IticL ii. 
44. Peninsula. Bengal Himalaya, 

Mbdical Uses. — In medicine the natives use the whole in infu- 
sion in pulmonary affections ; if given in large doses it will cause 
nausea and vomiting. The juice of the leaves mixed with chunam 
is applied externally in rheumatic swellings of the limbs. — Aitialie. 

Economic Uses. — A fibre is yielded by the stems which has been 
recommended as a fair substitute for flax. It is said to be very fine 
and strong. — Jury Rep. Mad. Exfiih. 

(224) Dalbergia frondosa (RoxK) "N. 0. Lequminosje. 

Description. — ^Tree, 30 feet ; bark smooth ; leaves pinnate; 
leaflets about 5 pairs, alternate, cuneate-oval, emarginate, when 
very young silky; panicles axillary, pubescent; flowers 
secund, racemose along the alternate branches of the panicles, 
sm^U, bluish white; calyx hairy; alse as long as the vexillum, 
about twice as long as the keel; corolla papilionaceous; ovary 
very slightly pubescent; legume lanceolate, 1-4 seeded or less. 
Fl. May— June.— F. & A. Prod. i. 266.— Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 
226. — Wight Icon. t. 266. Courtallum. Travancore. 

Mbuioal Uses. — ^The bark in infusion is given internally in 
dyspepsia, and the leaves are rubbed over the body in cases of 
leprosy and other cutaneous diseases. An oil is procured from the 
seeds used in rheumatic affections, and a milk which exudes from 
the root is occasionally applied to ulcers. — Roxb. 



17G dalbergia. 



(225) Dalbergia latifolia (Roxb.) Do. 

Black-wood tree, En a. Eettie, Corin-toweray, Tam. Eettie, Mal. Viroo-goodu- 
Chawa, Tel. Shwet-sal, Bemo. 

Description. — Tree, 40-50 feet; leaves pinnate; leaflets 
alternate 3-7, generally 5, orbicular, emarginate, above glab- 
rous, beneath somewhat pubescent when young; panicles 
axillary, branched, and divaricating; corolla papilionaceous; 
calyx segments oblong ; stamens united in a sheath open on 
the upper side; ovary stalked, 5-ovuled; legumes stalked, 
oblong-lanceolate, 1-seeded; flowers small, white, on short 
slender pedicels. FL April — July. — W. <k A, Prod. i. 264. — 
RoxK FL Ind. iii. 221,— Cor, ii t 113,— Wight Icon. t. 1156. 
Circar mountains. S. Concans. Travancore. 

Economic Uses. — A large tree, abundant in the forests of S. India 
and elsewhere, producing what is well known as the Black-wood. 
AlS a timber for furniture it is in great request. The planks, how- 
ever, have a propensity to split longitudinally, when not well 
seasoned. An earthy deposit is frequently found embedded in the 
largest logs, which occasions a great defect in what would otherwise 
be fine planks. Some planks are four feet broad after the sapwood 
has been removed. Black-wood is one of the most valuable woods 
of S. India, and when well polished has much the appearance of 
rosewood, which name it frequently receives in commerce. — Eoxb. 
Pers, Ohs, 

Black-wood is difficult to rear, from the ravages of insects on the 
sprouting seeds. It may, however, be successfully grown during 
heavy rains. The seed may also be sown in drills well supplied 
with the refuse of lamp-oil mills. The tree might be planted at 
distances of five yards, every alternate tree being afterwards re- 
moved. This tree also grows from suckers, but the wood does not 
turn out so well as that sown from seeds. — Besfs Report to Bomb. 
Govt. 1863. 

(226) Dalbergia Oojemensis (Roxb.) Do. 

Description. — Tree, 30 feet ; leaves pinnately trifoliolate ; 
leaflets ovate, roundish, rather villous, with undulated curved 
margins ; pedicels 1-flowered, rising in fascicles, and as weU as 
the calyx villous; flowers smallish, pale rose, fragrant. Fl. 
April — July.— -iJoa*. Fl, Ind. iii. 220. — Oujeinia dalbergioides, 

Bcnth, — WigU Icon, t 391. Nagpore. Godavery forests. 

Oude. Dheyra Dhoon. 



DALBERGI A — DAPHNE. 1 77 

Economic Uses. — ^This species yields a useful and valuable tim- 
ber especially adapted for house-building. — {Roxh) The wood in 
ripe trees is hard-veined and polishes well It is used chiefly for 
cot posts and legs, as well as for combs and all small work, also 
makes handsome furniture. It is not liable to warp, nor is subject 
to worms. It is of slow growth, and attains full size in about thirty 
years. — (PotcelVs Punj, Prod,) A kino extracted from the bark is 
useful in bowel-complaints. — Bedd, Flor, Sylv, t 36. 

(227) Dalbergia sissoo {Rozh.) Do. 

Tali, Sliisbam, Sissoo, Benq. and Hind. Sissa, Tel. 

Desckiption. — Tree, 50 feet ; leaves pinnate ; leaflets 3-5, 
alternate, orbicular or obcordate, with a short sudden acumina- 
tion, slightly waved on the margin, when young pubescent ; 
panicles axillary, composed of several short secund spikes ; 
flowers almost quite sessile ; stamens 9, united into a sheath 
open on the upper side; style very short; legumes stalked, 
linear-lanceolate, 3-seeded; flowers small, yellowish white. 
Fl April— July.— TT. & A, Prod. i. 2&A.—Roxh. Fl. Ind, iii. 
223. Coromandel. Guzerat. Bengal 

Economic Uses. — ^The timber is light and remarkably strong, 
of a light greyish-brown colour. It is good for ordinary economical 
purposes. It is much used in Bengal for knees and crooked timber 
in ship-building, as well as for gun-carriages and mail-carts. Its 
great durability combines to render it one of the most valuable tim- 
bers known. There are few trees which so much deserve attention, 
considering its rapid growth, beauty, and usefulness. It grows 
rapidly, is propagated and reared with facility, and early attains a 
good working condition of timber. Plantations have been recom- 
mended along the channels of the northern Annicuts. — (Eoxb. Jury 
Rep, Mad, Exhib,) It attains its fuU size in fifty years. It is said to 
be proof against the att-acks of white ants. The timber is very good 
for gun-carriages, and in some parts is largely used in dockyards. 
Also for saddles, boxes, and all furniture. A boat built from it is 
said to last twenty years. The raspings of the wood are said to be 
oflicinal, being considered alterative. — (Stewarfs Pnvj. Plants.) An- 
other species of Dalbergia yielding timber is the D. eissoides. — 
Roxh, 

(228) Daphne papyracea {Wall.) N. 0. TnTMELiEACEiE. 

Nepaul Paper-sbnib, Eno. 

Desceiption. — Tree, or small shrub; leaves lanceolate or 
oblong, veined, glabrous ; fascicles terminal or lateral, sessile, 

12 



178 DAPHNE. 

bracteated; calyx funnel-Bhaped, pubescent, lobes ovate-oblong, 
shoiter than the tube; ovary glabrous; flowers yellow. Fl, 
Jaa — Feb. — Wall. Ap. StevA Nom., ed 2d, 483. — Dec. Prod. 
xiv. 537. — D. odora, Doru Mor. Nep, 68. — D. cannabina, WaU, 
in As. Res. xiii. 31 5. Khasia. Silhet. Nepaul. 

Economic Uses. — An excellent writing-paper is made from the 
inner bark, prepared like hemp. The jirocess of making paper from 
this species is thu3 described in the ' Asiatic Eesearches : ' After 
scraping the outer surface of the bark, what remains is boiled in 
water with a small quantity of oak-ashes. After the boiling it is 
washed and beat to a pulp on a stone. It is then spread on moulds 
or frames made of bamboo mats. The Setburosa or paper-shrub, 
says the same writer in the above journal, is found on the most ex- 
posed parts of the mountains, and those the most elevated and 
covered with snow throughout the province of Kumaon. In travers- 
ing the oak-forests between Bhumtah and Eamgur, and again from 
Almorah to Chimpanat and down towards the river, the paper-plant 
would appear to thrive luxuriantly only where the oak grows. The 
paper prepared from its bark is particularly suited for cartridges, 
beiug strong, tough, not liable to crack or break, however much 
bent or folded, proof against being moth-eaten, and not subject to 
damp from any change in the weather ; besides, if drenched or left 
in water any considerable time, it will not rot. It is invariably 
used all over Kimiaon, and is in great request in many parts of the 
plains, for the purpose of writing misub-namahs or genealogical re- 
cords, deeds, &c., from its extraordinary durability. It is generally 
made about one yard square, and of three different qualities. The best 
sort is retailed at the rate of forty sheets for a rupee, and at whole- 
sale eighty sheets. The second is retailed at the rate of fifty sheets 
for a rupee, and a hundred at wholesale. The third, of a much 
smaller size, is retailed at a hundred and forty sheets, and wholesale 
a hundred and sixty sheets to a hundred and seventy for a rupee. 
Specimens of the paper were sent by Colonel Sykes to the Great 
Exhibition. Dr Eoyle states that an engraver to whom it was 
sent to experiment upon, said that it afforded finer impressions than 
any English-made paper, and nearly as good as the fine Chinese 
paper, which is employed for what are called Indian paper proo&. 
Dr Campbell describes the paper as strong, and almost as durable as 
leather, and quite smooth enough to write on, and for office records 
incomparably better than any India paper. Many of the books in 
Nepaul written on this paper are of considerable age, and the art ot 
making paper there seems to have been introduced about 500 years 
a<?o from China, and not from India. — Murray in As. Res. Royle*« 
Fibrovs Plants. 



DAT URA — DENDROCAL AMUS. 1 79 



(229) Datnra alba {Nees, Ah. Esenb.) K 0. Solanacelb. 

White-flowered Thom-apple, Eno. Hummatoo, Mal. Vellay-oomatay, Tam. 
Bbootoora, Beno. Sada-oliatoora, Hind. Tclla-oomatie, Tel. 

Description. — Annual, 2-3 feet ; leaves ovate, acuminated, 
repandly toothed, unequal at the base, and as well as the stem 
smooth ; stamens enclosed ; fruit prickly ; corolla white ; 
calyx o-lobed. FL All the year. — Wight Icon, t 852. — ^D. 
metel, Rooi^. — Bheede, ii. t 28. Common everywhera 

Mbdical Uses. — ^This plant has probably in almost all respects 
the same properties as the D. fastuosa. It is a strong narcotic, 
though it is said not to be quite so virulently poisonous as the 
latter. The juice of the leaves boiled in oil is applied to cutaneous 
affections of the head. It is also used by Eajpoot mothers to smear 
their breasts, so as to poison their new-bom female children. The 
seeds are employed in fevers about three at a dose, and are, with the 
leaves, applied externally in rheumatic and other swellings of the 
Hmbs. — Moxb. Brown on Infanticide. 

The D. fastuosa is a variety with purple flowers. It is known for 
the intoxicating and narcotic properties of its fruit. The root in 
powder is given by Mohammedan doctors in cases of violent head- 
aches and epilepsy. The inspissated juice of the leaves is used for 
the same purpose. The Hindoo doctors use the succulent leaves 
and fruit in preparing poultices, mixed with other ingredients, for 
repelling cutaneous tumours and for piles. They also assert that 
the seeds made into piUs deaden the pain of the toothache when 
laid upon the decayed tooth. In Java the plant is considered 
anthelmintic, and is used externally in herpetic diseases. The 
Chinese employ the Datura seeds for stupefying and even poisoning 
those whom they are at enmity with — a practice resorted to also in 
India. This species is reckoned more poisonous than the white- 
flowered one. The leaves in oil are rubbed on the body in itch or 
rheumatic pains of the Hmbs. The seeds bruised are applied to 
boils and carbuncles. They are soporific, and very dangerous if 
incautiously used. — (Rheede. Ainslie.) It contains an alkaloid 
called Daturine, and is used as a narcotic anodyne and antispasmodic, 
especially in asthma^ and bronchitis, also in insanity and ophthalmia. 
— PotoelVs Punj. Prod, 

(230) DendrocalamuB strictns (Nees). K 0. Graminacea. 

Male Bamboo, Eno. Sadanapa Vedroo, Tel. 

Description. — Stems straight ; thorns frequently wanting ; 
inflorescence the same as in the common Bamboo ; verticels 
sessile, globular, numerous, entirely surrounding the branchlets ; 



1 80 DENDROCALAMUS — DESMODIUM. 

flowers hermaphrodite ; corolla 2-valved ; extreme valves pu- 
bescent, sharply pointed; pistil woolly. Fl, April — June. — 
Rood). Fl. Ind. iL 193. — Coram. L t. 80. CoromandeL 

Economic Uses. — ^This species of Bamboo has great strength and 
solidity, and is very straight, hence it is better suited for a variety of 
uses than the common Bamboo. The natives make great use of it 
for spears, shafts, and similar purposes. It is clearly a distinct 
species, growing in a drier situation than other Bamboos — {Roxb.) 
The natives assert that this species accomplishes the whole of its 
growth in two or three weeks during the rains; and some experiments 
made seem to indicate that in its natural habitats a very considerable 
proportion of the whole growth as to size, though not as to consis- 
tency, takes place within the first season. The new stems of the 
year are a much brighter green, and the sheaths remain on them. 
Single stems, as in several species, generally seed, and in such cases 
the stems did. after the seeds ripen in June. — Stewarfa Punj. 
Plants. 

(231) Dendrocalamas tulda (Nees). Do. 

Tnlda Bans, Beno. Peka Bans, Hnro. 

Description. — Stems jointed, unarmed, smooth ; leaves al- 
ternate, bifarious, sheathing, linear-lanceolate, broad, and some- 
times cordate at the base ; sheaths longer than the joints ; 
panicles oblong, composed of numerous supra-decompound 
ramifications, only appearing when the plant is destitute of 
leaves ; spikelets lanceolate, sessile, 4-8 flowered. Fl. May. — 
Bambusa tulda, Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii 193. Bengal 

Economic Uses. — ^This is the common Bamboo of Bengal, and is 
there very abundant. It ia much used for house-building, scaffold- 
ing, &c., and if soaked in water for some weeks previous to being 
used, lasts much longer and becomes stronger ; besides, it prevents 
• it being attacked by insects. It grows quickly. The tender shoots 
are eaten as pickles by the natives. There are two varieties, one 
called the Peea-bans, which is larger than the first, the joints being 
larger and thicker, and therefore better adapted for building. The 
other is the Basliini-bans^ which has a larger cavity, and is much em- 
ployed in basket-making. Another species, the D. Ballcooa, is also 
much prized for its strength and solidity, especially after having been 
immersed in water previous to using. Indeed this species is perhaps 
preferable to any other from its size. — Roxb. 

(232) Desmodinm trifloram (Dec.) N. 0. LEOUHiNoSiE. 

Koodaliya, Beng. Moonoodna-mooddoo, Tel. Kodaliya, Hind. 

Description. — Stems procumbent, diffuse; leaves trifolio- 



DICHROSTAOHYS — ^DILLENIA. 181 

late; leaflets orbicular, obovate or obcordate, more or less 
pubescent or hairy ; peduncles axillary, solitary, fascicled, 1-3 
flowered ; calyx deeply divided ; vexillum obovate, long-clawed ; 
style bent acutely near the summit and tumid at the angle ; 
legumes hispidly pubescent, 3-6 jointed, notched in the middle 
on the lower margins, even on the other ; joints truncated at 
both ends ; flowers small, blue. Fl, All the year. — W, & A. 
Prod. i. 229. — Hedysarum triflorum, Linn, — ^D. heterophyllum, 
Dec, — Roxh. Fl. Ind. iii 353. — Wight Icon. L t. 292. Penin- 
sula. Bengal. 

Medical Uses. — This is a common and widely-distributed plant, 
springing up in all soils and situations, in India supplying the place 
of Trifolium and Medicago in Europe. There are several varieties. 
The natives apply the plant fresh gathered to abscesses and wounds 
that do not heal welL — Wight. 

(233) Dichrostacliys cinerea ( W. ^ A.) Do. 

Vadataia, Waratara, Tam. VeUitooroo Yeltoor, Tel. Vnrtuli, Hind. 

DESCRipnoN. — Shrub, 6-7 feet; thorns solitary; calyx 5- 
toothed ; pinnsB 8-10 pair ; leaflets ciliated, 12-15 pair ; petioles 
pubescent ; spikes axillary, usually solitary, cylindric, droop- 
ing, rather shorter than the leaves; corolla 6-cleft, petals 
scarcely cohering by their margins; flowers white or rose- 
coloured at the bottom, and yellow at the top ; legumes thick, 
curved ; joints 1-seeded. Fl. April — May. — W. & A. Prod. i. 
271. — Wight Icon. t. 357. — Mimosa cinerea, Linn. — Boxb. Fl. 

Ind. ii. 561. — Cor. ii. 1. 174. CoromandeL Sterile plains in 

the Deccan. 

Medioal Uses. — ^The young shoots are bruised and applied to the 
eyes in cases of ophthalmia. The wood is very hard, like that of 
the hdbool. It is a striking plant when in flower, with its long, 
drooping, cylindric spikes of white and yeUow fiow&t^—AinsUe. 
Boxb. 

(234) Dillenia pentagyna (Roxh.) "S. 0. DiLLRNiAOEiE. 

Rai, Find, Nai-tek, Tah. Bawadam, Chinna-kalinga, Tel. 

Desckiption. — Tree, 20 feet; leaves broadly lanceolate, 
sharply toothed or serrated, appearing after the flowers ; pe- 
duncles from the axils of the scars of the former year's leaves, 



182 DILLENIA — DIOSOOREA. 

several together, 1-flowered ; inner row of stamens longer than 
the others; styles 5; flowers gold-coloured, fragrant; seeds 
immersed in a gelatinous pulp ; carpels joined into a ribbed 
baccate fruit. FL March — April. — W, & A. Prod. i. 5. — Roxh. 

Cor. i. t 20. — Fl. Ind. ii. 652. — Colbertia Coromandeliana. 

Malabar. CoromandeL S. Mahratta country. Assam. 

Economic Uses. — A large timber-tree. The wood is close-grained, 
and used for a variety of purposes. In Assam it is used for canoes. 
The leaves are employed at Poona as a substratum for chuppered 
roofs. — (Roxb,) The Dillenias are found in great abundance in the 
Eastern Islands as well as in Australia. In fact, they have a large 
distribution ; and two genera, Tetracera and Delima, being found in 
Travancore as well as Silhet, connect the flora of S. India with that 
of the Eastern Archipelago. — Royle. Him, Bot, 

(235) Dillenia speciosa (Thunh) Do. 

Syalita, Mal. Uva-chitta, Tel. Chalita, Benq. Uva-maram, Tax. 
Z/vva 

Description. — Tree, 40 feet ; leaves oblong, serrated, glab- 
rous, appearing with the flowers ; sepals and petals 5 ; pedun- 
cles solitary, terminal, 1-flowered; stamens all equal in 
length; styles and carpels about 20; seeds hairy; carpels 
joined into a spurious, many-celled, many-seeded berry, crowned 
by the radiant stigmas ; flowers large, showy, with white petals 
and yellow anthers. — W, & A. Prod. i. 5. — Wight Icon. t. 823. 
— BooA. Fl. Ind. ii. 650. — ^D. Indica, Linn. — Rheede, iii. t. 38- 
39. Malabar. Bengal. Chittagong. 

Mbdical Uses. — The fruit is eatable, and has a pleasant flavpur 
though acid. Mixed with sugar and water, the juice is Used as a 
cooling beverage in fevers and as a cough mixture. The bark and 
leaves are astringent, and are used medicinally. A good jelly is made 
in Assam from the outer rind of the finiit The ripe fruit is slightly 
laxative, and apt to induce diarrhcea if too freely indulged in. — Roxb. 
Royle. 

Economic Uses. — ^This tree yields good timber, and is especially 
valuable for its durability under water. It is used for making gun- 
stocks. The leaves, which are hard and rough, are used for polislung 
furniture and tinware, like others of the same family. — Roxb. 

(236) Dioscorea bnlbifera (Linn.) N. 0. Dioscoreace^. 

Eatu-katsjil, Mal. 

Description. — Leaves alternate, deeply cordate, acuminate. 



DIOSCOREA — DIOSP Y ROS. 183 

7-nerved ; the exterior nerves 2-cleft ; transverse veins reticu- 
lated; stem bulbiferous; male spikes fascicled. — Wiffkt Icon, 
t 878. — JRheede, vii t 36. Both Concans. 

EooNOMio Uses. — ^The Dioeeoreas are climbing and sarmentaceous 
plants. The roots are large, tuberous, and very rich in nutritious 
starch. The flowers and roots are eaten by the poorer classes : the 
latter are veiy bitter, but after undergoing the process of being 
covered over with ashes and steeped in cold water, they become 
eatable. — (J. Graham,) Several species yielding yams are eatable. 
Among the principal may be mentioned the J?, acideata (Linn,) 
The tubers are about 2 lb. or more in weight. They are dug up in 
the forests in the cold season, and sold in the bazaars. They are 
known as the Goa potato. The D. glohosa (Roxb,) is much culti- 
vated as yielding the best kind of yam, much esteemed both by 
Europeans and natives. The D, triphylla (Linn,), not eatable, for the 
tubers are dreadfully nauseous and intensely bitter even after being 
boiled. They are put into toddy to render it more potent, as they 
have intoxicating properties. A few slices are sufficient for the pur- 
pose. — J, Graham, 

(237) DioBCorea pentaphylla (Linn,) Do. 

Mureni-kelangu, Mal. Eanta-aloo, Beno. 

Description. — Tubers oblong; stems herbaceous, twining, 
prickly ; leaves digitate, downy ; male flowers panicled, green- 
ish white, fragrant ; female ones spiked. — Boxb, Fl. Ind, iii 
806. — Wight Icon, t, 814. — Bheede, vii. t 34, 35. Concans. 

Economic Uses. — A common species in jungles on low hills, 
but never cultivated, so far as I have seen, says Dr "Wight, which is 
remarkable, as I have always found the natives dig the tubers when- 
ever they had an opportunity to dress and eat them. The male 
flowers are sold in the bazaars and eaten as greens, and are said to 
be wholesome. There are several other kinds of edible yams, among 
which may be mentioned the D, fasciculata (Roxh,), which is culti- 
vated largely in the vicinity of Calcutta, where it is known as the aoomir 
aloo ; a starch is also made from the tubers. Another kind is the D. 
purjmrea (Roxb.), known as the Pondicherry sweet potato, which is 
an excellent kind of yam, but only found in a cultivated state. — 
(Roxb, J. Grah,) The roots of the D, deUoidea are used in Cash- 
mere for washing the pashm or silk for shawls and woollen cloths. — 
PotoeUVs Punj, Prod, 

(238) Diospyros melaaozylon (Roxb.) 'S, 0. Ebenace^. 

Coromandel Ebony-tree, Eno. Tumballi, Tam . Toomida, TsL. Tindoo, Hind. 
Eiew, Kendoo, Bknq. 

Description. — Large tree ; young shoots pubescent ; leaves 



184 DIOSPYROS. 

nearly opposite, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acute at the base, 
coriaceous, entire, obtuse, when young pubescent ; calyx and 
corolla 5-cleft; male peduncles axillary, solitary, 3-6 flowered; 
stamens 12 ; hermaphrodite flowers rather larger than the male, 
nearly sessile ; styles 3-4 ; berry round, yellow; flowers white; 
seeds 2-8 immersed in pulp. FL April — May. — JRoxb. Fl, Ind, 
ii. 630. — Cor. i. t 46. Malabar. CoromandeL Orissa. 

Medical Uses. — The bark is astringent, and, reduced to an im- 
palpable powder, is applied to ulcerations, and mixed with black 
pepper is administered in dysentery. 

Economic Uses. — The true Ebony of commerce is obtained from 
the D. ebenum (Liutl), a native of Ceylon, but in fact other species 
scarcely differing from one another yield this timber. The great 
peculiarity of Ebony-wood is its extreme heaviness and dark black 
colour. Some species have the wood variegated with white or 
brownish lines. Ebony was known and appreciated by the ancients 
as a valuable wood. Virgil said that it only came from India, though 
it is well known that -Ethiopia was famous for it, a fact recorded by 
Pliny. Dioscorides said that Ethiopia's Ebony was the best Hero- 
dotus wrote concerning the latter country, " It produces much gold, 
huge elephants, wild trees of all kinds. Ebony," &c. 

This species yields a fine kind of Ebony. It is only the centre of 
the larger trees that is black and valuable, and the older the trees the 
better the quality. The outside wood is white and spongy, which 
decaying or destroyed by insects displays the central Ebony. It is 
much affected by the weather, on which account European cabinet- 
makers seldom use it except in veneer. The ripe fruit is eatable, but 
rather astringent. There is a slight export trade or Ebony from 
Madras. Other species which yield a kind of Ebony are D. Mo- 
roxijlon (Eozb,)j of which the wood is very hard and durable; the 
D. cordifolia {Roxh), whose timber is used for many economical 
purposes. 

Sir E. Tennent (Ceylon, i. 117) has some valuable remarks upon 
the different species of Ebony growing in that island. The Ebony 
(D. ebenum) grows in great abundance throughout all the flat country 
west of Trincomalee. It is a different species from the Ebony of the 
Mauritius (D, reticulata), and excels it and all others in the even- 
ness and intensity of its colour. The centre of the trunk is the only 
portion which furnishes the extremely black part which is the Ebony 
of commerce ; but the trees are of such magnitude that reduced logs 
of 2 feet in diameter, and varying from 10 to 15 feet in length, can 
readily be procured from the forests. There is another cabinet-wood 
of extreme beauty ; it is a bastard species of Ebony (Z). ebenaster), 
in which the prevailing black is stained with stripes of rich 
brown, approaching to yellow and pink. But its density is incon- 
siderable, and in durability it is far inferior to that of true Ebony. 



Y (/ip'iJL i^^r-ir^ <-^ ^ ^^ A..w>^ ^ U^iSf^'^ H OtTY ^ 



</ 



DIPTEROC ARPUS. 185 

The most valuable, cabinet-wood of the island, resembling R osewo od, 
but much surpassing it in beauty and durability, has at all times been 
in the greatest repute in Ceylon; it is the D. Iiirsuta, It grows 
chiefly in the southern provinces, and especially in the forests at the 
foot of Adam's Peak, but here it has been so prodigally felled that 
it has become exceedingly rare. Wood of a large scantling is hardly 
procurable at any price, and it is only in a very few localities that 
even small sticks are now to be found. A reason assigned for this 
is, that the heart of the tree, neither of this species nor of Z>. ehen- 
atftevy is ever sound. The twisted portions, and especially the roots 
of the latter, yield veneers of unusual beauty, dark waviugs and 
blotches, almost black, being gracefully disposed over a delicate fawn- 
coloured ground. The density is so great (nearly 60 lb. to a cubic 
foot) that it takes on excellent polish, and is in every way adapted 
for the manufacture of furniture. Notwithstanding its value, the 
tree is nearly eradicated ; but as it is not peculiar to Csylon, it may 
be restored by fresh importations from the S.E. coast of India, of 
which it is equally a native. 

The D, montana (Eoxb,) is a timber variegated with dark and 
white coloured veins. It is very hard and durable. The Z>. tomen- 
tosa (Rozh.) is a native of the northern parts of Bengal. The wood is 
black, hard, and heavy. Roxburgh compares this latter tree to a 
cypress, from its tall and elegant form. The leaves all fall ofl' in the 
cold season: The D, calycina (Bedd. ) has been found in the Tinne velly 
district and southern provinces of Madura, being very abundant up 
to 3000 feet of elevation. It is called in those districts Vdlay 
Toveray, and yields a valuable light-coloured wood much used in 
those parts. — Bedd. Fl. 8ylv, t 68. 

(239) Dipterocanms l»vls (Ham.) N. 0. Dipterooarpele. 

Tilea gurjun, Bkno. 

Description. — Large tree ; young branches compressed, two- 
edged ; leaves ovate or oblong-ovate, retuse at the base, acute, 
shining on both sides, with numerous prominent veins ; petioles 
glabrous ; tube of enlarged calyx slightly ventricose, two seg- 
ments expanded into wings when in fruit; capsule ovate, even; 
flowers white, tinged with red. Fl. March. — W. & A. Prod. i. 
85. — ^Dipterocarpus turbinatus, Roxib. Fl. Ind. ii. 612. — Cor. iii. 
t. 213. Chittagong. Tipperah. 

Medioal Uses. — ^This tree is famous over Eastern India and the 
Malay Islands on account of its yielding a thin liquid balsam com- 
monly called Wood-oil, and known as the Gurjun balsam. A large 
notch is cut in the trunk of the tree near the ground, where fire is 
kept until the wound is charred^ soon after which the liquid begins 



V 



186 DOLICHOS. 

to ooze out. A small gutter is cut in the wood to conduct the fluid 
into a vessel placed to receive it. These operations are performed in the 
month of November to February ; and should any of the trees become 
sickly the following season, a year's respite is given them. The 
average produce is 40 gallons in one season. Large quantities of 
this wood-oil is exported from Moulmein to Europe, where it has 
become a new drug in trade. It resembles in a remarkable degree 
the balsam of Copaiba, and has been used as a substitute for that 
medicine. It has a curious property, which is exhibited when it has 
been heated in a corked phial to about 266^ Fahr. : it then becomes 
slightly turbid, and so gelatinous that the phial may be inverted even 
while hot without its contents being displaced ; and on cooling, the 
solidification is still more complete. It is soluble in water, scarcely 
in ether, but £reely in alcohol. Its price in the Calcutta bazaars 
varies £rom 3 to 5 rupees the maund. Dr Wight speaks from ex- 
perience of the value of Gurjun oil mixed with dammer in preventing 
the white ants from attacking timber. A new species, the Z>. indicus, 
was discovered in South Canara in 1865. — Beng. Disp, Pharm. 
Jour. Moxb. 

(240) Dolichos sinensis (Linn.) K 0. LEGuiiiNoSiB. 

Pam, Mal. Burbnti, Beng. Kara-mani, Taic. Lobia, Hind. Alsajida, Tbl. 

Description. — ^Twining annual, glabrous ; leaves pinnately 
trifoliolate ; leaflets ovate or oblong, acuminated; peduncles 
longer than the leaves ; flowers in an oblong head or short 
raceme; calyx campanulate, 5-toothed ; lowest one longer than 
the rest; legume nearly straight, cylindric, torulose, with a 
more or less recurved unguiculate beak, 6-12 seeded; seeds 
truncated at both ends ; flowers largish, pale violet. Fl. June 
— Aug.— JT. & A. Prod. i. 25Q.—Roxb. Fl Ind. iii 302.— 
JRJieede, viii. t 42. Cultivated in the Peninsula. 

EooNouic Uses. — Of this plant there are several varieties, differ- 
ing in the colour of their flowers and seeds. It is cultivated for the 
seeds, which are much used by the natives in their food. Those with 
white seeds are most esteemed. — Rozb. 

(241) Bolichos nnifloras (Lam.) Do. 

Horse-gram plant, Enq. Eoaltee, Hn^D. Koolthee, Beng. EdUoo, Tam. Moo- 
thera, Mal. Woola-waloo, T£L. 

Description. — Annual; stem erect; branches twining; 
young shoots and leaves covered with silk hairs ; leaves pin- 
nately trifoliolate ; leaflets ovate, villous, pubescent when old ; 
corolla papilionaceous ; calyx deeply bilabiate ; upper lip split 



DRACONTIUM. 187 

at the apex ; vexillum longer than the keel, ovate-oblong ; al» 
cohering with the keel at the base ; flowers axillary, 1-3 to- 
gether, sulphur-coloured ; legumes compressed, linear, falcate, 
softly hairy, 6-seeded. Fl. Nov. — ^Dec. — JF. & A. Prod, i. 

248.— D. biflorus, Boxh. Fl Ind, iii. 313 (not Lour.) Coro- 

mandel. Deccan. Bengal Cultivated in the Peninsula. 

EcoNOHio Uses. — Of this there is a variety with jet-black 
seeds, those of the present plant being grey. Seeds of both are 
everywhere given in the Peninsula for feeding cattle. The natives 
also use them in curries. The gram plant has never been seen in a 
wild state. The best time to sow the seeds is at the end of the 
rainy season, and in a good soil in favourable years the produce 
will be sixty-fold. — Roxb, 

• 

(242) Dracontiiim polyphylliun {Linn,) N. 0. Abacels. 

Pniple-fltftlked Dragon, Enq. Caat-kansy, Tail Junglee kandi, DuK. Adivie 
konda, Tel. 

Description. — Stalk 1 foot, smooth, purple-coloured, full of 
sharp variegated protuberances, with a tuft of leaves at the 
top; scape very short; petiole rooted; leaflets 3-parted; 
divisions pinnatifid ; root irregular, knobbed, covered with a 
rugged skin ; flower-stalk, rising from the root, about 3 inches 
high ; spathe oblong, opening lengthwise ; flowers closely ar- 
ranged on a short thick styla — Linn. Spec, 1372. — Bot. Beg. t. 
700. Bombay. Concans. 

Medical Uses. — In Japan a medicine is prepared from the acrid 
roots, esteemed a good emmenagogue. In the Society Islands the 
plant is cultivated for the sake of its roots, which, notwithstanding 
the taste being very acrid, are eaten in times of scarcity. Ainslie 
states that when properly prepared these roots possess antispasmodic 
virtues, and are aJso of repute in asthmatic affections, given in the 
quantity of from 12 to 15 grains per diem. They are used by the 
native doctors in haemorrhoids. The plant is likewise a native of 
Guiana and Surinam ; and in the former country is a remedy against 
the Labarri snake, which its spotted petioles resemble in colour. It 
is certainly a powerful stimulant. The spathe on first opening 
smells so powerfully that vomiting and fainting sometimes ensue 
from the stench. Graham states that it is a very common plant, 
the leaves opening in July, and the scape springing up at the com- 
mencement of the rains. There has existed some slight doubt as to 
whether the American and Indian species are identical — Ainslie, 
Miller. Lindley. J. Oraham. 



188 DROSERA. 

(243) Drosera peltata (Sm,) K. 0. Dboserace^ 

Description. — Herbaceous; stem erect, glabrous; leaves 
scattered, furnished with long reddish hairs, petioled, peltate, 
broadly lunate, with two lougish horns pointing upwards ; 
styles mujtifid, pencil -shaped ; seeds oblong, testa not arilli- 
form ; sepals occasionally ciliated ; capsule globose ; seeds 
small, numerous ; flowers yellow. Fl, Aug. — Sept — W. tfe A. 
Frod. L 34. Neilgherries. Bababoodens. 

EooNOMio UsEa — The viscous leaves of this plant close upon 
flies and other insects which happen to light upon them. A dye 
might be prepared from the plant, as Hoyle mentions the fact of the 
paper which contained his dried specimens being saturated with a 
red tinge. The leaves, bruised and mixed with salt and applied to 
the skin, are said to blister it. If mixed with milk they wiU curdle 
it. Cattle will not touch them. The sensitive irritability of the 
hairs of the leaves is a singular characteristic of the genus to which 
this plant belongs. Many of the other species yield a dye, but 
no one appears to have been made aware of these qualities. — Eoyle, 
Lindley. 



189 



E 

(244) Echaltimn piBcidinm ( Wight). N. 0. Apootnaoba. 

Description. — Perennial, climbing; leaves oblong, acumi- 
nated, shining ; panicles terminal, shorter than the leaves ; 
tube of corolla longer than the calyx ; stamineous corona of 
five bifid villous segments ; follicles swollen, oblong, obtuse ; 
seeds membranaceous ; flowers pale yellow. Fl, May — June. 
— Dec, Prod, \m, 416. — Wight Icon, t, 472 — Nerium pisci- 
dium, Roxb, Fl. Ind, ii 7. Silhet 

Economic Usbs. — ^Tho name of this creeper in Silhet, where the 
plant IB indigenous, is Echalat ; whence the origin of the generic 
name given by Dr Wight The bark contains a quantity of fibrous 
matter, which the natives in Silhet use as a substitute for hemp. 
In steeping some of the young shoots in a fish-pond, to facilitate 
the removal of the bark and cleansing of the fibres, Dr Roxburgh 
foimd that it had the effect of killing nearly all the fish. Hence 
the specific name which he applied. — Boxb, Boyle Fib. Plant 

(245) Eclipta erecta (Linn.) K. 0. AsxERACEiB. 

Kaiantagarie, Kursalenkunnie, Tam. Goontagelii^jeroo, Tel. BrinraJ Biingrah, 
HiMD. Keshooryia, Benq. 

Descriptign. — Stem prostrate or erect; leaves lanceolate, 
serrate, somewhat waved ; flowers nearly sessile, alternate in 
pairs ; corolla white. Fl. All the year. — Wight Contrib. p. 17. 
— E. prostrata, jRoxb. FL Ind. iii. 438. — Cotula alba, Linn. — 

Eheede Mai. x. t 41. Common in wet clayey soils in the 

Peninsula. 

Medioal Uses. — This plant in its fresh state, ground up and 
mixed with gingely-oil, is applied externally in cases of elephan- 
tiasis. It has a peculiarly bitter taste and strong smelL Eoxburgh 
considered the JS. erecta, prostrata, and punctata to be the same 
species, varying in form from age, soil, and situation. — {Roxb. 
Ainslie.) The root has purgative and emetic properties assigned to 
it, and is also used in cases of liver, spleen, and dropsy. — Pharm. of 
India. 



1 90 EHRETIA — EL(EODENDRON. 

(246) Ehretia bnzifolia (Roxh.) K 0. EHRETiACEiB. 

Coonivingie, Tam. Bapana boory, Tel. Poluh, EiNO. 

Description. — Shrub or small tree ; leaves alternate, fas- 
cicled, sessile, reflexed, cuneiform, very scabrous, shining; 
peduncles axillary, 2-6 flowered ; pedicels very short ; flowers 
small, white; calyx 5-parted, segments lanceolate; corolla 
campanulate, 5-6 cleft; berry succulent, red, quadrilocular ; 
nuts 2. FL July — Aug. — Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 598.— Cor. i. t 57. 
Coromandel. Common on barren lands and in forests. 

Medical Uses. — ^The root is used for purifying and altering the 
habit in cases of cachexia and venereal affections of long standing. 
By Mohammedan doctors it is considered an antidote to vegetable 
poisons. — Ainslie. Lindley. 

(247) Ehretia serrata {Roaib.) Do. 

Eala-oja, Beno. 

Description. — Tree; leaves alternate, oblong, and broad 
lanceolate, acutely serrate, smooth; calyx 5-cleft; corolla 
5-parted; panicles terminal, and from the exterior axils; 
flowers small, greenish white, fragrant, numerous, aggi^egate in 
somewhat remote sub-sessile fascicles; drupes round, pulpy, 

red when ripe. Fl. March — May. — Boxb. FL Ind. i 596. 

BengaL Chittagong. Dheyrah Dhoon. 

Economic Uses. — The wood is tough, light, durable, and easily 
worked. Sword-handles are made from it It is also considered 
good for gun-stocks. The tree is a native of Bhootan, as well as 
of the eastern parts of BengaL It is also a common tree in Kepanl, 
where it is called Nvlslnma. It grows both on moimtains and in 
valleys, blossoming profusely in the summer, and ripening its fruit 
during the rains. The latter are not touched by the natives. The 
flowers emit a powerful honey-hke smell. — Roxh. Wallichia Ohs. 

(248) Eloeodendron Eozburghii (TT. ^ A.) N. 0. CELASTRACEfi. 

Neerija, Tel. 

Description. — Small tree; leaves opposite, elliptical or 
ovate, crenate-serrated, young ones glaucous ; calyx 6-partite ; 
petals 5, linear-oblong ; peduncles axillary ; cymes lax, dicho- 
tomous, divaricated, about half the length of the leaves, usually 



ELEPH ANTOPUS — ^ELETTARTA. 191 

with a solitary flower in the forks ; drupe l-celled, obovoid ; 

ut somewhat crustaceous and soft ; flowers small, yellow. 

Fl. March — April.— fT. & A. Prod. p. 157.— Nerija dicho- 

toma, Roxh. FL Ind. i. 6-lf6. Mountains of CoromandeL 

Courtallum. 

Medical Uses. — ^The root is reported to be an excellent specific 
in snake-bites. The fresh bark of the roots rubbed with water is 
applied externally to remove almost any swelling. It is a very 
strong astringent. — Roxh 

(249) Elephantopns scaber (lAnn,) K 0. AsTBRAOBis. 

Anashovadi, Mal. and Tam. Shamdulun, Benq. Samdulun, Hind. 

Description.— Stem dichotomous, ramous ; leaves scabrous, 
radical ones crenate, cuneate, alternated at the base ; cauline 
ones lanceolate; floral ones broad cordate, acuminate, canescent ; 
flowers purple. FL Dec. — Feb. — Wight Contrih. p. 88; Icon. 

t im&.—Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii U5.—RhMde Mal. x. t 7. 

Peninsula. Common in shady places. 

Medical Uses. — ^According to Eheede, a decoction of the root 
and leaves is given in dysuria. In Travancore the natives boil the 
braised leaves with lice, and give them internally in swellings of 
the body or pains of the stomach* — Rheede. 

(250) Elettaria cardamomum {Maton.) K O. ZiNOiBERACRfi. 

Cardamom plant, Eno. Yalnm, Mal. Aila-cheddie, Tam. Taylakooloo, Tel. 
Eelachie, DuK. and Hind. iUachee, Beng. 

Description. — Stem perennial, erect, jointed, 6-9 feet, en- 
veloped in the sheaths of the leaves ; leaves lanceolate, acumin- 
ate, sub-sessile, entire, 1-2 feet long; sheaths slightly villous; 
scapes several, flexuose, jointed, branched, 1-2 feet long; 
flowers alternate, short-stalked, solitary at each point of the 
racemes ; calyx funnel-shaped, 3-toothed, finely striated ; corolla 
tube as long as the calyx ; limb* double ; exterior portion of 
3 oblong, concave, nearly equal divisions ; inner lip obovate, 
longer than the exterior divisions, curled at the margins ; apex 
3-lobed, marked in the centre with purple-violet stripes; 
capsule oval, somewhat 3-sided, 3-celled, 3-valved ; seeds 
numerous, angular ; flowers pale-greenish white. — Alpinia car- 
damomum, Roxh. FL Ind. i. 70. — Cor. iii. t 226. — Amomum 



192 ELETTARTA. 

repens, Boseoe. — Bhecde Mai. xL t 45. Hilly parts of Tra« 

vancore and Malabar. Wynaad. Cobrg. Nuggur. 

Medical Uses. — ^As cordial and stimulant the seeds are frequently 
used medicinally, but more frequently as correctives in conjunction 
with other medicines. A volatile oil is procured from them by 
distillation, which has a strong aromatic taste, soluble in alcohol. 
It loses its odour and taste by being kept too long. The natives 
chew the fruit with betle, and use it in decoction for bowel-com- 
plaints and to check vomiting. In infusion it is given in coughs. 

Economic Uses. — Produces the Cardamoms of commerce. They 
are either cultivated or gathered wild. In the Travancore forests 
they are found at elevations of 3000 to 5000 feet The mode of 
obtaining them is to clear the forests of trees, when the plants 
spontaneously grow up in the cleared ground. A similar mode has 
been mentioned by Eoxburgh, who states that in Wynaad, before 
the commencement of the rains in June, the cultivators seek the 
shadiest and woodiest sides of the loftier hills. The trees are 
feUed and the ground cleared of weeds, and in about three months 
the Cardamom plant springs up. In four years the shrub will have 
attained its full height, when the fruit is produced and gathered in 
the month of November, requiring no other preparation than drying 
in the sun. The plant continues to yield fruit till the seventh year, 
when the stem is cut down, new plants arising from the stumps. 
They may also be raised from seeds. Cardamoms are much esteemed 
as a condiment, and great quantities are annually shipped to Europe 
from Malabar and Travancore. In commerce there are three varieties, 
known as the short, short-longs, and long-longs. Of these the short 
are more coarsely ribbed, and of a brown colour, and are called the 
Malabar Cardamoms or Wynaad Cardamoms. They are reckoned 
the best of the three. The long-longs are more finely ribbed, and of 
a paler colour. Seeds are white and shrivelled. The short-longs 
merely differ from the latter in being shorter or less pointed. It is 
usual to mix the several kinds together when ready for exportation. 
Some care is required in the process of drying the seeds, as rain 
causes the seed-vessels to split, and otherwise injures them; and if kept 
too long in the sun their flavour becomes deteriorated. Malabar Carda- 
moms are worth in the London market from 2s. to 3s. per lb. In Tra- 
vancore they are chiefly procured from the highlands overlooking the 
Dindigul, Madura, and Tinnevelly districts. In these mountains 
the cidtivators make separate gardens for them, as they thrive better 
if a little care and attention be bestowed upon them. Cardamoms 
are ai monopoly in the Travancore State, and cultivators come chiefly 
from the Company's country, obtaining about 200 or 210 rupees for 
every candy delivered over to the Government. — {Ainslie, Pereira, 
Pers. Ohs, Report of Prod, of Travancore,) It is to be regretted, 
writes Major Beddome, that Cardamoms are not turned to more 
account The plant grows spontaneously in many of our hill-tracts, 



ELEUSINE. 193 

and, with judicious management and some artificial planting, might 
be made to yield a veiy handsome revenue after a few years. In 
South Canara some Cardamom tracts within our reserves have been 
sold by the collector, on a lease of several years, for a very small 
sum, and the amount is credited to land revenue. In portions of 
the AnnamaUays, Madura, and Tinnevelley, our tracts are poached 
on by collectors under the Cochin and Travancore Grovcmments ; 
but in a great portion of these forests the Cardamoms simply rot in 
the jungles. — Bep. to Mad. Govt. 1870. 

(251) Eleusine coracaiia (Goertn.) N. 0. GRiLMiNACEf. 

Mootamy, Tsjetti-pnlla, Hal. Eayrara, Eelwaragoo, Tah. Tomida, Sodee, 
Tbl. Murooa, Bbkq. Bagee, Nachem, Hind. 

Description. — Culms erect, 2-4 feet, a little compressed, 
smooth ; leaves bifarious, large, smooth ; mouths of sheaths 
bearded; calyx 3-6 flowered, glumes keeled, obtuse, with 
membranaceous margins; spikes 4-6 digitate, incurved, secund, 
1-3 inches long, composed of two rows of sessile 3-4 flowered 
spikelets ; rachis slightly waved ; valves of corolla nearly 
equal ; seeds globular, brown, a little wrinkled, covered with 
a thin ariL FL July — Sept. — JRozh. Fl, Ind. i. 342.— Cyno- 
surus coracanus, Linn. — Bheede, xii t. 78. Cultivated. 

EcoNOHio Uses. — ^This is the most prolific of cultivated grasses, 
forming the chief diet of the poorer classes in some parts of India, 
as Mysore, N. Circars, and slopes of the Ghauts. Roxburgh says 
he never saw it in a wild state. On the Coromandel coast it is 
known as the Natchnee grain, and is the Raggee of the Mohammedans. 
In Teloogoo the name of the grain is Ponassa, A fermented liquor 
is prepared from the seeds called Bojah in the Mahratta country. — 
(Raxb.) Eagi is perhaps the most productive of Indian cereala 
Roxburgh adverts to the extraordinary fertility derived firom two 
seeds which came up by accident in his gaiden. They yielded 
81,000 corns. It is the staple grain of the Mysore country, where 
it is stored in pits, keeping sound for years. — (W. Elliot.) Another 
species, the E. stricta, is cultivated to a great extent. It diflers from 
the preceding in having the spikes straight, being' of a larger size, 
and more productive. The seeds are also heavier, which cause the 
spike to bend bown horizontally. All the miUets prefer a light 
good soil, from which the water readily flows after the heavy rains. 
In a favourable season the farmers reckon on an increase of about a 
hundred and twenty fold. The variety known in Teloogoo as the 
Maddi rubasoloo requires a richer soil than the others; and in good 
years, when the land fit for its cultivation can be procured, increases 
five hundred fold. — Roxh. 

. 13 



* 



1 94 EMBELIA — EMBLICA. 



(252) Embelia ribes (BurnL) N. 0. Mtbsinacbil 

VeUal, Tak. Viahaul, Mal. Bal)erung, Behq. 

Description.— Large climbing shrub; tender shoots and 
peduncles hoary; leaves alternate, oblong, entire, glabrous; 
panicles terminal, hoary ; calyx and corolla 5-parted ; stamens 
inserted in the middle of the petals ; flowers numerous, very 
small, greenish yellow ; tube of calyx concave ; berries succu- 
lent, black. Fl. Teh.—UaicL—WigM Icon, t 1207.— jBoa*. 
FL Ind. i. 586. — E. ribesioides, Linn. Peninsula. Silhet. 

Medical Uses. — The natives in the vicinity of Silhet, where the 
plant grows abundantly, gather the berries, and when dry sell them 
to the small traders in black pepper, who fraudulently mix them 
with that spice, which they so resemble as to render it almost im- 
possible to distingidsh them by sight or by any other means, as they 
are withal somewhat spicy. Given in infusion, thev are anthehiiin- 
tic They are al80 adJiustered intemaUy iA pUes. Their pun- 
goncy is ascribed by Decandollo to the quantity of some peculiar 
quality of the resinous substance. Boyle states they are cathartic. 
— Doru Royle, Roxh. 

(253) Emblica officinalis (Gcerfn,) N. O. Euphobbiaoejb. 

Nellee, Mal. NeUe-kai, Tam. Amla, Beng. Amlika, Arooli, Aoongra, Hind. 
Atoereki, Tsl. 

Desckiption. — Tree; leaves alternate, bifarious, pinnate, 
flower -bearing; leaflets numerous, alternate, linear- obtuse, 
entire ; petioles striated, round ; calyx 6-parted ; flowers in 
the male very numerous in the axils of the lower leaflets, and 
round the common petiole below the leaflets ; in the female 
few, solitary, sessile, mixed with some males in the most ex- 
terior floriferous axils ; stigmas 3 ; drupe globular, fleshy, 
smooth, 6-striated ; nut obovate-triangular, 3-celled ; seeds 2 
in each cell ; flowets small, greenish yellow. Fl. April— Nov. 
— Wight Icon. t. 1896. — PhyUanthus emblica, Linn. — Soxb. 
FL Ind. iii. 671. — Bheede Mal. i t. 38. Coromandel. Mala- 
bar. Deccan. Bengal 

Medical Uses. — ^The seeds are given internally as a cooling 
remedy in bilious affections and nausea, and in infusion make a 
good drink in fevers. They are also used in diabetes. Infusion of 
the leaves is applied to sore eyes. Bark of the root mixed with 
honey is applied to aphthous inflammations of the mouth. The 



• * . 



EMBRYOPTERIS. 195 

bark of the tree itself is astringent, and is used for tanning purposes. 
It is medicinally used in diarrhoea. The fruit is occasionally pickled^ 
or preserved in suga^. When dry it is said to be gently laxative. 
In the latter state the decoction is employed in fevers, and mixed 
with sugar and drunk in vertigo. The young leaves mixed with 
BOUT milk are given by the natives in dysentery. In Travancore the 
natives put the young branches into the wells to impart a pleasant 
flavour to the water, especially if it be impure from the accumula- 
tion of vegetable matter or other causes. — {Ainelie. Rheede.) An- 
tiscorbutic virtues have been attributed to the fruits, which are 
known as the Emblic Myrobalans. The flowers are employed by 
the Hindoo doctors for their supposed refrigerant and aperient 
qualities. The bark partakes of the astringency of the fruit Dr 
A. Boss prepared, by decoction and evaporation, from the root, 
an astringent extract equal to catechu both for medicine and the 
arts. — Pharm. of India, 

EcoNOMio Uses. — This tree yields a valuable timber. 

(254) Embryopteris glntinifera (RozK) N. 0. EsENAOBiB. 

WUd Mangosteen, Eno. Panitsjika mamm, Mal. Panichekai toombika, Tam. 
Tnmika, Tel. Qanb, HmD. Qab, Beno. 

Description. — Tree, 25-30 feet; leaves alternate, linear- 
oblong, pointed, glabrous, shining, short - petioled ; male 
peduncles axillary, solitary, 3-4 flowered; stamens 20; females 
1 -flowered, larger than the male; stamens 2-4, short; pistils 
4 ; nut globular, size of a small apple, rusty-coloured, filled 
with pulpy juice and covered with a rusty farina ; seeds 8 ; 
flowers white. FL March — April. — Roocb, Fl, Ind, ii. 533. — 

Cor. L t 70. — Wight Icon. t. 844. — Rheede Mal. iii. t 41. 

Peninsula. Travancore. Bengal 

Medical Uses. — The juice of the fruit is powerfully astringent, 
and is an excellent remedy in diarrhoea and dysentery. Dr Short 
mentions that it is used by the natives as a local application to 
bruises and sprains, as it tends to relieve the swelling. — Pharm. of 
India. 

EooNOMio TJsES. — ^The fruit, though astringent, is eaten by the 
natives. The juice is used in Bengal for paying the bottom of boats. 
The unripe fruit contains a very Isj^e proportion of tannin. The in- 
fusion is used to steep fishing-nets in, to make them more durable. 
The Hindoo doctors apply the fresh juice of the fruit to wounds. 
On the Malabar coast it is much employed by carpenters as an ex- 
cellent glue. The glutinous pulp surrounding the seeds is used by 
Europeans in binding books, as it is obnoxious to insects. The 
fruit also yields a concrete oil from boiling the seeds. They are 



196 EMILIA — ENTADA, 

first dried in the sun, then pounded and boiled ; the oil collects on 
the surface, and becomes concrete during the cooling. It is of a 
yellowish colour. — Eoxb. Ainalie. 

(255) Emilia soncliifolia {Dec.) K. 0. AsTERACEiB. 

Muel-schevi, Mal. 8adi-modi, Bkno. 

Description. — ^Annual ; stem herbaceous, branching a little 
towards the top ; leaves lyrate ; stem clasping ; flowers few, in 
terminal umbellets, cylindrical, peduncled; flowers small, 
bright purpla Fl, Nov. — Feb. — Wight Contrib. p. 24. — 

Cacalia sonchifolia, Idnn, — Rheede Mal. x. t 68. ^Both 

Peninsulas. Common everywhere. 

Medical Uses. — This plant is used in decoction on the Malabar 
coast as a febrifuge, and mixed with sugar the juice is given in 
bowel-complaints. The leaves are eaten raw in salads in China. In 
Travancore the pure juice of the leaves is poured drop by drop in 
the eyes for about ten minutes in cases of night-blindness. The 
natives consider the juice as cooling as rose-water, and prescribe it 
in inflammation of the eyes. — Rheede, Ainslie, Pers, Ob, 

(256) Entada pnacBtha (Dee.) N. 0. Leouminosa 

Gila-gach. BtOKQ. Parin-kaka Vally, Mal. 

Description. — Climbing shrub; leaves bipinnated; pinnso 
2 pairs, sometimes only 1 ; leaflets 2-5 pairs, glabrous on both 
sides, oblong-ovate or ovate-emarginate ; spikes solitary or in 
pairs, axillary ; petals 5, connected at the base ; stamens 10 ; 
legume more or less twisted, very large, 2-3 feet long, ligneous, 
with the sutures very thick ; seeds nearly orbicular, 2 inches 
in diameter ; flowers small, pale yellow. Fl. March — ^April. — 
W. iSk A. Prod, i. 267. — K monostachya, Dec. — Mimosa scan- 
dens, Linn. — M. Entada, Linn. — Rheede Mal. viii. t. 32-34. — 
X. t. 77. ^Travancore. Western Ghauts. N. Cii'cars. 

Medical Uses. — The seeds, which are of an immense size, are 
used by natives for washing the hair, and by the hUl people as a 
febrifuge, and also said to be employed in pains of the loins and 
debility. In Java they are employed as emetic. When the plants 
are young, the spikes are frequently axillary on the young shoot, 
which has made some botanists suppose that there are two species 
in India. — Wight Rheede, Gibson, 



EPICARPUKUS — ERIODEN DRON. 197 



(257) Epicaiponui orientalis (Blutne). K O. MoBACEiE. 

Sheon, Bbng. Peeialii. Tak. Pakkie, Tel. Nuckchilnie, Duk. Seenra, HmD. 
Tinda-pania, Mal. 

Description. — Tree; leaves alternate, short-petioled, obo- 
vate, cuspidate, acuminate, serrated towards the apex, very- 
rough above ; male flowers capitate, heads axillary, aggregated, 
short-peduncled ; females axillary, 1-2 togetiier, longish-pedi- 
celled; fruit drupaceous, deep yellow, 1-seeded; cotyledons 
very unequal-sided ; flowers small, greenish yellow. Fl. Jan, 
— Feb. — Wight Icon. vi. t. 1961. — Trophis aspera, Willd. — 

Boxb. Fl. Ind, iiL 761. — Rheede Mal, i t. 48. Concans. 

CoromandeL Bengal 

Medical Uses. — ^This is described by Dr Wight as a small, rigid, 
stunted -looking tree, common all over India, very suitable for 
hedges. The milky juice is applied to sand-cracks in the feet and 
excoriations of the skin. The plant is said to have astringent and 
antiseptic qualities. On the Malabar coast it is applied in decoc- 
tion 88 a lotion to the body in fevers, and the root bruised is applied 
to boils. A fibre is procured &om the stem, and pieces of the wood 
are frequently used by the natives as tooth-brushes. — Ainslie. 
Rheede, 

(258) Eriodendion anfractnoBum (Dec) 'S, 0. Bombacks. 

Pania, Paniala, Mal. Elaynm, Tam. Pww Tel. Huttian, Hnu). Shwet- 
Bhimool, Bbno. 3^ y^a CL ^ e-^^ KonA Wk c 

Desckiption. — Tree, 50-60 feet ; trunk prickly at the base ; 
branches growing out horizontally from the stem, three from 
one point ; leaflets 5-8, quite entire, or serrulated towards the 
point, lanceolate, mucronate, glaucous beneath ; petals 5, united 
at the base, filaments joined at the base, each bearing 2-3 
versatile anfractuose anthers ; style crowned with a 5-6 cleft 
stigma ; capsule 5-celled, 5-valved ; cells many-seeded ; seeds 
embedded in silky cotton ; flowers white, springing from the 
branches. Fl. Dec. — Jan. — W. & A, Prod, i 61. — Wight Icon, 
t. 400. — Bombax pentandrum, Linn, — Bheede Mal. iii t. 49-51, 
Peninsula. Travancore. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — A solution of the gum of this tree is given in 
conjunction with spices in bowel-complaints. The cotton which is 
got from the pods is only of use for stuffing pillows and cushions. 
The texture is too loose to admit of its being used in the fabrication 



198 ERYTHRJBA — ^ERYTHRINA. 

of cloth. The cotton from it, easily catching fire, is pnt in tinder- 
boxes, and employed in the preparation of fireworks. An oil is 
extracted from the seeds, of a dark-brown colour. — {Jury Rep.) Dr 
Macfadyen {Flora of Jamaica^ i. 93) says of this tree, it is of 
rapid growth and is readily propagated by stakes placed in the 
ground. Perhaps no tree in the world has a more lofty or imposing 
appearance. Even the untutored children of Africa are so struck 
with the majesty of its appearance that they designate it the god- 
tree, and account it sacrilege to injure it with the axe. The large 
stems are hollowed out to form canoes. The wood is soft, and sub- 
ject to the attacks of insects ; but if steeped in strong lime-water it 
will last for several years, even when made into boards and shingles, 
and in situations exposed to the weather. The young leaves are 
sometimes dressed by the negroes as a substitute for okro. 



(259) Erythraa Boxburghii {Dm). N. 0. Gentianacejs. 

Description. — Herbaceous; stem erect; lowermost leaves 
rosulate, obovate- oblong, obtuse ; cymes 1-2 dichotomous, 
spreading; flowers lateral, ebracteate, star-like, pink. Fl. 
Jan. — ^Feb. — Dec, Prod. ix. 59. — Chironia centauroides, Bod>. — 
Wight Icon, 1. 1325. ^Bengal Peninsula. Common in cul- 
tivated fields after the rains. 

Medioal Uses. — The whole plant is powerfully bitter, and is 
held in great repute as a tonic by the natives. — Beng. Disp. p. 461. 

(260) Erythxlna Indica {Lam.) N. 0. LEOUMiNOSiSB. 

Indian Coral tree, Eno. Muruka-marum, Tam. Moolloo-moorikah, Kal. Palita- 
luundar, Beno. Furrud, Hind. Badide-chettu, Tkl. 

Description. — Tree, 10-30 feet, armed with prickles; petioles 
and leaves unarmed; leaves pinnately trifoliolate ; leaflets 
glabrous, entire, the terminal ones broadly cordate ; racemes 
terminal, horizontal ; calyx spathaceous, contracted and 5- 
toothed at the apex ; corolla papilionaceous ; vexillum about 
three times shorter than the calyx, and four times longer than 
the alee ; petals of keel distinct ; stamens monadelphous, with 
the sheath entire at the base, thence diadelphous with the tube 
split ; legumes 6-8 seeded ; flowers scarlet. Fl. Jan. — April — 
W. & A. Prod. I 2&Q.—Roxh. Fl. Ind. iii. 24a.—WigU Icon, 

t 58. — Bhcede Mai. vi. t. 7. — ^E. Corallodendron, LiuTi. Coro- 

mandel. Concans. Bengal 



EUCALYPTUS. 199 

EcoNOMio Uses. — This tree yields a light and soft wood called 
Mootchie-woody much used for toys, sword-sheaths, and other light 
work. Leaves and bark are used in cases of fevers by the natives. 
The tree is much used in Malabar for the support of the betel vines ; 
and from being armed with numerous prickles, it serves as an ex- 
cellent hedge-plant to keep cattle from cultivated grounds. — Wight, 

(261) EncalyptiiB globnlns (Labill) K 0. Mtrtacke. 

Axistralian or Blue-Gum tree, Eno. 

Description. — Lofty tree; young shoots and foliage glau- 
cous-white; leaves of the young trees opposite, sessile, and 
cordate, of the full-grown tree lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 
acuminate, falcate ; veins rather conspicuous, oblique and an- 
astomosing, the intra-marginal one at a distance from the edge ; 
flowers large, axillary, solitary, or 2-3 together, closely sessile 
on the stem or on a peduncle not longer than thick; ; calyx 
tube broadly turbinate, thick, woody, and replete with oil-re- 
ceptacles, more or less ribbed and rugose ; border prominent ; 
operculum thick, hard, and warty, depressed hemispherical ; 
stamens inflected in the bud, raised above the calyx by the 
thick edge of the disk ; anthers ovate, with parallel cells ; fruit 
semi-globular, the broad flat-topped disk projecting above the 
calyx, the capsule nearly level with it ; valves flat. — Dec. Prod. 
iii. 220.— Hook Fl Tami. i. m.—Benth. Fl. Austr. iii 225. 
Cultivated on the Neilgherries and other high lands. 

Medical Uses. — Several species of Eucalyptus have of late years 
become naturalised on the Neilgherries and other high lands of India. 
The red gum of Western AustreJia is the produce of several, especially 
of E. resinifera. In its medical properties it is nearly allied to kino. 
It has been introduced into British practice by Sir Eonald Martin, 
who found it very effectual in the treatment of chronic bowol- 
complaints, and especially in the chronic dysentery of Europeans. It 
is reckoned less directly astringent and more demulcent than catechu 
or kino. The dose is from five to ten grains in the form of powder 
or syrup. — (Pharm. of India.) Professor Wiesner of Vienna in- 
vestigated the subject of Eticalyptus kino, as hitherto no reliable 
information on the subject existed. He adopts the name kinOy 
because gums are mostly soluble in alcohol as well as in water. Eu- 
ealypttta Mno contained from 16 to 17 per cent of water; it gave 
only a trace of ash, and no sugar was found on analysis. The phy- 
sical properties nearly agree with those of ordinary kino : it forms 
dark red, more or less transparent grains : in thin fragments, under 
the microscope, quite transparent and amorphous. They sink in cold 
water. Water dissolves it more or less readily to a red, yellowish, 



200 EUCALYPTUS. 

or brownish liquid of astringent taste. Many of the species have 
hitherto not been known to yield any gum. The E. kino is ap- 
plicable for tanning or dyeing. The value varies very much. The 
best is procured from JE. corymboaa, E, roatrata, and E. citriodora. 
— {Wiesner in Pluvrm. Jour, Aug. 1871.) The species under consid- 
eration is easily acclimatised in the southern provinces of France, 
Corsica, Algiers, and Spain, being known in the last-named country 
as the fever-tree. An essential oil is obtained from the leaves by 
distillation, which has been named Eucalyptol. It has an agreeable, 
fragrant, aromatic odour, and a warm, bitter flavour. Large doses 
sometimes cause headache and fever, with accelerated respiration 
and thirst : upon anaemic persons it acts as a narcotic. The phy- 
siological action of the leaves is very similar. 

In Australia the E, globulus is the })opular remedy for fevers, and 
in Europe it has been used successfully in the treatment of diseases 
prevalent in marshy districts. M. Gubler quotes the testimony of 
several medical practitioners, who say that it produces marvellous 
results in cases of intermittent fevers, especially obstinate ones, where 
sulphate of quinine has failed. He also points out that in marshy 
districts near to Eucalyptus forests intermittent fevers are unknown, 
a result that he attributes either to the neutralisation of the effluvia 
by the aromatic emanations from the trees, or else to the sweetening 
of the stagnant waters by the leaves and pieces of bark that fall into 
them — such waters, according to travellers, being perfectly potable. 
Efforts are therefore being made to increase the number of Eucalyp- 
tus plantations in the marshy and insalubrious districts of Corsica 
and Algeria. 

The tincture, infusion, and decoction of Eucalyptus are used for 
disinfecting the dressings of wounds. M. Mares has employed fresh 
young leaves as a local stimulant to small wounds slow to cicatrise. 
Dilute essence, infusion, and distilled water of the leaves are used as 
astringents and haemostatics. The preparations are also used with 
success in purulent catarrhal affections of the urethra and vagina. 
The leaves, when masticated, perfume the breath and harden spongy 
and bleeding gums. — Professor Gubler in Pltarfn, Jour. March 
1872. 

Economic Uses. — ^These trees have spread so rapidly on the 
Keilgherries and other high lands that they bid fair to become of 
the greatest importance as timber-trees, among which they rank very 
high, being especially rapid in their growth, and remarkably durable. 
They will succeed at low elevations, at 3000 or 4000 feet The E. 
rostrata, known as the Yarrali of Western Australia, is particularly 
recommended for sleepers on railways, for piles in river-work, and 
in all purposes requiring strength and durability. It possesses the 
property of resisting the white ant and sea-worm {Teredo navalis)^ 
neither of which have been kno>vn to attack it, though constantly 
exposed to both. The specific gravity of Yarrah is about the same 
as teak. It is unsuited for cabinet-work, as it is extremely hard, and 



EUCALYPTUS. 201 

could not be worked to advantage. The K globulus attained at Oota- 
camund 9 feet in girth in 18 years. The other species growing there 
are K gummifera and E, rohusta, — {GleghorrCa Forests arid Gardens 
of 8. India, Govt Reports,) A vcJuable oil is yielded by several 
species of Ihtealypttts, and now forms a considerable branch of trade 
in Australia. In his lecture on Forest Culture, Baron Von MueUer 
says it is possible to produce the oil at a price so cheap as to allow 
the article to be used in various branches of art — ^for instance, in the 
manufacture of scented soap, it having been ascertained that this oil 
surpasses any other in value for diluting the oils of roses, of orange- 
flowers, and other very costly oils, for which purpose it proves far 
more valuable than the oil of rosemary and other ethereal oils hitherto 
used. As this became known, such a demand arose that a thoughtful 
and enterpnsing citizen of Melbourne was able to export about 9000 
lb. to England and 3000 lb. to' foreign ports, though even now this 
oil is but very imperfectly known abroad. The average quantity now 
produced at his establishment for export is 700 lb. per month. Al- 
coholic extracts of the febrifugal foliage of Eucalyptus globulus and 
E, amygdalina have also been exported in quantity by the same 
gentleman to England, Germany, and America. Originally an opinion 
was entertained that all the Eucalyptus oils had great resemblance to 
each other ; such, however, proved not to be the case when accurate 
experimental tests came to be applied. Thus, for instance, the oil, 
which in such rich percentage is obtained from Eucalyptus amygda- 
lina, though excellent for diluting the most delicate essential oils, is 
of far less value as a solvent for resins in the fabrication of select 
varnishes. For this latter purpose the oil of one of the dwarf Eu- 
calypts forming the Malee scrub, a species to which Dr Mueller gave, 
on account of its abundance of oil, the name Eucalyptus oleosa, 
nearly a quarter of a century ago, proved far the best. It is this 
Malee oil which is now coming into extensive adaptations for dis- 
solving amber, Kauri resin, and various kinds of copal. Those Eu- 
calypts are the most productive of oil from their leaves which have 
the largest number of pellucid dots in these organs. This is easily 
ascertaiQed by viewing the leaves by transmitted light, when the 
transparent oU-glands will become apparent, even without the use of 
a magnifying lens. But there are still other reasons which have 
drawn the Eucalypts into extensive cultural use elsewhere — for 
instance, in Algeria, Spain, Portugal, Italy, the south of France, 
Greece, Egypt, Palestine, various uplands of India, the savannahs 
of ^North .Ajnerica, the llanos of South America, at Natal, and other 
places in South Africa, and even as near as New Zealand.* One of 
the advantages offered is the extraordinary facility and quickness 
with which the seeds are raised, scarcely any care being requisite in 
nursery-work — -a seedling, moreover, being within a year, or even 

* The seeds of Eucalyptus rostrata (red-gnm tree) are available for all tropic 
countries, inasmuch as this species, \rhich. is almost incomparably valuable for 
its lasting wood, ranges naturally right through the hot zone of Australia. 



202 EUGENIA. 

less time, fit for final transplantation. Another advantage consists 
in the ease vriih. T^hich the transmit can be efifected, in consequence 
of the minuteness of most kinds of Eucalyptus seeds,* there being, 
besides, no difficulty in packing on account of the natural dryness 
of these seeds. For curiosity's sake Dr Mueller had an ounce of the 
seed of several species counted, with the following results : — 

Blae-gum tree 1 ounce—sifted fertile seed-grains, 10,112. 
Stringy-bark tree (unsifted), 21,080. 
Swamp-gam tree (unsifted), 28,264. 
Peppermint Eucalypt (unsifted), 17,600. 

According to this calculation, 161,792 plants could be raised from 
1 lb. of seeds of the blue-gum tree. If only half the seeds of such 
grew, the number of seedlings would be enormous ; and even if only 
the seedlings of one quarter of the seeds of 1 lb. finally were estab- 
lished, they would suffice, in the instance of the blue-gum tree, to 
cover 404 acres, assuming that we planted at the rate of 100 trees to 
the acre (allowing for thinning out). 

It seems marvellous that trees of such colossal dimensions, counting 
among the most gigantic of the globe, shoidd arise from a seed-grain 
80 extremely minute. 

The exportation of Eucalyptus seeds has already assumed some 
magnitude. The monthly mails convey occasionally quantities to 
the value of over JBIOO ; the total export during the last twelve years 
must have reached several, or perhaps many, thousand pounds ster- 
ling. For the initiation of this new resource, through his extensive 
correspondence abroad, Dr Mueller can lay much claim ; and he be- 
lieves that almost any quantity of Eucalyptus seed could be sold in 
the markets of London, Paris, Calcutta, San FranciBco, Buenos Ayres, 
Valparaiso, and elsewhere, as it will be long before a sufficient local 
supply can be secured abroad from cultivated trees. — Von Mueller on 
Fm-est Culture. Pharm. Jour. Feb. 1872. 

(262) Eugenia acris (Wight). N". 0. Myrtace^. 

The Pimento-tree, Eno. 

- Description. — Tree, 20-30 feet ; young branches acutely 4- 
angled; leaves opposite, elliptic-oval, obtuse, very glabrous, 
upper side reticulated with elevated veins; peduncles com- 
pressed, axillary and terminal, trichotomous, corymbose, rather 
longer than the leaves; calyx limb 5-partite, segments roundish; 
berry globose, 1-4 seeded ; flowers small, white. Fl. Jaa — 
March. — W. & A. Prod, i 331. — R pimenta, Dec. — Myrtus 
pimenta, Linn. Courtallum. Travancore. Madras. 

* The seeds of the West Australian red-fram tree (EttccUypiua ccUophylla) and 
the East Australian bloodwood-tree {Euealifptua corymboia) are comparatively 
large and heavy. _ _ 



EUONYMUS — ^EUPHORBIA. 203 

' Economic Ubbh. — Introdnced from America. The limber is hard, 
red, and heavy, capable of being polished and used for mill-cogs, and 
other purposes, where much friction is to be sustained. The bark is 
astringent and somewhat aromatic The leaves are sweetly aromatic, 
astringent, and often used in sauce. The berries are used for culinary 
purposes. — Lunan. 

(263) Enonymiui crennlatns {WdU.) "N. 0. CELASTRACEiS. 

DESCRiPTiON.r-Small tree ; leaves elliptic, obtuse, crenulate- 
serrate towards the apex, coriaceous, deep shining green 
above ; peduncles solitary, shorter than the leaves, 1-2 dicho- 
tomous, few -flowered; flowers 5-6 merons, petals orbicular; 
stamens very short ; anthers opening transversely ; margin of 
the torus free ; style very short ; stigma blunt, jsomewhat 
umbilicated ; capsule turbinate, 6-celled, lobed at the apex ; 
seed with a small aril. — W. & A. Prod. i. 161. — Bedd. Flor. 
Sylv. 1 144i. Neilgherries. Pulneys. Western Ghauts. 

Economic Uses. — ^The wood is white, very hard and close-grained, 
and answers for wood-engraving, and about the best substitute for 
boxwood. The wood of the other species is similar. 

(264) Enpatorinm Ayapana (Vent) N. O. CoMPosiTiB. 

Description. — Small shrub; branchlets reddish; leaves 

opposite, lanceolate ; flowers yellow. Banks of the Jumna. 

Naturalised. 

Medical IJsBS.--^Properly indigenous to South America, though 
some botanists believe it to have been introduced into India from 
the Isle of France, and others that it is a native of the country. 
The leaves have a peculiar fragrant odour, and when first tasted 
slightly irritate the tongue, but afterwards the astringent quality is 
felt. When fresh bruised, they are advantageously applied to the 
cleansing of foul ulcers. The whole plant is aromatic, and is a good 
stimulant, tonic, and diaphoretic. In the Mauritius it is used in 
the form of infusion in dyspepsia and other affections of the bowels 
and lungs. — (Bouton Med. Plants of Mauritius.) As an antidote to 
snake-bites, it has been employed, both externally and internally, 
with apparent success. — (Madras Quart. Med, Journ. iv. 7.) A 
decoction of the leaves makes a good fomentation. — Pharm, of India. 

(265) Euphorbia antianomm (Linn.) N. 0. EuPHORBucEiB. 

Triangular Spurge, Eno. Schadida-calll, Mal. Shadray Eullie, Tah. Bonta- 
jammoodoo, Tel. Narashjj, Seyard, Hind. Nars^, Beno. 

Description. — Stems jointed, erect, ramous, 3-4 or more 



204 EUPHORBIA. 

angled ; angles furnished with numerous protuberances, each 
armed with two short spreading stipulary spines ; joints 
straight ; peduncles solitary or in pairs, usually 3-flowered a 
little above the axils of the stipules ; flowers greenish yellow. 
FL Dec-^Jan.— 5oa;6. Fl Ind. ii. 468.— Wight Icon, t 897 

— JRheede, iL t, 42. CoromandeL Common in waste places 

in the Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — ^The juice which flows from the branches of this 
plant is corrosive. The natives use it externally in rheumatism ; 
they also give it in toothache ; and internally, when diluted, as a 
purgative in cases of obstinate constipation. This is easily distin- 
guished from the allied species by the straight, not twisted stem, 
and the peduncles being few, one or two from each protuberance or 
bud, while in the others they are nimierous. A plaster prepared 
from the roots and mixed with assafoetida is applied externally to 
the stomachs of children suflering from worms. The bark of the 
root is purgative, and the stem is given in decoction in gout — 
{Wight Rheede, Ainslie.) The resin has acrid, narcotic, drastic, 
and emetie qualities. It is used in dropsy, and as an errhine in 
chronic affections of the ears, eyes, or brain. It is a dangerous 
medicine. Mixed with cantharides, it forms gout - plaster. — 
LindUy. 

(266) Euphorbia Oattimandoo (TT. Elliot). Do. 

Cattimanda, Tel. 

Description. — Shrub or small tree ; stem erect, 5-sided, with 
prominent repand angles; stipulary thorns paired, short, 
subulate; leaves sessile, succulent, deciduous, obovate, sub- 
cuneate, cuspidate, glabrous ; peduncles crowded, 3-flowered, 
middle one usually sterile, and lateral one fertile, flowering 
after the fall of the leaf. FL March — June. — Wight Icon, t 
1993. ^Vizagapatam. 

Economic Uses. — ^This valuable plant was first brought to notice 
by the Hon. W. Elliot. I here transcribe from Dr Wight's *Icones* 
the following notes, which were communicated to him by Mr Elliot: 
" The milk is obtained by cutting off the branches, when it flows 
freely. It is collected and boiled on the spot, at which time it is 
very elastic ; but after being formed into cakes or cylinders, it 
becomes resinous or brittle, in which state it is sold in the bazaars, 
and employed as a cement for fixing knives into handles, and other 
similar purposes, which is effected by heating it. It is also employed 
medicinally, as an outward application in cases of rheumatism. The 
juice I sent you was, I think, boiled in water. It is much superior 



V 






V5 



^ EUPHORBIA. 205 

v^ to what is sold in tlie bazaar ; but it has not the valuable property, 

^ like gutta-percha, of being ductHe at aU times. It can be made to 

^ take any shape when first boiled, but, as far as we know, not after- 

^ wards, though some plan may be found for making it more pliant 

afterwards." In remarking upon the specimen sent him, Dr Wight 

^ states as follows : " Judging from the above-mentioned sample of 

"^ the Cattimandoo now before me, I should suppose that, were it in 

"V the hands of men accustomed to work in such material, it would 

^^ soon be turned to valuable account. I find, when exposed to the 

^^^ heat of a fire or lamp, it rapidly softens, and becomes as adhesive to 

^ the hands as shoemaker's wax; but when' soaked for some time in 

• ^ warm water (150° to 180°), then it slowly softens, becomes pliable 

^>r* and plastic, and in that state takes any required form." Specimens 

of the gum were sent to the Great Exhibition in 1851, as well aa 

to the Madras Exhibition. In the report of the jurors it was said 

that it may be applied to a variety of uses. It requires little or no 

jS preparation. The fresh juice is used as a vesicant. Articles may 

^ easily be moulded by the hand from it. — Wight, Jury Rep. 

(267) Enphorbia lignlaria {RoxK) ' Do. 

,^3 M onsa sg, Bkno. 

Description. — Tree, 20 feet ; young shoots 5-sided, some- 
what spirally disposed, and armed with large teeth, each of 
which supports a leaf, and a pair of short, black, stipulary 
thorns; leaves alternate about the ends of the branches, 
wedge-shaped, waved, fleshy ; peduncles solitary between the 
serratures of the angles of the branchlets, 1-3 dichotomous, 
with a larger sessile flower in the forks; petals 5, fringed 
with a ragged margin inserted into the calyx ; flowers greeuish 
yellow. Fl Feb. — March.— iJoajJ. Fl Lid, ii. 465. Penin- 
sula. Bengal. 

Medical Uses — The root mixed with black pepper is employed in 
cases of snake-bites, both ititemally and extemsdly. The plant is 
sacred to Munsa, the goddess of serpents. Every part abounds with 
an acrid milky juice, employed to remove warts and cutaneous erup- 
tion. — (Roxb.) In July and August, on Tuesdays igid Thursdays, 
the natives approach this tree with offerings of rice, milk, and sugar, 
praying to be delivered fipom snake-bites. However, they employ a 
surer meauB by mixing the root with black pepper as a remedy in 
bites. The native doctors purify arsenic by making a hole in the 
trunk of the tree, flUing it up with solid arsenic, and after being 
covered with the bark of the same plant, the whole is exposed to a 
good Are, until the external parts of the trunk are completely charred, 
when the arsenic is taken out and becomes fit for use. — Joum, of 
Agri, Hart. Soc of India, x. 37. ^ -^ 



206 EUPHORBIA. 



(268) Euphorbia nivnlia (Buck.) Do. 

Ellaciilli, Mal. Elakullie, Tam. Akoo-jemmoodoo, Tel. Ptoon, HcvD. 8by, 
Beno. 

Description. — ^Tree; branches round; thorns stipnlary; 
leaves sub - sessile, wedge - shaped ; peduncles 3 - flowered ; 
flowers greenish yellow. FL March — ^ApriL — WigM Icon, t 
1862. — Boxb, FL Ind, ii 467. — E. nereifolia, Linn. — Rheede, ii. 
t 43. Concans. Bengal Coromandel. 

Medioal Uses. — ^The juice of the leaves of this plant is used 
internally as a purgative; mixed with Margosa oil it is applied 
externally in certain cases of rheumatism. On the western coast 
the bark of the root boiled in rice-water and arrack is given in 
dropsy. The leaves simply warmed in the fire will promote urine 
externally applied, while their juice warmed is a good remedy in 
ear-ache, and is occasionally rubbed over the eyes to remove dimness 
of sight — {Ainalie. Rheede,) The pulp of the stem, mixed with 
green ginger, is given to persons who have been bitten by mad dogs, 
previous to the appearance of hydrophobia. — Joum, of Agru-Hort. 
Soc. X. 37. 



(269) Euphorbia thymifolia (Linn.) Do. 

Chin-amaum-patchayarise, Sittra paladi, Tam. Biddarie-nanabeeam, Tel. Shewt* 
khenia, Beno. 

DESCRrpnoN. — ^Branches pressing flat on the earth, coloured, 
hairy ; leaves opposite, obliquely ovate, serrate ; flowers axil- 
lary, crowded on short peduncles, small, greenish ; calyx and 
corolla each of four semilateral parts. FL Nearly all the year. 
— Roxb. FL Ind. ii 473. ^Peninsula. Bengal Dry situa- 
tions near woods. 

Medical Uses. — ^The leaves and seeds are slightly aromatic and 
astringent. In a dried state they are given as a vermifuge. The 
leaves when carefully dried smell like tea.— Aindie. 



(270) Euphorbia tiracalli {Linn.) Do. 

Milk-bedge or Indian Tree Spnrge, Eko. Triacalli, Mal. and Tax. Lnnka sij, 
Beno. 

Description. — Tree unarmed, 20 feet; leaves alternate, 
remote, sessile, linear, smooth; flowers at the end of the 
twigs and in the divisions of the bi-anchlets, crowded, sub- 
sessile, pale yellow ; calyx campanulate, with 3-5 flat peltate 



EURYALE, 20? 

horizontal segments ; capsule villous, 5-lobed, 3-celled ; seeds 
solitary. Fl, June — Sept. — Roocb. Fl. Ind, ii. 470. — RJieede, 
ii. t 44 CoromandeL Malabar. BengaL 

Medical Uses. — ^The iresli acrid juice of this plant is used as a 
yesicatory. Bheede says that a decoction of the tender branches is 
given in colic, and the milky juice mixed with butter as a purga- 
tive, on the Malabar coast. It is used among the natives as a good 
manure. Goats will eat the plant notwithstanding its acrid juice. 
The bark and small branches are ingredients used in dyeing cotton 
a black colour. The root in decoction is administered internally in 
pains in the stomach. On the Coromandel coast it is frequently 
employed for hedges, and is known as the milk-hedge. — RoxK 

(271) Enryale feroz (SalisK) K 0. NrMPHiBACE^, 

Machana, Hind. 

Desckiption. — Stemless floating plant ; sepals 4 ; petals 
numerous in 4-7 series ; leaves peltate, about 1-4 feet each 
way from orbicular to oval, entire, dark green above, with 
ferruginous veins, armed, with few slender prickles above, 
spinous beneath ; petioles armed ; calyx covered with recurved 
spines on the outside; carpel size of a pea; flowers bluish 
purpla FL Nearly all the year. — Anneslea spinosa, Boxb. FL 
Ind. ii 573. Chittagong. Lucknow. 

EcoxoMio UsB& — The fibrous roots of this curious plant descend 
deep into the soil at the bottom of the water. If the water be 
shallow the peduncles are long enough to elevate the flower above 
the surface, but if deep they blossom under water. The petals of 
the flowers are very numerous, the exterior ones being large, and 
gradually lessening till they become very small. It is a native of 
sweet-water lakes and ponds in Chittagong and places eastward of 
Calcutta, where it is in blossom most part of the year. The seeds 
are farinaceous, and, after being heated in hot sand and husked, are 
eaten by the natives. Eoxburgh states that the mode of preparation 
to fit them for the table is as follows : A quantity of sand is put 
into an earthen vessel, placed over a gentle fire : in the sand they 
put a quantity of the seed, agitate the vessel, or the sand, with an 
iron ladle. The seed sweUs to more than double its original size, 
when it becomes light, white, and spongy. During the operation the 
liard husk of the seed breaks in various parts, and then readily 
separates by rubbing between two boards, or striking it gently with 
a by-board. The Hindoo physicians consider these seeds to be pos- 
sessed of powerful medical virtues, such as restraining seminal gleets, 
and invigorating the system. — (Roxb.) This plant was found by 



208 EVOLVULUS — EXACUM. 

Lord Valencia between Lucknow and the foot of the hills, and bj 
Dr Roxburgh in the lakes of Tipperah and Chittagong. Dr Eoyle 
met with it in the j heels beyond Saharunpore, but it had no doubt 
been introduced there, as the names given it are synonymous with 
southern Nymphaoa and purple Nelumbium. It is mentioned by 
Sir Greorge Staunton as occurring in the province of Kianang, and 
by the Chinese missionaries it is said to have been introduced into 
China for three thousand years. It may, however^ be one of those 
plants which belong equally to India and China. — Royle Him. Bot. 

(272) Evolvnlas alsinoides {Linn,) K 0. Convolvulaoea. 

Yistna-clandi, Mal. Vistnoo-krandie, Tam. Vistnoo-kraiidum, Tel. 

Description. — Procumbent ; stem, scarcely any ; branches' 
numerous, covered when young with long, soft, white hairs ; 
leaves alternate, bifarious, sub-sessile, oblong, entire, hairy on 
both sides ; peduncles axillary, solitary, longer than the leaves, 
pointed near the middle, 1-3 flowered, erect while in blossom, 
afterwards drooping ; calyx of 5 segments, lanceolate ; corolla 
campanulate; flowers small, blue with a white tube. Fl. 
Nov. — Jan. — Roxb, Fl, Ind. ii. 106. — E. hirsutus. Lam. — 
Mheede, xi. t 64. Peninsula. Bengal 

Medical Uses. — ^A widely-distributed plant The leaves, stalks, 
and roots are used in medicine, and reputed to be excellent reme- 
dies in dysentery and fever. — Ainslie, 

(273) Exacnin bicolor {Raxh,) N. 0. Gentianaces. 

Description. — Small plant, 1-2 feet; stem and branches 
tetragonal ; leaves sessile, sub-acute, ovate, 3-5 nerved, mar- 
gins smooth ; calyx 4-cleft ; flowers axillary, solitary, on short 
pedicels ; corolla white, having' the segments tipped with blue. 
Fl Aug.— Oct— Wight Icon, t 1321.— Boxb. Fl. Ind. I 397. 

Neilgherries. Malabar. Cuttack. Salsette. By the 

margins of rivulets. 

Medical Uses. — A valuable febrifuge. The dried stalks are sold 
at Mangalore and elsewhere in the Southern Peninsula under the 
name of Country Kariyat. It possesses the tonic stomachic pro- 
perties of Gentian, and may be advantageously substituted for it. 
The E. tetraganum is another species, possessing similar properties. 
It is common in the Himalaya, and the mountains and plains of 
Bengal and Central India as far south as Bombay. The whole 
plant is powerfully bitter, and, according to Boyle, is called by the 



EXCiECARIA. 209 

natives Ooda (purple) Chiretta. The E, pedunculatum is a third 
species, with similar virtues as a bitter tonic. It is common in the 
western districts of Mysore. Dr Wight recommends that the plants 
be gathered when the flowers begin to fade, and to be carefully dried 
in the shade. For administration it may be given in infusion and 
tincture of the same strength as those of Chiretta. Many other 
species occur in India, and are all worthy of trial where they are 
indigenous. — Pharm. of India. 

(274) Exc8Bcaria AgaUocha (Muller), N. 0. Euphorbiaceje, 

var, Camettia. 

Canietti, Mal. 

Description. — Small tree or shrub ; leaves ovate or elliptic ; 
obtuse at the base, entire or crenate-semilate ; male spikes 
amentiform, dense-flowered, cylindric ; female racemes shorter 
than the male spikes, and in separate branches, both axillary, 
solitary, or rarely twin ; bracts destitute of distinct glands ; 
male calyx sessile, covered by the bract, female sepals ovate, 
with one gland on both sides of the base inside ; anthers long — 
exserted after flowering; capsule sulcately 3-lobed; flowers 
greenish. FL March — May. — Dec, Prod. xv. s. 2, p. 1221. — 
E camettia, Willd. Wight Icon, t 18G5. — Rheede, v. t. 45. 
Salt marshes of the Peninsula. Travancore back-waters. 

Medical Uses. — This shrub or small tree grows abundantly along 
the back-waters in Travancore and Cochin. It abounds in an acrid 
mOky juice, and is known as the Tigei's-milk tree. The natives 
are afraid almost to cut the branches, for fear of the milk blistering 
the skin, or causing blindness should it by chance get into the 
eyes. The juice is applied with good eifect to inveterate ulcers. 
The leaves are used also in decoction for this purpose. A good kind 
of caoutchouc may be prepared from the milk, which is worthy of 
attention. — Wieede. Prrs. Obs. 

(275) Excfldcaria sebifera (Muller). Do. 

China Tallow-tree, Eno. 

Description. — Tree ; leaves long-petioled, rhomb-ovate, en- 
tire, sharply acuminate at the apex, sub-membranaceous ; ra- 
cemes spiciform, terminal, at length far exceeding the leaves ; 
bracts very broadly ovate, acute, many-flowered, many times 
shorter than the aggregated pedicels; male calyx 2-3 cleft, 
female S-partite, 1-2 of the segments often cleft, and the calyx 

14 



210 EXCiECARIA. 

then becomes irregularly and spuriously 5-partite; stamens 
most frequently 2 ; styles connate below into a column, above 
recurved, spreading; capsules largish, globose-ellipsoid, sub- 
acute, thinly fleshy, long, black; seeds furnished imder the 
skin with a thick, white, tallowy bed, forming a spurious ariL — 
MuUer in Dec, Prod. xv. s. p. p. 1210. — Stillingia sebifera^ 
Michx. — Sapium sebiferum, Boaib. — S. sinensis, Baill. JEuph. 
p. 512. t 7, fig. 26-30. Cultivated. 

EcoNOHio Uses. — A native of China, this useful tree has for some 
time been introduced into India. In northern China it forms a vast 
trade. At Shanghai it is equal to 2^ millions sterling, and by its 
produce the cultivators pay the revenue of whole districts. The tree 
now grows with great luxuriance in the Dhoons, and in the Kohistan 
of the K.W. Provinces and Punjaub, and there are now tens of 
thousands of trees in the Government plantations of Kowalghir, 
Hawal Bagh, and Ayar Tolie, from which tons of seeds are available 
for distribution. For burning, the tallow is excellent, gives a bright, 
clear, inodorous flame, and without smoke. The tree fruits abun- 
dantly both in the Dhoons and in the plains, and grows with great 
rapidity. The tallow is separated by steaming the seeds in tubs with 
convex open wicker bottoms, placed over caldrons of boiling water. 
The seed-vessels are hard brownish husks, not omlike those of chest- 
nuts, and each of them contains three round white kernels, having 
small stones within. It is the hard, white, oleaginous substance 
surrounding these stones which possesses most of the properties of 
tallow ; but on stripping it off it does not soil the hands. From the 
shell and stone, or seed, oil is extracted, so that the fruit produces 
tallow for candles and oil for lamps. To obtain the extract the 
Chinese grind the fruit in a trunk of a tree which is hollowed out, 
shaped l&e a canoe, lined with iron, and firmly fixed in the ground. 
Lengthwise within this trunk there moves backwards and forwards 
a millstone, whose axis is fixed to a long pole laden with a heavy 
weight to increase the pressure, and suspended from a beam. After 
the seed has been pounded, it is thrown with a small quantity of 
water into a large iron vessel, exposed to fire, and reduced by heat 
into a thick consistent mass. It is next put into a case consisting of 
four or five broad iron hoops, piled one above the other, and lined 
with straw, and then pressed down with the feet as closely as possible 
till it fills the case. It ia afterwards carried to the press. 

Another, and perhaps more generally adopted process, is, merely 
to boil the bruised seed in water,. and to collect the tallowy matter 
that floats to the surface. A certain quantity of some vegetable oil, 
occasionally in as great a proportion as 3 lb. to eveiy 10 lb. procured 
from the tallow-tree, is mixed up with it 

It is not so consistent as tallow, and therefore, to promote the 
better cohesion of the material, the candles made of it are dipped in 



EXC-ffiCARIA. 211 

wax : this external coating liardena them, and preserves them from 
guttering. The comhustion of these candles is described as being 
less perfect, yielding a thicker smoke, a dimmer light, and consuming 
much more rapidly than ours. Yet, animal tallow being very scarce 
in China, the vegetable production is there held in the highest es- 
timation. The timber is white and close-grained, and well fitted for 
printing-blocks, while the leaves arie valuable as a dye. — AheVs 
Travels in China, p. 177. Lankester Veg, Suhst, 



212 



P 



(276) Feronia elephantum (Corr,) K 0. Aurantia.cile. 

Elephant or Wood apple, Exo. Velanga mamm, Mal. Velam mamm, pitavooU, 
Tam. Velaga, Tel. Khoet, Hind, or DuK. Kuthbel, Benq. 

Description. — ^Tree, 50-60 feet, armed with spines ; leaves 
pinnated ; leaflets 5-7, obovate, almost sessile; petioles winged, 
pointed ; racemes lax, axillary or terminal ; calyx 5-toothed ; 
petals 5 ; style scarcely any ; flowers small, pale pink with 
crimson anthers ; fruit about the size of an apple with a hard 
greyish rind, 5-celled, many-seeded ; seeds immersed in fleshy 
pulp. FL March. — W. & A, Prod. i. 96. — Wight Icon, 1 15. — 

Roxb. FL Ind, ii. 411. — Cor. ii. t 141. Coromandel. Tra- 

vancore. Guzerat. Bengal 

Medical Uses. — A transparent gummy substance exudes from t^a^ 
stem when cut or broken which is called in Tamil Vdam pisnie.'^t 
resembles much the true gum-ai*abic, and is used medicinally by the 
native Vytians, being reduced to powder and mixed with honey and 
then given in dysentery and diarrhoea. The leaves when bruised 
have a fragrant smell, like anise. The natives consider them as 
stomachic and carminative. They are also used by native practitioners 
as a gentle stomachic stimulant in the bowel-complaints of children. 
There is a variety of this tree, the properties of which are nearly the 
same as this. It is called Cooti'Velam in Tamil. — Wight Ainslie, 
Beng. Dlsp, 

Economic Uses. — ^The pulpy part of the fruit is edible. A jelly, 
much resembling black-currant jelly, only with a more astringent taste, 
is made from it. The wood is white, hard and durable, fine-grained j 
and would answer well for ornamental carving, — R&xb, 

(277) FicuB Bengalensis {Linn,) K 0. Moracks. 

Common Banyan-tree, Eno. Ala-marum, Tam. Bur, Bat, Benq. Marri, Tel. 
Peralu, Mal. 

Description. — Tree ; branches spreading very much ; lower 
ones rooting ; leaves alternate, ovate, bluntly acuminated, with 
parallel nerves, paler underneath, entire, downy when young, 
afterwards smooth ; fruit-receptacles axillary, paired, sessile, 



FICUS. 213 

as large as a middle-sized cheny, appearing and ripening in 
the hot season. — W^/ht Icon, t 1989. — F. Indica, lioxb. Fl. 
Ind. iii. 539. — Urostigma Bengalense, Miqttd. — Rheede, i. t 
28. Common everywhere. 

Medical Uses. — ^The seeds of the firuit are considered as cooling 
and tonic, being prescribed in the form of electuary. The white 
glutinous juice which flows from the stems is applied as a remedy in 
toothache, and also to the soles of the feet when cracked and inflamed. 
The bark given in infusion is said to be a tonic, and is also used in 
diabetes. — A indie. 

Economic Uses. — ^There are several species as well as varieties of 
the Banyan-tree which throw out roots from their branches. The 
present one may perhaps be considered the best type of the family. 
It is remarkable, as every one knows, for the singular property of 
letting a gummy kind of rootlet fall from its branches, llieso on 
reaching the ground soon form a natural support to the laiger branches 
of the parent tree, and several of these extending and increasing from 
year to year, forming a vast assemblage of pillar-like stems, cover a 
considerable area round the original trunk, — 

'' Branching so broad and long that in the ground 
The bending twigs take root, and daughters grow 
About the mother tree, a pillared shade — 
High oyer-arched with echoing walks between." 

Many instances are 9n record of the immense extent of some of 
these trees, which form so peculiar a feature in an Oriental landscape. 
One tree of the kind near Fort St David was computed to cover 
nearly 1700 yards. Colonel Sykes mentions one at Mhow with 68 
stems descending from the branches, and capable of aflbrding a shade 
under a vertical sun to 20,000 men. Eoxbuigh says that he has 
seen such trees fuUy 500 yards round the circumference of the 
branches and 100 feet high, the principal trunk being more than 25 
feet to the branches, and 8 or 9 feet in diameter. Travellers in this 
country have described them large enough to shelter a regiment of 
cavaliy, and how they have formed a natural canopy for public meet- 
ings and other assemblages. The ancients were acquainted with the 
tree, and both Strabo and Pliny have accurately described it. The 
wood is of no value, being light and porous. The Brahmins use the 
leaves as plates to eat off. Bird-lime is manufactured from the milky 
juice which abounds in every part of the tree. If the seeds drop 
into the axils of the leaves of the palmyra-tree, the roots grow 
downwards embracing the trunk in their descent, until by degrees 
they envelop every part except the top. In very old specimens 
the leaves and head of the palmyra are seen emerging from the 
trunk of the Banyan-tree, as if they grew from it. These the 
Hindoos regard with reverence, and call them holy marriages. — 
Roxb. 



214 FICUS. r)^ 

(278) FicnB Benjamina (lAnnJ) Do. 

OvaMeaved Fig-tree, Eira Itty alu, Mal. Telia baiinka, Tel. 

« 

Description.— Tree ; branches slender, flexuose, streaked 
and wrinkled; leaves petioled, ovate, entire, slenderly streaked 
across; fruit globular, scattered over the brauchlets. — Roscb. 
Fl Ind. iii. 550.— Wight Icon, t 642, &m.—Rheede, 1 1 26. 
Peninsula. Malabar. 

Medical Uses. — This is one of the most beautiful of the species. 
A decoction of the leaves mbced with oil Ib reckoned in Malabar a 
good application to ulcers. — (Rheede,) Another species growing in 
the Concans and Malabar, and called in Malayalmn Katv^ou, is the 
F. citrifolia. Of this the bark of the root boiled in water is given 
as a wash in aphthous complaints. It is said to strengthen the 
gums, and also to be diuretic. A kind of balsam prepared from the 
bark is mixed with oil and applied to ulcerous affections of the ear, 
and in deafuess. A bath made from the bark of root and stem is 
said by the natives to be very efficacious in the cure of leprosy, and , 
mitigating pains in the limbs. — Rheede, 



.'^ 



(279) Ficua cunia (5mcA.) Do. ^ ^ 

Perina teregazn, Mal. ^ 

Description. — Fruit - receptacles turbinate, ribbed, pedi- 
celled, size of a filbert, hairy, umbilicated, in pairs or threes 
on long procumbent, radical and cauline, compound, leafless 
branches, appearing all the year. — F. conglomerata, Roocb, FL 

Ind. iiL 561. — Wight Icon, t 648. — Rheede, iii t 61. 

Concans. Malabar. Oude. CoromandeL 

Medical Uses. — ^The rough leaves of this tree are used for polish- 
ing furniture. The firuit is administered in aphthous complaints ; 
and also, boiled in milk, in visceral obstruction. A bath made both 
from the fruit and bark is reckoned a useful treatment in leprosy. 
— Rheede. 

(280) Fiens elastica (Roxh.) Do. 

Indian Caoutchouc-tree, Esq. Eusneer, Beno. 

Description. — ^Tree, 30-40 feet ; leaves from oval to oblong, 
pointed, thick, firm, and glossy ; fruit in axillary pairs, sessile, 
oval, smooth, the size of an olive ; stipules nearly as long as 
the leaves, smooth and rosy. Fl. March — ApriL — Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. iii. 541. — Stilpnophyllum elasticum, Fndl. — Wight Icon. 



FICTJS, 215 

t 663. Khassya mouutains. Juntipoor hills. Cultivated 

in Malabar. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — ^This beautiful tree produces when wounded a 
quantity of mUk which yields about one-third of its weight of 
Caoutchouc This milk is used by the natives of Silhet to smear 
over the inside of baskets constructed of split rattan, which are then 
rendered water-tight. The milk is extracted by incisions made 
across the bark down to the wood, at a distance of about a foot 
&om each other iQl round the trunk or branch up to the top of the 
tree ; and the higher the incision, the more abundant the fluid is 
said to be. llie tree requires a fortnight's rest before the operation 
is repeated. When the • juice is exposed to the air, it separates 
spontaneously into a fine elastic substance and a foetid whey-coloured 
liquid. Fifty ounces of pure milky juice taken from the tree in 
August yielded exactly 15^ oz. of clean-washed Caoutchouc. This 
substance is of the fluest quality, and may be . obtained in laige 
quantities. It is perfectly soluble in the essential oil of Cajeput. 

The tree is easily propagated by cuttings. — (Boxb.) Dr Eoyle 
(Him. Boty p. 338, 339, note) says : " I have been favoured with a 
letter from Professor Christison of Edinburgh, who obtained speci- 
mens of the East Indian Caoutchouc after it had been eight years 
in the countiy, and employed it in making a flexible tube for con- 
veying coal-gas. Eespecting it he says — * I can most decidedly 
state that, so far as my trials go, it is a far better article than is 
commonly thought, and quite fit for many most important econo- 
mical uses.' The specimens have been submitted to experiment by 
M. Lierier the sculptor, so well known for his numerous experi- 
ments on any important applications of this substance. He pro- 
nounces the Indiarubber from Silhet, though carelessly collected, 
and 80 long ago as eleven years since, to be equal in elasticity to 
the best from South America, and superior to it from lightness of 
colour and freedom from smelL There can be little doubt, there- 
fore, of its being an important and profitable article of commerce, 
since nearly 500 tons of Caoutchouc are now imported from other 
parts of the world; and its application and uses are so rapidly 
increasing that it is not possible at present for the supply to keep 
pace with the demand. It is hoped, therefore, that some enter- 
prising individual will be induced carefully to collect — t.e., keep 
clean — the juice of Ficua dastica. The tree is called Kaemeer by the 
inhabitants of Pundua and the Juntipoor mountains. It is also 
found near Durrunj in Assam, between the Burrampooter and the 
Bootan hills. The highest price of Caoutchouc can, however, only 
be obtained for that which is collected in the bottle form, or prefer- 
ably in that of a cylinder of 1^ to 2^ inches in diameter, and 4 or 
5 inches in length. Much usefol information on the subject will be 
found in Eoxburgh in his article Urceola dastica, and in his Flora 
Indica, iii. 541-5 ; also in an article on the same subject by Howi- 



216 FICUS. 

son in the 5th vol. Trans. As. Soc. of Calcutta, and Falconer in 
Agri.-Hort. Soc. of India. — Boyle. 

(281) Ficns excelsa (VaJil) Do. 

# 

Attimeralloo, Mal. 

Description. — Tree; leaves alternate, bifarious, slightly 
scabrous beneath ; fruit-receptacles axillary, solitary or paired, 
peduncled, somewhat turbinate, smooth, size of a cherry, yellow 
when ripe. FL June — July. — Roaib, FL Ind. iii 552. — 
Wight Icon, t 650. — Rheede, iii. t 58. Peninsula. Mala- 
bar. 

Medical Uses. — Rheede states that at the pagoda at Yyekkam, 
a town on the back-water about twenty miles south-east of Cochin, 
one of these trees was growing in his time about fifty feet in circum- 
ference, and which was traditionally reported to be two thousand 
years old. A decoction is made from the root powerfully aperient 
iu visceral obstructions. The bark of the root of the F. nitida and 
root itself, as well as the leaves, boiled in oil, are severally con- 
sidered as good applications for wounds or bruises. — Rheede. 

(282) Ficus oppoBitifolia(Tr27;e^.) Do. 

Description. — Small tree; young shoots scabrous, and 
covered with short hair, fistulous and interrupted at the 
insertion of the leaves; leaves opposite, round or oblong, 
slightly serrate, glandular in the axils of the veins beneath, 
shining above, downy beneath ; fruit axillary £tnd peduncled, 
racemose on the naked woody branches, round, about the size 
of a large nutmeg, covered with short white hair, with several 
equidistant ridges. — Roxb. Flor. Ind. iii. 561. — Cor. t 124. 

Wight Icon, t 638. — Covellia oppositifolia, Qaspar. Banks 

of rivulets in the Peninsula and Bengal. 

Medical Uses. — The fruit, seeds, and bark are possessed of 
valuable emetic properties. The best form of administration ap- 
pears to be the seed of the ripe fruit, dried and preserved from 
moisture in stoppered bottles. The bark is also a good anti-periodic 
and tonic. The F. polycarpa possesses the same medicinal pro- 
perties. — Phann. of India, 

• 

(283) FicoB racemosa {Linn,) Do. 

Red-wooded Fig-tree, or Country Fig-tree, Eng. Atti-alu, Mal. Attie-manim, 
Tam. Maydi, Tkl. Gooler, Hind. 

DBScmpnoN,— Tree ; leaves ovate, entire, pointed, veined ; 



FICUS. 217 

fruit-receptacles on racemes, round, reddish, size of a small 
plum. — JRheede, i. t 25. Concans. Malabar. 

Medical Uses. — ^The root in decoction aod bark of the tree are 
used in medicine. The latter is slightly astringent, and sometimes 
used in the form of a fine powder; and, in combination with Gingeley- 
oil, is applied in cancerous affections. The fruit is edible. A fluid 
which is yielded by incisions in the root is given as a tonic by 
native doctors. An infusion of the bark is given in diabetes ; and 
the young leaves reduced to powder and mixed with honey in 
bilious affections. — Ainslie. lOieede, 

(284) Ficns religiosa {Linn.) Do. 

Poplar-leaved Fig-tree, Eva. Ashwuth, Beno. Pippnl, Hind. Aiasum-marum, 
Tam . Ray, Raghie , Tel. Arealu, Mal. Ani-peepul, Duk. T\3^^ Tf^ £) 

Description. — Tree; leaves long-petioled, ovate, cordate, 
narrow acuminate, acumen one-third the length of the leaf, en- 
tire, or repandly undulated towards the apex ; fruit-receptacles 
axillary, paired, sessile, depressed, size of a small cherry, ap- 
pearing in the hot season and ripening in the rainy season. — 
Wight Icon. vi. t. 1967. — Roai), FL Ind. iii. 547. — Urostigma 

religiosum, Miqud. — Bheede, i. t 27. Common all over 

IndicL 

Medical Uses. — The seeds are said to possess cooling and altera- 
tive qualities, and are prescribed in electuary and in powder. Leaves 
and young shoots are used as a purgative, and an infusion of the 
bark is given internally in scabies, though of doubtful efficacy. — 
Ainslie. Wight, 

Ecoi^OMio Uses. — Of this tree there are two nearly-allied species. 
The tree is commonly distributed over the country. It is much re- 
spected by the natives, who are very unwilling to cut it down at any 
time. It is frequently to be met with near pagodas, houses, and 
other buildings. The Hindoos venerate it from a superstitious be- 
lief that their deity Vishnoo was bom among the branches. The 
petioles being very long and slender, the leaves tremble in the air 
like those of the aspen-tree. Silk-worms are very fond of the leaves. 
The Arabs use them in tanning. Birds are very fond of the fruit, 
and often drop the seeds in cracks of buildings, where they vegetate, 
and occasion great damage if not removed in time. The wood is 
light and of no use. — Boa^, Wight 

(285) Ficns rnbescens (Vahl.) Do. 

Valli-teragam, Mal. Buroni, Tel. Goori-shiora, Beno. 

Description. — All rough and harsh ; leaves alternate, short- 



218 FLACOURTIA. 

petioled, stiff, membranaceous, roughish above and of a deep 
green, paler below, oblong-acute, acute at the base, serrated, 
entire or 3-lobed, of all shapes ; fruit axillary, solitary, rarely 
twin, between turbinate and globose. — Boxh. Fl. Ind, iii. 532. 
— ^F. heterophylla, Linn, — Wight Icon, t 659. — Rheede, iii. t 62. 
Common in moist places in the Peninsula and Bengal. 

Medical Uses. — The juice of the root of this shrub is internally 
administered m coUc pains, and the juice of the leaves mixed with 
milk in dysentery. The bark of the root, which is very bitter, pul- 
verised and mixed with Coriander seed, is considered a good remedy 
in coughs and asthma, and similar affections of the chest — (Rheede, 
Rozb.) The F. tsiela appears to have similar virtues. From the 
bark of the root of the F, infectoria a peculiar kind of bow-string is 
made, and a red dye is prepared from the root used for dyeing cloths. 
Most of the species of Ficus have been removed to the new genus 
Urostlgma. 

(286) Flacourtia cataphracta (Roxh,) K. 0. FLAcouBTiACRfi. 

TaUshaputrie, Mal. and Taic Talishaputiie, Tel. Talispntri^, Hind. Pani- 
yala, Benq. 

m 

Description. — Tree, armed with large multiple thorns; 
leaves oval-oblong, acuminated, serrated; racemes axillary, 
many-flowered ; berry size of a small plum, purple, with very 
hard sharp-edged seeds ; flowers small, greenish. Fl, Dec. — 
Jan. — Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 834 — Dec, Prod, i 256. — Rheede, v. t 
38. Warree country. Assam. Nepaul. Behar. 

Medical Uses. — ^The fruit is edible. The leaves and young shoots, 
which are bitter and astringent, have the taste of rhubarb, and are 
considered stomachic, and are given in diarrhoea, dysentery, fevers, 
and even in consumption. An infusion of the bark is used in hoarse- 
ness. — A inslie. Lindley, 

Economic Uses. — The wood is close-grained, hard, and durable. 
Another species, the F, crenata, is common on the Neilgherries and 
Shevaroys, and yields a first-rate timber. It is white, very hard, 
and dense. — Bedd, Flor, Sylv, t 78. 

(287) Flacourtia sapida {Roxb.) Do. 

Booinch, Beng. Kanrdga, Tel. 

Description. — Small tree or shrub ; thorns scattered, naked; 
leaves serrated, elliptical, obtuse, older ones membranaceous ; 
male flowers, stamens closely arranged on the dilated torus ; 
female, stigmas 57?, radiating, linear, furrowed above; ped- 






FLACOURTI A— FUM A KI A. 219 

uncles axillary, many-flowered ; flowers small, greenish. Fl 
Dec— Jan.— »^. & A, Prod, i. 29.—Roxb. Cor. t 69. — -Pen- 
insula. Bengal. 

Economic Uses. — ^This species has hut few trifling points of dif- 
ference between it and F, Ramontchi, the Mauritius plum. The 
fruit is eatable, but by no means good. The wood is hard and 
close-grained, and does not warp. The native inoculators for the 
small-pox use the thorns of this shrub for breaking the pustules of 
the small-pox on the ninth or tenth day. — /. Grah, Wight. Lcmg 
on Med. Plants of BeTigal. 

(288) Flacourtia sepiaria {Roxh.) Do. 

Conioti moelli, Mal. Conrev , Tkl. Sottacla, Tam. Jootay karoonday, DuK. 

Description. — Shrub, 6 feet ; thorns very numerous, patent, 
bearing both leaves and flowers ; leaves obovate-oblong, older 
ones very rigid and coriaceous, serrate; peduncles axillary, 
solitary, 1 -flowered; flowers small, green ; berry very globular, 
size of a pea, succulent ; seeds 4-8. Fl. April. — W. & A. Prod. 
i 29.—Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 835.— Cor. i t. &8.—Rheede, v. t. 39. 
Peninsula Common everywhere. 

Medical Uses. — The berries are eatable, and are sold in the 
bazaars. The plant makes good fences, from its numerous sharp 
thorns. An infusion of the leaves and roots is given in snake-bites, 
and the bark rubbed with oil and made into a liniment is used on 
the Malabar coast in cases of gout. The bark fried in oil is applied 
externally in rheumatism. — Wight Ainslie. RJieede. 

(289) Fumaria parriflora (Dec.) K. 0. FuMARiACEiB. 

Description. — Annual ; smooth ; leaves linear, channelled ; 
bracteas at first as long as the flower, afterwards as short as 
the fructiferous pedicel; petals 4, the lower one distinct, 
linear, the three upper united, the middle one spurred down- 
wards ; sepals minute ; fruit globose, slightly pointed ; flowers 
pale rose. Fl. Dec. — Jan. — W. & A. Prod. i. 18. — Roa^. Flor. 

Ind. iii 217. — Wighfs III. i. 1 11. Neilgherries. NepauL 

Bombay. BengaL 

Medical Uses. — ^This plant has long been acclimatised in the 
East, and at the present day is considered, in conjunction with black 
pepper, an efficacious remedy in common agues.^-(5oyZe H. B.) It 
is extensively employed as an anthelmintic, and to purify the blood 
in skin diseases. Also as a diuretic, diaphoretic, and aperient. — 
PoioelTa Punj. Prod. 



220 



Or 

(290) Garcinia gambogia (Desraus). N. 0. Clusiage^. 

Description. — ^Tree ; leaves lanceolate, deep green ; flowers 
terminal or axillary, sessile or sub-sessile, pedicelled, solitary or 
several together; male, anthers numerous, on a short, thick 
androphore, oblong, 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally, introrse ; 
female, staminodes surrounding the base of the ovary in several 
phalanges, each containing 2-3 sterile spathulate stamens; 
stigmas 5-10-lobed, papillose, glandular; ovary 6-10-celled; 
fruit yellow or reddish, 6-10-furrowed, 6-10-seeded, nearly 
globular or ovate, furrows broad, with angular edges, the fur- 
rows not continued to the apex, which is smooth and depressed, 
and often nipple-shaped. — Dec, Prod, L 561. — W, & A, Prod, 
i. 100. — 6. Kydia, W, & A, I, c, — Cambogia gutta, Linn. — 

G. papilla, Wight Icon, t 960.— Bedd, FL Sylv. t, 85. 

Forests of the western coast. 

Economic Uses. — The pigment which exudes from the trunk is 
semi-transparent, very adhesive, and unsuitable as a paint. The 
acid rinds of the ripe fruit are eaten, and in Ceylon are dried, and 
eaten as a condiment in curries. The tree is called Heela on the 
Keilgherries. It yields an excellent, straight-grained, lemon-coloured, 
slightly elastic wood, and would answer for common furniture. — 
(Beddome,) The following report upon the gum-resin of this tree is 
given by Mr Broughton : " This Gramboge, though produced by 
a diflferent tree to those which yield the Siam and Ceylon G-amboge, 
appears, nevertheless, exceedingly similar, and to be of fine quality. 
An estimation of the amount of colouring resin, which is the essen- 
tial constituent, gave a yield of 76 per cent, the remainder consLsting 
of gum and starch. The specimen I received was in small lumps^ 
and differed thus in external appearance to the commercial speci- 
mens I have seen ; but in quality it can well compare with them. 
The yield of ordinary Gamboge in colouring resin varies from 40 to 
75 per cent Gamboge is used as a pigment in the manufacture of 
lacquer and in medicine. The price of the Canara gum is 1 rupee 
per lb. I believe the English wholesale price is j£38 per cwt. As 
a commercial product, this Gamboge appears to promise well I 
believe, some time ago, Dr Cleghom was led to pay much attention 
to this substance." 



GARCIKIA. 221 

(291) Qarcinia peduncxilata (Roxh.) Do. 

Tikul or Tikoor, Hind. 

Description. — Tree, 60 feet ; leaves opposite, short-petioled, 
oblong or obovate-oblong, entire, smooth on both sides, with large 
parallel veins ; flowers terminal, peduncled ; male ones numer- 
ous, forming smaM trichotomous panicles on separate trees ; 
females solitary ; calyx of two opposite pairs of nearly equal 
sepals ; petals 4, alternate with the segments of the calyx, and 
nearly of the same length ; berry large, round, smooth, yellow 
when ripe; seeds 10, reniform, arillate. Fl, Jan. — March. — 
JKoa*. FL Ind. ii 625.— Wighf8 III. L 125.— Icon. t. 114, 115. 
Rungpore. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — ^The fruit of this species of Garcinia ripens 
about April or May. It is very large, about 2 lb. weight, of a rich 
yellow colour when ripe, and exceedingly acid to the taste. Each 
seed is enclosed in its own proper aril, within which is generally 
found a soft yellow resin. The fleshy part of the fruit has a shai'p, 
pleasant, acid taste. It is used by the natives in their curries, and 
for acidulating water. If cut into slices and dried it retains its 
qualities for years, and might possibly be used to advantage during 
long sea-voyages as a substitute for limes, or put into various messes 
where salt meat is employed. — Roxb. 

One of the most delicious fruits, the Mangosteen, is produced by 
a tree of this order (Garcinia mangostana, Linn.), growing in the 
Eastern Archipelago. The white delicate pulp which surrounds the 
seeds has been aptly likened by Sir E. Tennent to "perfumed 
snow." The tree has been successfully grown and the fruit ripened 
at Courtallum ; but it requires great care, and the fruit never acquires 
the size and flavour ijb has in its native country. — (Pers. Ohs.) The 
fleshy pericarp is a valuable astringent. It contains tannin, resin, 
and a crystallisable principle. It has been successfully employed in 
the advanced stages of dysentery and in chronic diarrhoea. Dr 
Waitz {Diseases of Children in Hot Climates, p. 164) recommends a 
strong decoction as an external astringent application in dysentery. 
— Pharm. of India. 

(292) Garcinia pictoria (Roxb.) Do. 

Mysore Gamboge-tree, Eno. Mukki, Tak. 

Descbiption. — Tree, 60 feet; much branched; leaves opposite, 
short-petioled, oblong- ventricose, slightly acute, entire, smooth 
on both sides ; hermaphrodite flowers axillary, solitary, sessile; 



222 GARCINIA. 

calyx segments obtuse, in two unequal pairs ; petals 4, oval ; 
berry oval, size of a large cherry, smooth, slightly marked with 
4 lobes, and crowned with the sessile verrucose stigma ; seeds 
4, oblong, reniform ; calyx and corolla of male flowers as in 
the female ; flowers yellow. FL Feb. — Wight Icon, t 102. — 
Boxb, Fl, Ind. ii. 627. — Hebradendron pictorium, Christison. 
Wynaad forests. Mysore. 

Economic Uses. — ^The tree is found in the high mountain-lands 
of "Wynaad, and attempts to cultivate it in the low country have 
failed. A good kind of Gamboge is procured &om the tree. The 
bark, according to Roxburgh, is intermixed with many yellow specks, 
and through its substance, particularly on the inside, considerable 
masses of Gamboge are found. Samples which were sent to Dr R 
from Tellicherry, even in a crude and unrefined state, he considered 
superior to most other kinds ; and the specimens forwarded to the 
Madras Exhibition were also considered of an excellent quality. 
The tree is to be found in the greatest abundance along the whole 
line of Ghauts, and it is probable that if the attention of the trade were 
directed to these provinces it might become an important article of 
export. An oil is got from the seeds. The following particulars 
regarding it were furnished by Dr Oswald to the Madras Exhibition : 
It is procurable in moderate quantities by pounding the seeds in 
a stone mortar, and boiling the mass until the butter or oil rises to 
the surface. Two and a half measures of seeds should yield one seer 
and a half of butter. In the Nuggur division of Mysore it is sold at 
the rate of 1-4 As, per seer of 24 Es. weight, or at £36, 6s. per ton; 
and is chiefly used as a lamp-oil by the better classes of natives, and 
by the poor as a substitute for ghee. The butter thus prepared does 
not appear to possess any of the purgative qualities of the Gamboge 
resin, but is considered an antiscorbutic ingredient in food. There 
has been some difierence of opinion among botanists regarding the 
true definition of the species yielding the Mysore Gramboge; and 
also in what respect both the tree itself and its products differ with 
those from Ceylon and Siam. An excellent paper has been written 
by Dr Christison upon this subject From the information which 
Dr C. has been able to collect regarding this Gamboge-tree, it would 
appear to constitute a genus distinct from the Ceylon plant, which 
latter Dr Graham (Comp. Bot Mag.) has, from certain points of 
distinction in its botanical character, designated as the Hebradendron 
Gambogioides. The species under consideration is found on high 
lands in the Coorg and Mysore countries. Dr Cleghom had an op- 
portunity of personally examining the tree in its native forest, which 
is iu the north-western parts of Mysore. He then remarked that its 
range of elevation was between 2000 • and 3000 feet, and that he 
found it in greater abundance as he proceeded southward. It pro- 
bably has an extensive range along the Western Ghauts. Kegard- 



GARCINIA. 223 

ing the quality of the specimens sent him, Dr Christison observed 
that they were all in a concrete state, of a tawny brownish yellow 
colour and glistening waxy lustre, exactly like fiie Siam Gamboge, 
and showing its tendency to conchoidal fracture; free from 
odour, tasteless, and equal to the Siam Gamboge in being easily 
reducible to a fine emulsion in water. As a pigment it proved 
of an excellent quality, like that of Ceylon. It is in a great 
degree soluble in sulphuric ether, to which it communicates a fine 
orange colour, the solution yielding upon evaporation an orange- 
coloured resin. Upon analysis the composition proved to be essen- 
tially the same with that of Ceylon, but indicating more colouring 
matter, more resin, and less gum, than in the Gamboge of commerce. 
In its medicinal effects it would appear to excite the same influence 
on the animal body as common Gamboge, as it has undergone experi- 
ments both in England and in this country. The natives appear 
little acquainted with its uses, unless perhaps, as Dr Cleghom ascer- 
tained, for colouring cloth in the low country. Dr Clmstison ex- 
pressed his opinion that ^' it is probable this Gamboge might advan- 
tageously be applied to any use to which the Gamboge of Siam is 
habitually put." At all events it is an equally fine pigment, and as 
it can be obtained in almost unlimited quantity, it may be introduce4 
equally into the European trade. Gamboge fetches in the London 
market from £6 to £11 per cwt. — Dr Christison in Pharm, Joum, 
Dr Hunter's Indian Joum, 

(293) Qarciziia pnrpnrea (Roxh,) Do. 

Mate Mangosteen, Eno. 

Description. — Tree ; branches drooping ; leaves lanceolar, 
obtuse, shining, dark green ; berry spherical, smooth, not fur- 
rowed, deep purple throughout. — Roodb. Fl. Ind. ii 624. — J. 

Orah. Cat p. 25. — Wight III i 125. Concans. Eavines 

at KandaUa. 

Medical Uses. — ^This differs, says Eoxburgh, fipom every other 
species in the whole fruit, which is about the size of a small orange, 
being throughout of a deep purple colour, even the proper purple 
anl of the seeds. The seeds yield an oil known as the Kokum oil. 
It is of much use in cases of chapped skin, hands, and face, either 
scraped into hot water or powdered, the powder being rubbed on the 
face and hands. The fruit has an agreeable acid flavour, and is 
eaten by natives. Workers in iron use the acid juice as a mordant. 
A concrete oil is obtained from the seeds, which is well known and 
used at Goa for adulterating ghee. This oil is used by the natives 
as a healing application, and from its powerfully absorbing heat it 
might be usefully employed in such wounds or sores as are accom- 
panied with inflammation. Kokum butter is a solid, firm, and friable 
substance, having a greasy feeL Its colour is pale yellow, and has 



224 GARDENIA — GENDARUSSA. 

a faint but not disagreeable odour. It is readily soluble in ether, and 
slightly so in rectified spirits — more in hot than in cold. — Phajin, 
Joum. Roxh, - 

(294) Gaxdenia lucida {Roxh,) K 0. Cinchonag£L£. 

Description. — Tree, unarmed, with resinous buds ; leaves 
short-petioled, oblong or oval or obovate, obtuse or bluntly 
pointed, glabrous, shining, with simple parallel nerves and 
prominent veins ; limb of calyx with 5 divisions, sprinkled on 
the inside with stoutish bristles ; corolla hypocrateriform ; tube 
long, striated ; limb 5-partite, divisions as long as, or a little 
shorter than, the tube ; berry drupaceous, even, oblong, crowned 
with the calyx ; nut very hard, thick, and long, with two 
parietal receptacles; flowers somewhat terminal, solitary 
shortly pedicelled, large, pure white, fragrant. FL March — 
April. — TF. & A. Prod. L 395. — Wight Icon, t 575. — Roxb. 

FL Ind. i. 707. Circars. S. Mahratta country. Chitta- 

gong. 

Medical Uses. — ^This is stated by Roxburgh to be in flower and 
fruit the greater part of the year. The total want of pubescence, 
structure of the stipules, length of the calyx, and sharpness of its 
divisions, distinguish this species from G. gummifera, which it 
most resembles. A fragrant resin, known in Canara and Mysore as 
the Dikamali resin, is procured from the tree, which is said to be 
useful in hospitals, keeping away flies from sores on account of its 
strong aroma. It is used by native farriers, and is certainly a sub- 
stance worthy of attention. — {Roxh. Jury Rep. Mad. Exiiih.) The 
G. campanulata is used as a cathartic and anthelmintic; and a 
yellow resin, similar to gum elemi, exudes from tlie buds and wounds 
in the bark of G. gummifera^ which might be turned to good account. 
— Roxh. 

(295) GendaruBsa vulgaris {Nees.) N. 0. Acanthacej:. 

Vada-kodi, Mal. Caroo-nochie, Tah. Kali-Thumbali, Duk. Nulla Vavali, 
Tkl. Jugutmudun, Beno. 

Description. — Shrub, 3-4 feet ; leaves opposite, lanceolate, 
elongated ; branches numerous, long, and straggling ; flowers 
in whorls on terminal spikes; upper lip undivided; flowers 
pale, greenish white, sparingly stained with purple. — Wigh 
lam. t. 468. — Justicia Gendarussa, Roxb. FL Ind. i. 128. — 
Rheede, ix. t 42. N. Concans. Travancore. Peninsula. 



GIRARDINIA. 225 

Medical Uses. — The leaves and tender stalks are prescribed in 
certain cases of chronic rheumatism ; the bark of the young parts is 
generally of a dark-purple colour, whence it derives its Tamil name. 
In Java it is considered a good emetic. The leaves are scattered by 
the natives amongst their clothes to preserve them from insects. 
The same in infusion are given intemcdly in fevers ; and a bath in 
which these leaves are saturated is very efficacious in the same com- 
plaints. The juice of the leaves is administered in coughs to chil- 
dren, and the same mixed with oil as an embrocation in glandular 
swellings of the neck and throat ; also, mixed with mustard-seed, is 
a good emetic. The natives put the leaves in a bag with some common 
salt, and warming them, reckon it a good remedy applied externally 
in diseases of the joints. — Ainslie. Rheede, 

(296) Oirardinia heterophylla (Dak.) K 0. IJRTicACEiE. 

Neilgheny Nettle, Bno. Ana schorigenam, Mal. 

Description. — Annual, erect ; leaves broad-cordate, 7-lobed, 
lobes oblong, acute, coarsely serrated, clothed on both sides 
with fine whitish down, armed above with thin scattered 
prickles, thickly clothed beneath with the same; male and 
female flowers in distinct glomerate peduncled spikes ; 
flowers small, green. FL Sept. — Nov. — Ddlz. Bonib, Flor,, p. 
238. — Urtica heterophylla, Willd, G. Leschenaultiana, De- 

caisne, — Wight Icon, t 1976. — Bfieede, ii. t 41. Common 

on the slopes of the Ghauts. Peninsula. NepauL 

Economic Uses. — If incautiously touched, this nettle wiU produce 
temporarily a most stinging pain. The plant succeeds well by cul- 
tivation. Its bark abounds in fine, white, glossy, silk-like, strong 
fibres. The Todawars on the Neilgherries separate the fibres by 
boiling the plant, and spin it into thin coarse thread : it produces a 
beautifully fine and soft flax-like fibre, which they use as a thread. 
The Malays simply steep the stems in water for ten or twelve days, 
after which they are so much softened that the outer fibrous portion 
is easily peeled off. Dr Dickson states that the Neilgherry nettle 
is the most extraordinary plant ; it is almost all fine fibre, and the 
tow is very much like the fine wool of sheep, and no doubt will be 
largely used by wool-spinners. — Wight Boyle. 

The following report upon the cultivatiou and preparation of the 
fibre was forwarded to the Madras Government by Mr M*Ivor, 
superintendent of the Horticultural Gardens at Ootacamund : — 

Cultivation. — The Keilgherry nettle has been described as an 
annual plant ; it has however proved, at least in cultivation, to be 
a perennial, continuing to throw out fresh shoots from the roots and 
stems with unabated vigour for a period of three or four years. The 
mode of cultivation, therefore, best suited to the plant, is to treat it 

15 



226 GIRAKDINIA. 

as a perennial by sowing the seeds in rows at fifteen inches apart, 
and cutting down the young shoots for the fibre twice aryear — viz., 
in July and January. The soil best suited to the growth of this 
plant is found in ravines which have received for years the deposit of 
alluvial soils washed down from the neighbouring slopes. In cutting 
off the first shoots from the seedling crop, about six inches of the 
stem is left above the ground ; this forms '' stools,'' from which fresh 
shoots for the succeeding crops are produced. After each cutting 
the earth is dug over between the rows to the depth of about eight 
inches ; and where manure can be applied, it is very advantageous 
when dug into the soil between the rows with this operation. When 
the shoots have once begun to grow, no &rther cultivation can be 
applied, as it is quite impossible to go in among the plants, owing 
to their stinging property. The plant is indigenous or growing wild 
all over the Neilgherries, at elevations varying from 4000 to 8000 
feet, and this indicates the temperature best suited to the perfect 
development of the fibre. 

Produce per acre. — From the crop of July an average produce of 
from 450 to 500 lb. of clean fibre per acre may be expected. Of 
this quantity about 120 lb. will be a very superior quality; this is 
obtained from the young and tender shoots, which should be placed 
by. themselves during the operation of cutting. The crop of January 
will yield on an average 600 or 700 lb. per acre ; but the fibre of 
this crop is aU of a uniform and somewhat coarse quality, owing to 
shoots being matured by the setting in of the dry season in Decem- 
ber. It might therefore be advantageous, where fine quality of 
fibre only was required, to cut the shoots more frequently — probably 
three or four times in the year — as only the finest quality of fibre is 
produced from young and tender shoots. 

Preparation of the fibre. — Our experiments being limited, our 
treatment of the fibre has been necessarily very rude and imperfect, 
as in this respect only in extensive cultivation can efficient appliances 
be obtained. 

The inner bark of the whole of the plant abounds in fibre, that of 
the young shoots being the finest and strongest, while that of the old 
stems is comparatively short and coarse, but still producing a fibre 
of very great strength and of a peculiar silky and woolly like appear- 
ance, and one which no doubt will prove very useful in manufactories. 

For cutting down the crop fine weather is selected; and the 
shoots when cut are allowed to remain as they fall for two or three 
days, by which time they are sufficiently dry to have lost their 
stinging properties ; they are, however, pliable enough to allow of 
the bark being easily peeled off the stems, and separated from the 
leaves. The bark thus taken from the stems is tied up in small bundles 
and dried in the sun, if the weather is fine; if wet, is dried in an open 
shed with a free circulation of air. When quite dry, the bark is 
slightly beaten with a wooden mallet, which causes the outer bark 
of that in which there is no fibre to break and fall off. The fibrous 



OISEKIA-— GLORIOSA. 22T 

part of the bark is then wrapped up in small bundles, and boiled for 
about an hour in water to which a small quantity of wood-ashes has 
been added, in order to facilitate the separation of the woody matter 
firom the fibre. The fibre is then removed out of the boiling water, 
and washed as rapidly as possible in a clear running stream, after 
which it is submitted to the usual bleaching process employed in 
the manufacture of fibre from flax or hemp. — Bepoi't, April 1862. 

(297) (Hselda phamaceoides (Linn.) K O. PHTTOLAcoAOEiB. 

Desckiption. — Herbaceous ; leaves short-petioled, elliptic- 
lanceolate, very obtuse, scarcely mucronulate, pale green 
above, glaucous white beneath ; cymes sub-sessile, shorter than 
the leaf, ball-shaped, simple, 5-10 flowered, somewhat loose; 
flowers nearly equalling the pedicel, pale green. Fl, All the 
year. — Dec. Prod, xiii., s. 2, p. 27. — Wight Icon, t 1167. — 

Boocb. Cor. t 183. Common in pasture-grounds all over 

the coimtry. 

Medical Uses. — A powerful anthelmintic in cases of taenia. The 
firesh plant, including leaves, stalks, and capsules, is employed in 
doses of about an ounce, ground up in a mortar, with sufficient water 
to make a draught This should be repeated three times at an 
interval of four days, the patient each time taking it after fasting for 
some houra — Lowther in Joum. of Agri.-Hort. Soc. of India., ix. 
p. 285. 

(298) Gloriosa snperba (Linn.) N. 0. Liliace^. 

Mendoni, Mal. Caateejan, Tax. Ulatehandul, Bbhg. Cariari, Hun). 

Desckiption. — Climbing, with herbaceous stem; leaves 
cirriferous, ovate-lanceolate, inferior ones oblong; corolla 
6 - petalled ; petals reflexed ; flowers yellow and crimson 
mixed; capsule 3-celled, 3-valved. Fl. Aug. — Oct. — Wight 
Icon. vi. t. 2047. — Roicb. Fl. Ind. ii. 143. — ^Methonica superba, 
Lam. — Rheede, vii. t. 67. CoromandeL Malabar. Con- 
cans. Bengal. 

Medical TJsEa — ^This splendid creeper, designated by Linnaeus 
as " vere gloriosus flos," is commonly to be met with in the Travan- 
core forests. Eoxburgh says it is one of the most ornamental plants 
any country can boast of. The root of the plant is reckoned poison* 
ous. The natives apply it in paste to the hands and feet of women 
in difficult parturition. A salt is procured from the root by repeated 
washing and grinding, throwing away the liquor, and washing the 
residuum carefully. The white powder so found is bitter to the 



228 GLUTA — GMELINA. 

taste. Mixed witli honey it is given in gonoirlioea. — (Idndley. 
Boxb.) The native practitioners say it possesses nearly the same 
properties as the root of Aconitum ferox, hence its name of Country or 
Wild Aconite. Its taste is faintly bitter and acrid. It is farinaceous 
in structure. It is not poisonous in 12-grain doses, but, on the con- 
trary, is alterative, tonic, and anti-periodic. It might be poisonous 
in larger quantities. — Modem Sheriff in Suppl. to Phann, of India, 

(299) Oluta TraTancorica (Bedd,) N. 0. Anacardiace^ 

Shen-kurani, Tah. 

Descbiption. — ^Laige tree ; leaves crowded about the apex 
of the branches, alternate, entire, elliptic, attenuated at both 
ends, glabrous, petioles very short, ciliated, panicles terminal, 
and from the upper axils, crowded, canescent, shortly pubescent; 
calyx irregularly and slightly 6-toothed, splitting irregularly 
and caducous ; bracts ovate, cymbiform ; petals 5, imbricate ; 
fruit depressed, transversely oblong, with a rough brownish 

rind. — Bedd. Mar, Sylv, t. 60. Tinnevelly mountains and 

Travancqre. 

Economic Uses. — A valuable timber-tree. The wood is reddish, 
fine-grained, takes a good polish, and is well adapted for furniture. 
— Beddome, 

(300) Gmelina arborea (Roxh) K. 0. YERBEKACEiB. 

Cumbulu, Mal. Joogani-cliookur, Hind. Gumbaree, Beno. Tagoomooda, 
Tam. Goomadee, Tel. 

Description. — Arboreous, unarmed ; branchlets and young 
leaves covered with a greyish powdery tomentum ; leaves 
long-petioled, cordate or somewhat produced and acute at the 
base, acuminate, the adult ones glabrous above, greyish tomen- 
tose beneath, with 2-4 glands at the base ; panicles tomentose, 
axillary, and terminal ;' raceme-like cymules decussate, tricho- 
tomous, few-flowered ; bracts lanceolate, deciduous ; the 
acutely dentate calyx eglandulose; flowers large, sulphur- 
coloured, slightly tinged with red on the outside. Fl, April — 
May. — Wight Icon. t. 1470. — Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 84. — Oor. iii. 
t. 246. — Eheede, i. t. 41. CoromandeL Neilgherries. Con- 
cans. Oude. 

Economic Uses. — A small tree not unfrequent in the Paulghaut 
jungles, and generally distributed in Malabar. The light wood of 



GMELINA— GOSSYPIUM. 229 

this tree is used bj natives for making the cylinders of their drams 
called Dholucks, also for making chairs, carriages, panels, &c, as it 
combines lightness with strength. It is common in the Ganjam 
and Yizagapatam districts. The wood is not readily attacked by 
insects. The shade is good. It grows rapidly, and the seeds may 
be planted in beds. — WiglU, Road). 

(301) Gmelina Asiatica {Unn,) Do. 

Neelftcoomil, Tam. Nelagoomadi, Tel. 

Description. — Shrub; leaves opposite, petioled, ovate, 
tomentose underneath, with frequently a sharp short lobe on 
each side ; spines axillary, opposite, horizontal, pubescent at 
the tip, the length of the petioles ; flowers from the end of the 
tender twigs on peduncles ; fruit a berried drupe size of a 
jujube, black, smooth ; flowers large, bright sulphur. Fl. All 

the year. — Raocb, Fl, Ind, iii. 87. CoromandeL Travan- 

core. 

Medical Uses. — ^The root is a demulcent and mucilaginous. 
Another species, the G, parviflora, has the power of rendering water 
mucilaginous, and is employed for the cure of the scalding of urine 
in gonorrhoea. — Eoxib. 

(302) Qordonia obtnsa {Wall,) K 0. Ternbtrjsmuoea. 

Description. — Tree, middling size; leaves cuneate-oblong 
to elliptic-lanceolate, obtuse or with a blunt acumination, with 
shallow serraturps, glabrous ; petioles about 2 lines long ; 
peduncles a little shorter than the petioles ; petioles obcordate, 
slightly united at the base, silky on the outside, as are the 
bracts and calyx ; stamens somewhat pentadelphous. — W, & 
A. Prod. p. 87. — G. parviflora, Wight III — Bedd. Fl Sylv. t 
73. 

Economic Uses. — ^A beautiful tree, coromon on the Keilgherries, 
Wynaad, and Western Ghauts of Madras, from 2500 to 7500 feet 
elevations. It is called Nagetta on the hill& The timber is white, 
with a straw tint, even-grained, and easy to -work, and resembling 
beech. It is in general use for planks, doors, rafters, and beams, 
but liable to warp if not well seasoned. — Beddome. 

(303) Qossypiiim Indicnm {Linn,) JS*. 0. Malvace^ 

Indian Cotton plant, Eno. Paratie, Van-paratie, Tam. Eapas, DUK. Puttie, Tbl. 

Description. — Herbaceous ; stem more or less branched, 1 J 



230 GOSSYPIUM. 

foot ; young parts velvety, often hairy, in the upper part some- 
times of a reddish colour, frequently marked with black spots ; 
leaves hairy, palmate, 3-5 lobed ; lobes broad, rounded ; 
petioles long, usually hispid and dotted; flowers axillary, 
generally solitary towards the extremities of the branches ; 
petals yellow, with a purple spot near the claw ; segment of 
involucel cordate at the base, margin dentate, sometimes 
entire; capsule ovate, pointed, 3-4 celled; seeds 5, clothed 
with greyish down under the short-staple white wool — RoyU. 
— G. herbaceum, Linn, — Roicb, Fl. Ind, iii 184. — Hoyle, III. 
Him. Bot t 23, fig. 1. Cultivated. 

EooNOMio Uses. — As flax is characteristic of Egypt, and the 
hemp of Europe, so cotton may truly be designated as belonging to 
India. Long before history can furnish any authentic account of 
tbis invaluable product, its uses must have been known to the in- 
habitants of this country, and their wants supplied irom time imme- 
morial, by the growth of a fleecy-like substaace, covering the seeds 
of a plant, raised more perhaps by the bounty of Providence than 
the labour of mankind. 

In Sanscrit, cotton is called kurpas, from whence is derived the 
Latin name carhasuSy mentioned occasionally in Eoman authors. 
This word subsequently came to mean sails for ships and tents. 
Herodotus says, talking of the products of India, — '^ And certain wild 
trees bear wool instead of finut, that in beduty and quality exceeds 
that of sheep : and the Indians make their clothing from these 
trees" (iii. 106). And in the book of Esther (i. 6) the word green 
corresponds to the Hebrew kurpas, and is in the Vulgate translated 
carhadnvs. The above shows from how early a period cotton was 
cultivated in this country. "The natives," says Eoyle (alluding 
to its manufacture in India), " of that country early attained excel- 
lence in the arts of spinning and weaving, employing only their 
Angers and the spinning-wheel for the former; but they seem 
to have exhausted their ingenuity when they invented the hand- 
loom for weaving, as they have for ages remained in a stationaiy 
condition." 

It has sometimes been considered a subject of doubt whether the 
cotton was indigenous to America as well as Asi£^ but without 
sufficient reason, as it is mentioned by very early voyagers as form- 
ing the only clothing of the natives of Mexico ; and, as stated by 
Humboldt, it is one of the plants whose cultivation among the 
Aztec tribes was as ancient as that of the Agave, the Maize, and the 
Quinoa (Chenopodium), If more evidence be required, it may be 
mentioned that Mr Brown has in his possession cotton not separated 
from the seeds, as well as cloth manufactured from it brought from 
the Peruvian tombs; and it may be added that the species now 



GOSSYPIUM. 231 

lecognised as American differ in character from all known Indian 
species {RoyU), 

Cotton is not less yaluable to the inhabitants of India than it is to 
European nations. It forms the clothing of the immense population 
of that country, besides being used by them in a thousand different 
ways for carpets, tents, screens, pillows, curtains, &c. The great de- 
mand for cotton in Europe has led of late years to the most important 
consideration of improvements in its cultivation. The labours and 
outlay which Government has expended in obtaining so important 
an object have happily been attended with the best results. The 
introduction of American seeds and experimental cultivation in 
various parts of India have been of the greatest benefit. They have 
been the means of producing a better article for the market, simpli- 
fying its mode of culture, and proving to the Ryots how, with a little 
care and attention, the article may be made to yield tenfold, and 
greatly increase its former value. To neither the soil nor the climate 
can the failure of Indian cotton be traced : the want of easy transit, 
however, from the interior to the coast, the ruinous effect of absurd 
fiscal regulations, and other influences, were at work to account for 
its failure. In 1834, Professor Eoyle drew attention to two circum- 
stances : *' I have no doubt that by the importation of foreign, and 
the selection of native seed — attention to the peculiarities not only of 
soil but also of climate, as regards the course of the seasons, and the 
temperature, dryness, and moisture of the atmosphere, as well as 
attention to the mode of cultivation, such as preparing the soil, sow- 
ing in lines so as to facilitate the circulation of air, weeding, ascer- 
taining whether the mixture of other crops with the cotton be injurious 
or otherwise, pruning, picking the cotton as it ripens, and keeping 
it clean — ^great improvement must take place in the quality of the 
cotton. Experiments may at first be more expensive than the or- 
dinary culture ; the natives of India, when taught by example, would 
adopt the improved processes as regularly and as easily as the other ; 
and as labour is nowhere cheaper, any extra outlay would be repaid 
fully as profitably as in countries where the best cottons are at 
present produced." 

The experiments urged by so distinguished an authority were put 
in force in many parts of the country, and notwithstanding the great 
prejudice which existed to the introduction t)f novelty and other 
obstacles, the results have proved eminently successful. It has been 
urged that Indian cotton is valuable for qualities of its own, and 
especiaUy that of wearing welL It is used for the same purposes as 
hemp and flax, hair and wool, are in England. There are, of course, 
a great many varieties in the market, whose value depends on the 
length, strength, and fineness as well as softness of the material, the 
chief distinction being the long stapled and the short stapled. 
Cotton was first imported into England from India in 1783, when 
about 114,133 lb. were received. In 1846, it has been calculated 
that the consumption of cotton for the last 30 years has increased at 



232 GOSSYPIUM. 

the compound ratio of 6 per cent, thereby doublmg itself every 
twelve years. The chief parts of India where the cotton plant is 
cultivated are in Guzerat, especially in Suiat and Broach, the 
principal cotton districts in the country; the southern Mahratta 
countries, including Dharwar, which is about a hundred miles from 
the seaport ; the Concans, Canara, and Malabar. There has never 
been any great quantity exported from the Madras side, though it is 
cultivated in the Salem, Coimbatore, and Tinnevelly districts, having 
the port of Tuticorin on one coast, and of late years that of Cochin 
on the other, both increasing in importance as places of export In 
the Bengal Presidency, Behar and Benares, and the Saugor and 
Nerbudda territories, are the districts where it is chiefly cultivated. 

The present species and its varieties are by far the most generally 
cultivated in India. Dacca cotton is a variety chiefly found in 
Bengal, furmshing that exceedingly fine cotton, and employed in 
manufacturing the very delicate and beautiful muslins of that place, 
the chief difference being in the mode of spinning, not in any inherent 
virtue in the cotton or soil where it grows. The Berar cotton is 
another variety with which the K. Circar long-cloth is made. This 
district, since it has come under British rule, promises to be one of 
the most fertile and valuable cotton districts in the whole country. 

Much diversity of opinion exists as to the best soil and climate 
adapted for the growth of the cotton plant ; and considering that it 
grows at altitudes of 9000 feet, where Humboldt found it in the 
Andes, as well as at the level of the sea, in rich black soil and 
also on the sandy tracts of the sea-shore, it is superfluous to attempt 
specifying the particular amount of dryness or moisture absolutely 
requisite to insure perfection in the crop. It seeins to be a favourite 
idea, however, that the neighbourhood of the sea-coast and islands 
are more fSftvourable for the cultivation of the plant than places far 
inland, where the saline moisture of the sea^ir cannot reach. But 
such is certainly not the case in Mexico and parts of Brazil, where 
the best districts for cotton-growing are far inland, removed from the 
influence of sea-air. Perhaps the different species of the plant 
may require different climates. However that may be, it is certain 
that they are found growing in every diversity of climate and soil, 
even on the Indian continent ; while it is well known that the best 
and largest crops have invariably been obtained from island planta- 
tions, or those in the vicinity of the sea on the mainland. 

A fine sort of cotton is grown in the eastern districts of Bengal 
for the most delicate manufactures ; and a coarse kind is gathered in 
every part of the province from plants thinly interspersed in fields 
of pulse or grain. Captain Jenkins describes the cotton in Cachar 
as gathered from the Jaum cultivation : this consists in the jungle 
being burnt down after periods of from four to six years, the ground 
roughly hoed, and the seeds sown without further culture. Dr 
Buchanan Hamilton, in his statistical account of Dinagepore, gives a 
full account of the mode of cultivation in that district, where he says 



GOSSYPIUM. 233 

Bome cotton of bad quality is grown along with turmeric, and some 
by itself, which is sown in the beginning of May, and the produce 
collected from the middle of August to the middle of October, but 
the cultivation is miserable. A much better method, however, he 
adds, is practised in the south-east parts of the district, the cotton of 
which is finer than that imported from the west of India : The land 
is of the first quality, and the cotton is made to succeed rice, which 
is cut between August and the middle of September. The field is 
immediately ploughed until well broken, for which purpose it may 
require six double ploughings. After one-half of these has been 
given, it is manured with dung, or mud from ditches. Between the 
middle of October and the same time in November, the seed is sown 
broadcast ; twenty measures of cotton and one of mustard. That 
of the cotton, before it is sown, is put into water for one-third of an 
hour, after which it is rubbed with a little dry earth to facilitate the 
sowing. About the beginning of February the mustard is ripe, when 
it is plucked and the field weeded. Between the 12th of April and 
12th of June the cotton is collected as it ripens. The produce of a 
single acre is about 300 lb. of cotton, worth ten rupees ; and as much 
mustard-seed, worth three rupees. A still greater quantity of cotton, - 
Dr Hamilton continues, is reared on stiff clay-land, where the ground 
is also high and tanks numerous. If the soil is rich it gives a 
summer crop of rice in the same year, or at least produces the seedling 
rice that is to be transplanted. In the beginning of October the 
field is ploughed, and in the end of the month the cotton-seed is 
sown, mingled with Sorisha or Lora (species of Sinapis and Eruca) ; 
and some rows of flax and safflower are generally intermixed. About 
the end of January, or later, the oil-seeds are plucked, the field is 
hoed and manured with cow-dung and ashes, mud from tanks, and 
oil-cake ; it is then watered once in from eight to twelve days. The 
cotton is gathered between the middle of April and the middle of 
June, and its produce may be from 360 to 500 lb. an acre. 

In the most northern provinces of India the greatest care is bestowed 
on the cultivation. The seasons for sowing are about the middle of 
March and April, after the winter crops have been gathered in, and 
again about the commencement of the rainy season. The crops are 
commenced being gathered about the conclusion of the rains, and 
during October and November, after which the cold becomes con- 
siderable, and the rains again severe. About the beginning of 
February the cotton plants shoot forth new leaves, produce fresh 
flowers, and a second crop of cotton is produced, which is gathered 
during March and beginning of April. The same occurs with the 
cottons of Central India, one crop being collected after the rains and 
the other in February, and what is late in the beginning of March. 

I venture to insert here the following interesting particulars about 
cotton manufacture : " The shrub Perutti, which produces the finer 
kind of cotton, requires in India little cultivation or care. When the 
cotton has been gathered it is thrown upon a floor and threshed, in 



234 GOSSYPIUM. 

order tliat it may be separated from tlie black seeds and busks whicb 
serve it as a covering. It is then put into bags or tied up in bales 
containing from 300 to 320 lb. of 16 oz. each. After it has 
been carded it is spun out into such delicate threads that a piece of 
cotton cloth 20 yards in length may almost be concealed in the 
hollows of both hands. Most of these pieces of cloth are twice 
washed ; others remain as they come from the loom, and are dipped 
in cocoa-nut oil in order that they may be longer preserved. It is 
customary also to draw them through conjee or rice-water, that they 
may acquire more smoothness and body. This conjee is sometimes 
applied to cotton articles in so ingenious a manner that purchasers 
are often deceived, and imagine the cloth to be much stronger than 
it really is ; for as soon as washed the conjee vanishes, and the cloth 
appears quite slight and thin. 

" There are reckoned to be no less than 22 different kinds of cotton 
articles manufactured in India, without including musUn or coloured 
stuffs. The latter are not, as in Europe, printed by means of wooden 
blocks, but painted with a brush made of coir, which approaches 
near to horse-hair, becomes very elastic, and can be formed into any 
shape the painter chooses. The colours employed are indigo (Indig(h 
fera tinctoria), the stem and leaves of which plant yield that beauti- 
ful dark blue with which the Indian chintzes, coverlets, and other 
articles are painted, and which never loses the smallest shade of its 
beauty. Also curcuma or Indian safBx^n, a plant which dyes yellow; 
and lastly, gum-lac, together with some flowers, roots, and fruits 
which are used to dye red. With these few pigments, which are 
applied sometimes singly, sometimes mixed, the natives produce on 
their cotton cloths that admirable and beautiful painting which, 
exceeds anything of the kind exhibited in Europe. 

" No person in Turkey, Persia, or Europe has yet imitated the 
Betilla, a certain kind of white East Indian chintz made at Masuli- 
patam, and known under the name of Organdi. The manufacture 
of this cloth, which was known in the time of Job, the painting of 
it, and the preparation of the colours, give employment in India to 
male and female, young and old. A great deal of cotton is brought 
from Arabia and Persia and mixed with that of India." — Bart. 
Voy, to East Indies, 

The remaining uses of this valuable plant must now claim oui 
attention. The seeds are bruised for their oil, which is very pure, 
and is largely manufactured at Marseilles from seeds brought from 
Egypt. These seeds are given as a fattening food to cattle. Cotton- 
seed cake is imported from the West Indies into England, being 
used as a valuable food for cattle. The produce of oil-cake and oil 
from cotton-seeds is, 2 gallons of oil to 1 cwt. of seeds, and 96 lb. 
of cake. A great quantity is shipped from China, chiefly from 
Shanghai, for the English market. It forms an invaluable manure 
for the fSarmer. — Eoyle on Cotton CtUtivation, Bimmonds, LindXey. 
Eoxb, 



GKANGEA — GRISLEA. 235 

(304) Orangea Maderaspatana (Poir.) N. 0. Composite 

Mashiputri, Tam. Nelampata, Mal. Mustaril^ Tjel. Namuti, Benq. 

Description. — Stems procumbent or di£fuse, villous ; leaves 
sinuately piimatifid, lobes obtuse ; peduncles terminal or leaf- 
opposed ; heads of flowers sub-globose, solitary, yellow. FL 
Dec. — Jan. — Dec. Prod. v. 373. — Wight Contrib, p. 12. — 
Artemisia Maderaspatana, Roxb. — Wight Icon, t 1097. — 
RheedCy x. t 49. Eice-fields in the Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — ^The leaves are used medicinally as a stomachic. 
The Yytians also consider them to have deobstruent and antispaB- 
modic properties. They are used also in the preparation of antiseptic 
and anodyne fomentations. — Ainslie, 

(305) Grewia oppositifolia {Buck,) N. 0. Tiliaoea. 

Description. — Tree ; leaves bifarious, alternate, short- 
petioled, from ovate to rhomb - shaped, 3 - nerved, serrate^ 
serratures obtuse and glandular, rather harsh on both sides ; 
peduncles leaf-opposed, solitary, longer than the petioles, 3-5 
flowered; flowers large, yellowish; calyx 3-ribbed at the back; 
sepals 5, linear; petals lanceolate; drupe smooth, olive-coloured, 
fleshy; nut 1- celled. Fl. March — June. — Roxb, Fl. Ind. ii. 
583. — Wight Icon, t, 82. Kheree Pass, Dheyra Dhoon. 

Economic Uses. — ^The inner bark is used for cordage and coarse 
cloth. The former much used for agricultural purposes, and for rigging 
boats. A kind of paper is also made from ii.-—(Royle,) It attains its 
full size in about 15 years. The wood is straw-coloured, soft, elastic, 
and durable;, and is well adapted for handles of axes and other 
tools, and cot^frames. — {PowelVs Punj, Prod.) The chief value of the 
tree is on account of the leaves, which largely serve as fodder, and 
are said to increase the quantity of milk. The bark is made into 
sandals. A fair paper has been manufactured from the bark by 
Europeans in the Kangra valley. — (Stewards Punj, Plants.) The 
timber of another species, the O, elastica, is highly esteemed for its 
strength and elasticity, and is much used for bows, buggy-shafts, 
and sticks. The berries have a pleasant acid taste, and are used for 
making sherbet. — Royle, 

(306) Chrifllea tomentosa (Roxb,) K 0. Ltthbacba 

Sirligie, Tel. Dhaee-phool, Beno. 

Descbiftion. — Shrub or small tree ; branchlets pubescent ; 



236 GUAZUMA. 

leaves opposite, entire, lanceolate, somewhate cordate at the 
base, sessile, under side hairy, smoothish above ; petals usually 
6, scarcely conspicuous; stamens declinate; capsule oblong; 
calyx tubular, sharply toothed ; seeds numerous ; pedimcles 
axillary, many-flowered ; flowers red. FL Dec. — April. — W. 
& A. Prod. i. Zm,—Roxh. Flor, Ind. ii 233.— (7or. i. t. 31. 

— Ly thrum fruticosum, Linn. Peninsula. Bengal. Oude. 

Dheyra Dhoon. 

Economic Uses. — The petals are used as a red dye as well as in 
medicine. An infusion of the leaves is employed as a substitute for 
tea by the hill tribes near EUichpoor, where the shrub grows. Dr 
Gibson remarks that it is a very common shrub throughout the 
forest of the Concan, and along the Ghauts. It has rather pretty 
red flowers, appearing from December to February; and in Candeish, 
where the plant grows abundantly, forms a considerable article of 
commerce inland as a dye. — {Dr Gibson.) There are two varieties 
of this tree, the white and black, distinguished by the colour of the 
bark, fruit, and shape of the leaves. The wood is hght yellow, hard, 
smooth, and tough. It yields good material for ploughs, and attains 
its full size in 30 years. — (PowelVs Punj. Prod.) In the Northern 
Circars, where it is known under the name of godari and reyya 
manu, the leaves are employed in dyeing leather. Sheep -skins 
steeped in an' infusion of the dried leaves become a fine red, of 
which native slippers are made. The dried flowers are employed in 
Northern India, under the name of dkouri, in the process of dyeing 
with the Monnda bark, not so much for their colouring as their 
astringent properties. The shrub is abundant in the hilly tracts of 
the Northern Circars. — Jury Rep, Mad, Exhib, 

(307) Guaznma tomentosnm {H. B. ^ Kth.) N. 0. Byttnemacejb. 

Bastard Cedar, Eno. Oodrick, Tel. 

Description. — Tree, 40-60 feet ; leaves alternate, ovate or 
oblong, unequal at the base, toothed, acuminate at the apex, 
stellately puberulous on the upper side, tomentose beneath ; 
petals 5, yellow, with two purple awns at the apex ; capsules 
5-celled, many-seeded ; seeds angular ; peduncles axillary and 
terminal. Fl. Aug.— Sept.— F. <fe A. Prod. i. Q^— Wight 
III. t. 31. — G. ulmifolia, Wall. Cultivated. 

Medioal Uses. — ^A decoction of the inner bark is very glutinous, 
and besides being employed to clarify sugar, is said to be of use in 
Elephantiasis ; while the older bark is used as a sudorific, and is 
given in diseases of the chest and cutaneous complaints. — Lindley, 



GUETTARDA — GUILANDINA. 237 

Economic Uses. — ^This tree has been introduced from the West 
Indies, but is now common in India ; it is not unlike the English 
elm, with leaves that droop hanging quite down whilst the petioles 
remaiii stiff and straight. The &iiJt is filled with mucilage, which 
is very agreeable to the taste. The wood is light and loose-grained, 
and IB much used in making furniture, especially by coachmakers 
for panels. A fibre was prepared from the young shoots which was 
submitted to experiments by Dr Eoxburgh, and found to be of con- . 
siderable strength, breaking at 100 lb. when dry, and 140 lb. when 
wet. — (Don. Royle Fib, Plants,) It grows quickly, and is suited for 
avenues. In Coorg and the western forests it grows to a large size. 
Its leaves afford excellent fodder for cattle. 

(308) Gnettarda speciosa {Linn.) K. 0. Cinchonacels. 

Puneer-mamm, Tam. Ravapoo, Mal. 

Description. — Tree ; leaves ovate or obovate, often slightly 
cordate at the base, obtuse at the apex, pubescent on the*under 
side ; cymes peduncled, axillary, velvety, much shorter than 
the leaf ; corolla hypocrateriform, with cylindrical tube ; flowers 
4-9 cleft ; anthers sessile in the throat of the corolla ; calyx 
limb deciduous ; stamens 4-9 ; drupe depressed, marked by the 
traces of the calyx ; cells of the nut curved, 1-seeded ; flowers 
white, very fragrant Fl, April — May. — W, & A, Prod. i. 
422.— Wight Icon. i. t ^Q.-^Roai). Fl. Ind. i. 686.— -Nyctan- 

thes hirsuta, Linn. — BJieede, iv. t. 47, 48. Travancore. 

Coromandel in gardens. 

Economic Uses. — The flowers of this tree are exquisitely fragrant. 
They come out in the evening, and have all dropped on the ground 
by the morning. The natives in Travancore distil an odonferous 
water from the corollas, which is very like rose-water. In order to 
procure it they spread a very thin muslin cloth over the tree in the 
evening, taking care that it comes well in contact with the flowers 
as much as possible. During the heavy dew at night the cloth be- 
comes saturated, and imbibes the extract from the flowers. It is 
then wrung out in the morning. This extract is sold in the bazaars. 
— Pera. Obs. 

(309) Oxiflandina bondnc (Linn.) K O. Leoumino&£. 

Knlonje, Caretti, Mal. Ealichikai, Tam. Getsakaia, Tel. Nata-carai\ja, Hind. 
Gatchka, DuK. Nata, Beno. 

Description. — Climbing shrub ; leaves abruptly bipinnated, 
more or less pubescent, 3-8 pair, with 1-2 small recurved 
prickles between them ; leaflets oval or ovate ; prickles soli- 



238 GUIZOTIA — GYNANDROPSIS. 

tary ; flowers yellow ; sepals 5, nearly equal ; petals 5, sessile ; 
flowers lai^ish, sulphur-coloured, spicately racemose ; legume 
ovate, 2-valved, 1-2 seeded, covered with straight prickles ; 
seeds long, nearly globose. Fl, Aug. — Oct. — W, & A, Prod, i. 
280. — G. bonducella, Linn. — Csesalpinia bonduc, Roxb. FL 

Ind. iL 862. — Eheede, ii t 22. Coromandel. Travancore. 

Bombay. Bengal. 

Medioal Uses. — ^The kernels of the nuts are very bitter, and said 
by the native doctors to be powerfully tonic. They are given in 
cases of intermittent feveis mixed with spices in the form of powder. 
Pounded and mixed with castor-oil, they are applied externally in 
hydrocele. At Amboyna the seeds are considered as anthelmintic, 
and the root tonic in dyspepsia. In Cochin China the leaves are 
reckoned as deobstruent and emmenagogue, and the root astringent. 
The oil from 'the former is useful in convulsions, palsy, and similar 
complaints. In Scotland, where they are frequently thrown upon 
the sea-shore, they are known as Molucca beans. Fiddington has 
detected in the nuts, oil, starch, sugar, and resin. — Ainslie, Lour, 
Rumph, 

(310) Guizotia oleifera {Dec) K 0. Cohpositje. 

Ramtil, Beno. Ramtilla, Duk. Kalatill, Hind. Valesoloo, Tel. 

Desceiption. — Annual, herbaceous, erect ; leaves opposite, 
long lanceolate, coarsely serrated ; peduncles elongated, sub- 
corymbose ; flowers large, bright yellow. Fl. Nov. — Dec. — 
Verbesina sativa, Roxh. FL Ind, iii. 441. — ^Eamtilla oleifera, 
Lee. Madras. Cultivated in the Deccan. Lower Bengal 

EcoNOMio Uses. — Commonly cultivated in Mysore and the 
Deccan, for the sake of the oil yielded by its seeds. The Eamtil 
oU is sweet-tasted, and is used for the same purposes as the gingely- 
oil, though an inferior oiL The oil expressed from the larger seeds 
is the common lamp-oil of Upper India, and is very cheap. In 
Mysore the seed is sown in July or August after the first heavy 
rains, the fields being simply ploughed, neither weeding nor manure 
being required. In three months from the sowing, the crop is cut, 
and after being placed in the sun for a few days, the seeds are 
thrashed out with a stick. The produce is about two bushels an 
acre. In Mysore the price is about Es. 3-8 a maund. — Ainslie. 
Jury Rep. Mad. Exhib. Heyne^s Tracts. Simmonds. 

(311) Gynandropsis pentaphylla (Dec.) K 0. Capparidaokb. 

Caat-kodokoo. Cara-vella, Mal. Eanala, Shada floorhooreeja, Bsiro. Nai- 
kadaghoo, Nai Vaylla, Tam. 

Description. — ^Annual, 1 foot ; calyx sepc^ 4, spreading ; 






GYROCARPUS. 239 

petals 4 open, not covering the stamens ; stem more or less 
covered with glandular pubescence or hairs ; middle leaves 5- 
foliolate, lower and floral leaves trifoliolate ; leaflets obovate, 
puberulous, entire, or slightly serrulate ; flowers white or flesh- 
coloured, with pink stamens and brown anthers ; siliqua stalked. 
Fl. July — ^Aug. — W, Jk A. Prod. L 21. — Cleome pentaphylla, 

Linn. — Boxb, FL Ind. iii 126. — RJieede, ix. t. 24. Common 

everywhera BengaL Nepaul. 

Medical Uses. — ^The leaves bruised and applied to the skin act 
as a rubefacient, and produce abundant serous exudation, answering 
the purpose of a blister. The seeds are given internally, beaten to 
a paste, in fever and bilious affections; and the juice of leaves, beaten 
up with salt, in ear-ache. The whole plant made into an ointment 
with oil is appHed to pustular eruptions of the skin, and simply 
boiled in oil is efficacious in cutaneous diseases, especially leprosy. 
— (Bheede, Ainslie, Wight) Sir W. Jones remarked that its sen- 
sible qualities seemed to promise great antispasmodic virtues, it 
having a scent resembling Assafoetida. The seeds are used as a 
substitute for mustard, and yield a good oil — Pharm. of India, 

(312) Qyrocarpns Asiaticns (WUld,) K 0. CoHBRETACEiE. ^ 

Tanukoo, Tel. /^ > ^ .) - 

Description. — ^Large tree ; leaves crowded about the extre- 
mities of the branchlets, broad cordate, 3-nerved, often slightly 
lobed, above smooth, below downy, with two pits on the upper 
side of the base ; petioles downy ; panicles terminal, divisions 
2-forked ; hermaphrodite flowers solitary, sessile in the division 
of the panicle; calyx 5-sepalled, segments unequal, interior 
pairs large, wedge-shaped, 3-toothed, expanding into two long 
membranaceous wings ; flowers small, yellow ; capsule globular, 
wrinkled, 1-celled, 1-valved, size of a cherry, ending in two 
long lanceolate membranaceous wings. Fl. Dec. — Jan. — G. 
Jacquini, Eoai. Fl. Ind. I 445. — Cor. i. t. !•— — Coromandel 
mountains. Banks of the Krishna. 

Economic Uses. — ^The wood of this tree is very lights and when 
procurable is preferred above all others in the construction of Cata- 
marans. It is also used for making cowrie-boxes and toys, and 
takes paint and varnish welL — Boxb. 



240 




H 

(313) Hardwidda binata (Roxb.) K 0. LBGUMiKfa^. / / y* 

AcM Karachi, Kat-udugu, Tam. Nar-yepi, Tkl. JltXAtff^ V <^p^ 

Description. — ^Tree, bark deeply cracked, branches spread- 
ing ; leaves alternate, petioled, leaflets 1 pair, opposite, sessile, 
with a bristle between them, between semi-cordate and rehi- 
form, obtuse, entire, very smooth on both sides, 3-6 veined at 
the base, when young tinged with red, stipules small, cordate, 
caducous; panicles terminal and from the exterior axils; 
flowers pedicelled, scattered, small, bracts minute, caducous ; 
calyx somewhat hoary outside, often dotted, yellowish within, 
filaments usually 10, rarely 6-8, anthers with or without an 
acute point between the lobes ; style filiform, stigma large, 
peltate ; legume lanceolate, 2-3 inches in length, 2-valved, . 
striated lengthwise, opening at the apex ; seed solitary in the )>j 
apex of the legume. — Roodb, Flor. Ind, ii. 423. — TT. & A. ^^ 

Prod. i. 284.--l?edd Flor. Sylv. t 26. Banks of the Cauvery. ^ 

Salem and Coimbatore districts. Western slopes of the ^ 
Neilgherries. Mysore. Godavery forests. Bombay. 

Economic Uses. — This is a valuable tree, but cattle being very ^ 
fond of its leaves, it is pollarded to a great extent. The timber is 
of a reddish colour, very hard, strong, and heavy, and of an excellent 
quality. It is a first-rate building and engineering timber. Its bark i 
yields a strong fibre much used by the natives. It is easily raised 
from seed, and grows to 3500 feet elevation. — Beddomen 

(314) Hedyotis mnbellata {Lam.) K. 0. Cinchonace^. 

Indian Madder, Enq. Saya or Emboorel cheddie, Tam. Cheriveloo, Tel. 

Description. — Small plant, suffruticose, erect or diff'use, 
slightly scabrous ; calyx 4-parted ; corolla rotate, 4-cleft ; 
leaves opposite or verticillate, linear, paler on the under side, 
margins recurved ; stipules ciliated with bristles ; peduncles 
alternate, axillary, bearing a short raceme ; partial peduncles 
1-3 flowered ; capsule globose with a wide dehiscence ; flowers 
white. — W. & A. Prod, i. 413. — Oldenlandia umbellata, Linn. 





HEMIDESMUS. 241 

— Roxb. Cor, i. 1 3. — FL Ind. i 421. CoromandeL Concans. 

Cultivated in the Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — ^The leaves are considered expectorant. Dried 
and powdered they are mixed with flour and made into cakes, and 
given in asthmatic complaints and consumption, an ounce daily of 
decoction heing the dose given. — Ainalie, 

EcoNOMio Uses. — This is much cultivated in sandy situations on 
the Coromandel coast, especially at Nellore, Masulipatam, and other 
places. The root, which is long and orange-coloured, gives the hest 
and most durahle red dye for cotton cloth. A purple and brown-orange 
dye is also procured from it. It is often called by the Tamulians 
the Ramiseram Vayr^ from its growing plentifully on that island. 
Among Europeans it is known as the diay root. Simmonds says 
the outer bark of the roots furnishes the colouring matter for the 
durable red for which the chintzes of India are famous. Chay root 
forms a considerable article of export from Ceylon. The wild plant 
there is considered preferable ; the roots, which are shorter, yielding 
one-fourth part more colouring matter ; and the right to dig it is 
farmed out. It grows spontaneously on light, dry, sandy ground on the 
sea-coast The cultivated roots are slender, with a few lateral fibres, 
and from one to two feet long. The dye is said to have been tried 
in Europe, but not with much advantage. This red dye, similar to 
Munjeet, \a used to a great extent in the southern parts of Hindo- 
Stan by the native dyers. It is not held in very good estimation in 
Europe, but seems to deserve a better reputation than it at present 
possesses. Specimens of the dye were forwarded to the Madras 
Exhibition, upon which the Jurors reported as follows : The 
colouring matter resides entirely in the bark of the root ; the inner 
portion is white and useless. The root is of great importance to the 
Indian dyer, yielding a red dye similar to Munjeet, which is used to 
a great extent in the southern parts of Hindostan. The celebrated 
red turbans of Madura are dyed with the Chay root, which is con- 
sidered superior of its kind, but this is probably owing to some chemi- 
cal effect which the water of the Vigay river has upon it, and not to 
any peculiar excellence of the dye itself. Wild Chay is considered 
to yield one-third more colouring matter than the cultivated root ; 
this probably arises from too much watering, as much rain injures 
the quality of the root Eoots of two years' growth are preferred 
when procurable. It is currently reported that Chay root rapidly 
deteriorates by being kept in the hold of a ship, or indeed in any 
dark place.* — Simmonds. Jury Rep. Mad. Exhih. Ainalie. 

(315) Hemidesmns Indicns (R. Br.) K 0. Asclepiaoks. 

Countrj SaraapariUa, Eno. Narooneendee, Mal. Nannari, Tah. Soogundapala, 
TsL. Mugraboo, Hutd. Unanto-mool, Beno. 

Description. — ^Twining ; stem glabrous ; leaves from cordate 

* For accoimt of the cultiration and produce of the Chay root, see Appendix D. 

16 



242 HERPESTIS. 

to ovate, cuspidate, passing into narrow linear, acute, often 
oblong -lanceolate cymes, often sub-sessile, sometimes pe- 
duncled; scales of the corolla obtuse, cohering the whole 
length of the tube ; follicles slender, straight ; flowers on the 
outside, pale green, on the inside, dark blood-coloured. Fl. 
June — Aug. — Wight Contrib. p. 63. — Icon, t p. 594. — Peri- 
ploca Indica, Willd. — Asclepias pseudosarsa. Var. latifolia» 
Itoxb. M. Ind. ii. 39. — Rheede, x. t 34. CoromandeL Bom- 
bay. Bengal Very common in Travancore. 

Medical Uses. — ^This root is an excellent substitute for sarsa- 
parilla, and much used among the natives, being sold in the bazaars 
for this purpose. They employ it particularly for the thrush in 
children, giving about a drachm every morning and evening of the 
powder &ied in butter. Dried and reduced to powder, and mixed 
with honey, it is reckoned a good specific in rheumatic pains and 
boils ; and, in decoction with onions and cocoanut-oil, is internally 
recommended in haemorrhoids, and simply bruised and mixed with 
water in diarrhoea. Ainslie states that the root is mucilaginous and 
slightly bitter, and is recommended by the Tamool doctors in cases 
of strangury and gravel, being pulverised and mixed with cow's 
milk ; they also give it in decoction with cummin-seeds to purify 
the blood and correct the acrimony of the bile. A decoction of it is 
also prescribed by European practitioners in cutaneous diseases, 
scrofula, and venereal affections. Dr O'Shaughnessy repeatedly 
experimented upon the roots, and foimd their diuretic properties 
very remarkable. Two ounces infused in a pint of water, and 
allowed to cool, was the quantity usually employed daily ; and by 
such doses the discharge of urine was generally trebled or quad- 
rupled. It also acted as a diaphoretic and tonic, greatly increasing 
the appetite. Dr Pereira says the root is brownish externally, and 
has a peculiar aromatic odour, somewhat like that of sassafras. It 
has been employed as a cheap and efficacious substitute for sarsa- 
pariUa in cachectic diseases, increasing the appetite and improving 
the healtL In some cases it has succeeded where sarsapanlla has 
failed, and in others failed where sarsaparilla proved successful. — 
Ainslie. Boxb, 

(316) Herpestia monniera {H. B, ^ Kth,) K 0. Scrophulariacea. 

Beami, Mal. Neerpirimie, Tah. Sambronicliittoo, Tel. Sheyet-chamni, Hnro. 
Adh-bimi, BENO. ^^ ^^^ 

Description. — Annual, creeping; leaves opposite, sessile, 
obovate, wedge-shaped or oblong, smooth, entire, fleshy, dotted 
with minute spots ; peduncles axillary, alternate, solitary, 
shorter than the leaves, 1-flow^ered; flowers blue; calyx 5-cleft, 



HIBISCUS. 243 

exterior 3 segments larger than the others; corolla campanulate, 
5-parted, divisions equal; capsule ovate, 2-celled, 2-valved; 
seeds numerous. Fl. Nearly all the year. — Roxb, Fl. Ind, i. 
141. — Cor. ii. t 178. — Qratiola monniera, Linn, — Bfieede, x. t 

14. Moist situations near streams or on the borders of 

tanks. 

Medical Uses. — The root, stalks, and leaves are used by the 
Hindoos medicinally as diuretic and aperient. Boxburgh says that 
the expressed juice mixed with petroleum is rubbed on parts affected 
with rheumatism. — Ainslie. Roxh, 

(317) Hibiscus cannabinns (Lijiju) K 0. Malvace^. 

Deckanee Hemp, Esq, Pftlnngoo, Tam. Gongkura, Tbl Axnbaree, DuR. 
Maesta-paut^ Beno. 

Description. — Stem herbaceous, prickly; leaves palmately 
5-partite, glabrous, segments narrow lanceolated, acuminated, 
serrated ; flowers almost sessile, axillary,' solitary ; leaves of 
the involucel about 9, subulate, prickly with rigid bristles, 
shorter than the undivided portion of the calyx; calyx divided 
beyond the middle, segments slightly prickly, 1 - nerved ; 
corolla spreading; fruit nearly globose, acuminated, very hairy; 
seeds few, glabrous ; flowers pale sulphur, with a deep purple 
centre; carpels joined into a 5-celled, 5-valved capsule. Fl. 
June— July.— IT. <fe A. Prod. i. 50,— Eoxb. Fl. Ind, iii 208.— 
Cor. ii. 1. 190. Negapatam. Cultivated in Western India. 

EcoNOif 10 Uses. — The bark of this species is full of strong fibres 
which the inhabitants of the Malabar coast prepare and make into 
cordage, and it seems as if it might be worked into strong fine thread 
of any size. In Coimbatore it is called Pooley-munjee, and is culti- 
vated in the cold season, though with suflicient moisture it will 
thrive all the year. A rich loose soil suits it best. It requires about 
three months from the time it is sown before it is fit to be pulled 
up for watering, which operation, with the subsequent dressing, is 
similar to that used in the preparation of the Sunn fibre. Dr Buch- 
anan observed that it was sown by itself in fields where nothing else 
grew. It goes by various names in different parts of the country. 
The fibres are harelh, and more remarkable for strength than fineness, 
but might be improved by care. It is as much cultivated for the 
sake of its leaves as its fibres, which former are acidulous, and are 
eaten by the natives. In Dr Roxburgh's experimenta a line broke at 
115 lb., Sunn under the same circumstances at 160 lb. But in Pro- 
fessor Royle's experiments this broke at 190 lb., Sunn at 150 lb. 



244 HIBISCUS. 

Dr Gibson states that in Bombay it is cut in November, and kept 
for a short time till ready for stripping the bark. The length of 
these fibres is usually from 5 to 10 feet. — {Boyle, Eoxb.) The bark 
of the H. furcatus yields a good strong white fibre. A line made 
from it broke at 89 lb. when dry, and at 92 lb. when wet. It is 
cut while the plant is flowering and steeped at once. — Boyle. 

(318) Hibiscns Bosa sinenBis (Linn,) Do. 

\f7/)\A/ OlRi e- flower plant, or China Rose, Esq. Schempariti, IfAL. Sapatoo cheddie, 

yjfi^rv Tam. Dasauie, Tel. Jasoon, Duk. Juva, Benq. 

Description. — Shrub, 12-15 feet; stem arborescent, without 
prickles ; leaves ovate, acuminated, coarsely toothed, and 
slightly cut towards the apex, entire at the base; pedicels 
axillary, as long as, or longer than, the leaves, jointed above their 
middle ; involucel 6-7 leaved ; calyx tubular, 5-cleft ; flowers 
large, single or double, crimson, yellow, or white ; seeds un- 
known. M, All the year. — W, & A, Prod. i. 49. — Rheede, ii. 

t. 16. — Boxb. FL Ind. Hi. 194. Peninsula. Cultivated in 

gardens. 

Medical Uses. — ^The leaves are considered in Cochin China as 
emollient and slightly aperient. The flowers are used to tinge 
spirituous liquors, and the petals when rubbed on paper commimi- 
cate a bluish-purj^e tint, which forms an excellent substitute for 
litmus-paper as a chemical test. The leaves are prescribed by the 
natives in smallpox, but are said to check the eruption too much. — 
(Don. Ainslie.) An infusion of the petals ia given as a demulcent 
refrigerant drink in fevers. — Pharm. of India. ' 

Economic Uses. — In Chin^ they make these handsome flowers 
into garlands and festoons on all occasions of festivity, and even in 
their sepulchral rites. The petals of the flowers are used for black- 
ing shoes, and the women sdso employ them to colour their hair and 
eyebrows black. They are also eaten by the natives as pickles. 

(319) Hibiscns snbdariffa (Linn.) Do. 

Roselle, or Red Sorrel, Eno. Mesta, BSNG. Polechee, Mal. 

Description. — Annual, glabrous, 1-3 feet ; lower leaves un- 
divided, upper palmately 3-5 lobed, cuneate and entire at the 
base, lobes oblong - lanceolate, acuminated, toothed ; flowers 
axillary, solitary on very short pedicels ; involucel segments 
about 12 ; stems unarmed ; capsule many - seeded ; seeds 
smooth ; flowers pale sulphur, with dark-brown eye. Fl. Oct. — 
Dec. — W. & A. Prod. i. 52. Common in gardens. 



HOLABRHENA. 245 

Economic Uses. — The fleshy calyx and capsule, freed from the 
seeds, make excellent tarts and jellies. A decoction of them sweet- 
ened and fermented is commonly called in the West Indies Sorrel- 
drink. The leaves are used in salads. Sahdariffa is the Turkish 
name for the plant. The stem is cut when in flower, and a fibre got 
from the bark which is rather flne and silky. In Kajahmundry 
they are planted for this purpose. The stems are left to rot in fresh 
water, "but spoil if put in salt water. Excellent tow and hemp might 
be made from several species of Hibiscus, the staple being long, fibre 
uniform, silky, and fine. Cordage of greater compactness and density 
could therefore be made from them than from many of the coarser 
fibres. All plants of the kind should be sown thick, for the simple 
reason that they will grow tall and slender, thus giving a greater 
length of straight fibre yielding stem. No plant yielding fibres 
should be gathered for more than one or two days before being pre- 
pared, as the drying up of the sap stains the fibres, and the sooner the 
fibre is cleaned the stronger and whiter it will be; and newly- 
cleaned fibres must not be exposed to the sun, as they acquire a brown 
tinge. It must be recollected that all plants are usually in greatest 
vigour when in flower or fruit, and at that time they yield the greatest 
amount of fibre. — Beport on Fibres, Ainslie. 



(320) Holarrhena aatidysenterica (Wall) N. 0. ApocTNACEie. 

Description. — Shrub; leaves opposite, entire, elliptic, very 
obtuse at the base, acute or abruptly acuminated at the apex; 
calycine lobes lanceolate; corolla cup -shaped, tube dilated 
between the base and the middle, throat contracted ; stamens 
inserted between the base and middle of the tube; cymes 
many-flowered, terminal ; flowers puberulous, white ; follicles 

afoot long. Fl. Feb.— MB.y.— Wight Icon, t 439. Chitta- 

gong. Malabar. Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — The bark of this shrub was formerly imported 
into Europe under the names of Conesd bark, Codaga paJa, Corte 
de pdla, and Tdlicherry bark. It has a bitter taste. It has astrin- 
gent and tonic properties, but has obtained its chief repute as a 
remedy in dysentery. Cases have occurred of its having succeeded as 
a remedy in that complaint when Ipecacuanha and other remedies 
had failed. It has also been extensively employed as an anti-periodic. 
The seeds are also highly valued by the natives in dysenteric afiec- 
tions. They are narrow, elongated, about half an inch long, of a 
cinnamon-brown colour, convex on one side, and concave and marked 
with a longitudinal pale line on the other, easily broken, bitter to 
the taste, and of a heavy unpleasant odour. They are often con- 
founded with the seeds of Wrigktia tinctoria, to which they bear a 



246 HOLIGARNA — HOLOSTEMMA. 

geiieral resemblance. An infusion of the toasted seeds is a gentle 
and safe astringent in bowel-complaints, and is given to allay the 
vomiting in cholera. — (AinsUe,) Anthelmintic virtues are also 
assigned to theuL During the last cattle-plague epidemic in Bengal 
they were extensively employed, being regarded as possessing certain 
specific virtues. — {Indian Med, Gazette, Pharm, of India,) A 
variety of the above, the H, pubescens, is also an esteemed remedy 
for dysentery and bowel-complaints, the seeds being the parts used. 
The bark also possesses astringent, tonic properties, and is employed 
in fevers, — Wight. 

(321) Holigama longifolia {Moxb.) N. O. Anacardiacea. 

Cattu Tsjeru, Mal. 

Description. — Tree, 60 feet ; leaves alternate, cuneate, ob- 
long or ^cute ; petioles usually with a soft, incurved, thom-like, 
deciduous process on each side about the middle ; panicles 
terminal and axillary ; styles recurved ; calyx 5-toothed ; petals 
5, oblong, spreading ; stamens 5, shorter than the corolla ; nut 
ovate, with a fleshy pericarp; flowers small, whitish. Fl. 
Jan.— Feb.— TT. <fe A. Prod, i. 1%9,—Roxb. Fl, Ind, ii 80.— 

Cor. iii. t 282. — Bheede, iv. t. 9. Travancore. Concans. 

Chittagong. 

Economic Uses. — ^This is a tall tree found on the mountains of 
Malabar. The natives by incision extract- an exceedingly acrid juice 
from the stem, which they use as varnish. The nut is about the 
size of an olive, containing between the laminae numerous cells filled 
with black, rather thick, acrid fluid. The fruit ia like a prune, at 
first glaucous and downy, when ripe dark blue and glabrous. The 
juice is succulent and glutiuous. There is another variety with a 
round dark fruit. Small boats are made from the timber. The 
bark, when wounded, gives out tears acrid and glutinous. The juice 
of the fruit is used by painters, and also for fixing indelible colours 
figured on linen cloths. — Don, 

(322) Holostemxna Bheedii (Spr,) K 0. Asclefiacbje. 

Ada-kodien, Mal. Palla-gurgi, Tel. 

Desckiption. — Stems twining, perennial ; leaves broad cor- 
date, opposite ; corolla subrotate, 5-cleft ; stamineous corona 
inserted below the gynostegium, -simple, annular, obsoletely 
5-lobed ; follicles ventricose, smooth ; seeds comose ; flowers 
largish, thick and fleshy, purplish green, Fl. Sept. — Oct. — 
tVight Contrib. p. 55. — Icov,, t 597. — Asclepias annularia, 



HOMALOITEMA — HOPEA. 247 

Roocb. Fl. Ind, ii. 37. — Bheede, ix. t, 7. Malabar. Covalum 

jungles near Trevandram. Mysore. Circars. 

Medical Uses. — The flowers of this creeper are remarkably 
pretty, and would answer well for trellis-work in gardens. The 
medical virtues of the plant are given by Rheede, who states that 
the root pulverised and applied to the eyes will remove dimness of 
vision. Mixed with other ingredients it is also used in ophthalmia — 
for, says that author, " vires hujus plantae plan^ ophthalmicse sunt." 
It has an extensive distribution, being found from the southernmost 
province to the base of the Himalaya. The plant yields a toler- 
able fibre, which is said to be in its best condition after the rains.— ^ 
Wight Rheede, Pers, Obs, 



(323) Homalonema aromaticnm {Scliott) iN". O. Abace^. 

Description.— Perennial ; caulescent leaves sub-sagittate, 
cordate, acuminate, lobes rounded and divaricate; spadix 
cylindric, obtuse, equalling the spathe, above male, below 
female with abortive stamens intermixed ; anthers many-celled. 
Fl. Jan. — ^Feb. — Wight Icon. t. 805. — Calla aromatica, JRoai}. 
FL Ind. iii 513. Chittagong. 

Medical Uses. — ^A native of Chittagong : when cut it difPoses a 
pleasant aromatic scent The natives hold the medical virtues of 
the root in high estimation. — Moxb. 



(324) Hopea parviflora' (^ec^iome). N. 0. DiPTBROCARPEie. 

Inibogam, Mal. 

Description. — Large tree; petioles, panicles, and calyx hairy ; 
leaves short-petloled, glabrous, ovate to oblong, furnished with 
glands in the axils of the veins beneath ; flowers secund, sub- 
sessile, numerous, very minute, fragrant ; stamens 1 5, alter- 
nately single and in pairs ; stigma 3-cleft. — Bedd. Flor. Sylv. t. 
6. Malabar and Ganara, in moist and dry forests. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — ^Thia tree grows to an elevation of 3500 feet 
It is hitherto unknown commercially, but promises to be a very 
serviceable timber for gun-carriages and similar purposes, and espe- 
cially for railwaynsleepers. In south Ganara it is much valued for 
temple buildings.— (Bc^c^cwie.) It produces a gum, the uses of 
which are hitherto unknown. At the coast it costs about 10 
rupees a maund. A considerable amount is annually available. 



248 HOPEA — ^HOYA. 

(325) Hopea Wightiana (Wall) Do. 

Kong or Kongoo, Tail 

Description. — Large tree; young branches and petioles 
densely pubescent ; leaves ovate-oblong, rounded at the base 
and attenuated towards the apex into a very obtuse point, 
glabrous except on the rib above ; panicles axillary, generally 
three together, shorter than, or as long as, the leaves ; flowers 
pink, secund, bracteolate at the base of their very short pedi- 
cels ; calyx glabrous ; corolla hairy on the outside ; stamens 15, 
alternately single and double ; anthers terminated by a long 
bristle ; fruit and calycine wings glabrous, bright crimson. — 
W.(&A. Prod. i. 85.-111, t. S7.—JBedd. Flor. Sylv. t. 96. 

Var. 6. Glabra. — ^Young petioles and branches glabrous. 

Common in the western forests. Tinnevelly. 

Economic Uses. — The timber is very valuable, and similar to that 
of H. parvijlora. The variety b. is the Kongoo of Tinnevelly, and is 
much used in that district. — Beddome. 

(326) Hoya pendula (TT. ^ A.) K 0. Asclbpiaorb. 

Nansjera-patsja, Mal. 

Desceiption. — Stem woody, twining ; leaves fleshy, glabrous, 
from oblong-oval acute to broadly ovate, acuminate, revolute 
on the margins ; peduncles somewhat longer than the petioles, 
pendulous, many-flowered ; corolla downy inside ; leaflets of 
stamineous corona oboval, very obtuse, depressed, having the 
inner angles short and truncate at the apex ; stigma apiculated; 
flowers white, fragrant. Fl. March — May. — WigM Contrib. p. 
36. — Icon, t, 474. — H. Eheedii, W. & A. — Asclepias pendula, 

Boxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 36. — Bheede, ix. t 13. Circar mountains. 

Malabar. Neilgherries. 

Medical Uses. — This plant is emetic and alexipharmic. Kheede 
gives many uses for it when mixed with other ingredients. There 
are two varieties of the plant, differing in the shape of the leaves. — 
(liheede.) The leaves of H. viridlflora are much employed by the 
natives as an application to boils and abscesses. The plant has the 
same emetic and expectorant virtues as Dcemia externa, — Pharm. of 
India, 



HUGONIA — HYDNOCARPUS. 249 

(327) Hngonia mystaz (Linn.) K 0. Hugoniaorb. 

Modera canni, Mal. Agoore, Tam. 

Description. — Shrub, 10-15 feet; leaves alternate, or 
crowded at the ends of the branches, oval, glabrous, entire ; 
sepals distinct^ acute, unequal ; petals 5, alternate with the 
sepals ; styles 5, distinct ; ovary roundish, 5-celled ; fruit a 
drupe, enclosing 5 distinct one - seeded caipels ; peduncles 
axillary, 1-flowered; spines circinate, opposite ; flowers yellow. 
Fl, Feb.— May.— JT. & A. Prod, i. 12.-^ Wight 111. i. t 32.— 
Bheede, ii. t. 19. Tmvancore. CoromandeL Malabar. 

Medical TJsbs. — This is a handsome shrub when in flower, com- 
monly met with in Travancore. Its blossoms are of a beautiful 
golden-yellow colour. The bruised roots are used in reducing in- 
flammatory tumours j also in the bites of serpents, and as a febrifuge 
and anthelmintic, especially for children. The bark of the root is 
employed as an antidote to poisons. — Bheede. 

(328) Hydnocarpus inebrians (Vahl.) K 0. Pangiagrs. 

Morotti, Mal. Maravuttie, Tau. 

Description. — Tree, 50 feet ; leaves glabrous, crenately 
serrated, alternate ; sepals 5, two outer ones ovate, 3 inner ones 
larger, very concave ; petals 5, fringed with soft white hairs ; 
fruit globose, very hard, as large as an apple, crowned with the 
undivided portion of the stigma ; seeds numerous ; flowers 
smaU, white. Fl. Oct. — Feb. — PT. & A. Prod. I 30.— 
Wight III. i. t. 16.— Icon. t. 94^2.— Bheede, i. t 36. Com- 
mon in Travancore. Malabar. 

Medical Uses. — The fruit, if eaten, occasions giddiness, and is 
greedily devoured by fishes, but fish taken by these means are not 
tit to be eaten, occasioning vomiting and other violent symptoms. 
On the Malabar coast an oil is extracted from the seeds given in 
cutaneous diseases and ophthalmia, causing an excessive flow of 
tears. — (Bheede.) The seeds, the Neeradimootoo of Ainslie, have a 
nauseous smell and unctuous sUghtly acrid taste. The expressed oil 
is in much repute among the natives as a remedy in leprosy. The 
dose recommended by Ainslie is half a teaspoonful twice daily. — 
Pharm. of India. Ainslie. 

Egoxohig Uses. — In Ceylon the seeds are used for poisoning fish. 
The tree is very common on the western coast It is generally 
found overhanging tanks, and is usually laden with fruit which is 
excessively hard. The oil from the seeds is used as a sedative, and 



250 HYDNOCABPUS — HYDKOCOTTLE. 

as a remedy in scabies and ulcers on the feet. The H, alpintis, 
common on the Neilgherries, is a good timber-tree, and much used 
for building purposes. — Rheede. Wight. 

(329) Hydnocarpus odoratns {Liivdl) Do. 

Chaulmoogra, Beno. 

Description. — Large tree ; leaves lanceolate, entire, acumi- 
nate ; petals oblong ; scales ciliated. Male, calyx 4-5 cleft. 
Female, peduncles 1-flowered, flowers larger than the males ; 
styles 5, stigmas large, sagittate-cordate, and berry globular ; 
seeds numerous, immersed in pulp ; flowers large, pale yellow, 
fragrant — Wight III. L 37. — Gynocardia odorata, Roxh, — 

Chaulmoogra odorata, do. — Roxb. Cor, t. 299. Assam. 

Silhet. 

Medical Uses. — The seeds are used by the natives in Silhet in 
the cure of cutaneous disorders, especially leprosy. When freed from 
their integuments, they are beaten up with clarified butter into a 
soft mass, and in that state applied thrice a-day to the parts affected. 
— Roxb. 

(330) Hydrocotyle Asiatica (Linn,) N. 0. Apiacbjs. 

Asiatic Penny-wort, Eno. VuUarei, Tam. Codagam, Mal. Babaasa, TsL. 

Description. — Herbaceous ; leaves attached by the margin, ^ ' ^^ 
orbicular- reniform, equally crenated, 7-nerved, glabrous or 
slightly villous below when young; petioles and peduncles 
fascicled, sprinkled with soft hairs ; umbels capitate, short- 
peduncled, few -flowered; calyx tube slightly compressed; 
petals ovate, acute, spreading ; fruit orbicular, reticulated, with 
4 ribs on each of the flat sides ; flowers whitish or purplish 
red. Fl July— Aug.— TF. & A. Prod. I Z&&.—Roxb. FL Ind. 
ii. 88. — Wight Icon. t. 565. — Rheede, x. t 46. Travancore. 

Medioal Uses. — ^A widely-distributed plant, growing in moist 
shady places near hedges or tanks. The leaves, which are bitter, 
are toasted and given in infusion to children in bowel-complaints 
and fevers. They are also applied to parts that have suffered from 
blows or bruises as anti-inflammatory. In Java, according to Hors- 
field, they are considered as diuretic. The plant is one of the 
remedies for leprosy on the Malabar coast, and one which is worthy 
of more attention than has hitherto been bestowed upon it. — (Roxb. 
Rheede.) In non-specific ulcerations and in skin diseases it is of 
value both as an internal and as a local remedy. — Fharm. of India. 



HYDROLEA — HYMENODYCTION. 251 

(331) Hydrolea Zeylanica (Vahl) K. O. Htdroleagei£. 

Kauchra luhalangulya, Benq. T^era-vallel, Mal. 

Description. — Annual, herbaceous; stems erect, variously 
bent towards the extremities ; leaves short, lanceolate, rather 
obtuse, marked below with numerous prominent parallel veins; 
racemes axillary, spreading, few-flowered, and with the pedi- 
cels and calyx pubescent ; pedicels 1-flowered, usually opposite 
to a small bracted leaf; flowers deep blue, with a white spot 
in the centre; calyx 5-parted, divisions lanceolate, thickly 
covered with glandular hairs ; corolla wheel-shaped, tube 
short, 5-cleft, petals spreading, or even reflexed when fully 
open. FL Dec. — Jan. — W,&A, in Bot Mag, ii. 103. — Kama 
zeylanica, Linn. — Rovh, Fl. Ind, ii. 73. — Wight Icon, t 601. — 

Rheede, x. 1 28. Marshy places in the Peninsula. Alwaye, 

near Cochin. 

Medical Uses. — The leaves beaten into a pulp and applied as a 
poultice are considered efficacious in cleaning and healing bad ulcers, 
particularly those in which maggots have begun to breed. — Wight 

(332) Hymenodyction ezcelsnm (Wall) K 0. CiKCHONACEiB. 

Pundaioo, Tel. Kala Buchnal, DuK. 

Description. — Tree, 50 feet ; leaves from oblong to roundish 
ovate, pubescent; stipules cordate; floral leaves oblong, 
coloured, bullate ; panicles terminal and axillary ; anthers 
nearly sessile in tube of the corolla ; calyx 5-toothed ; corolla 
infundibuliform, 5-parted ; capsule 2-celled, many - seeded ; 
seeds girded by a membranous reticulated border; flowers 
small, greenish ; the lower pairs on two of the ramifications 
of the panicle are ornamented, each with a pair of coloured 
floral leaves. Fl. July— Aug.— IT. & A. Prod. L 392.— 
Roaib. Fl. Ind. ii. 149. — Cinchona excelsa, Boxb. Cor. ii t. 106. 
—Fl. Ind. L 529.— Wight Icon. p. 79, 1159. Circars. Pen- 
insula. 

Medical Uses. — The two inner coats of the bark of this tree 
possess aU the bitterness and astringency of Peruvian bark, and 
when fresh, in a stronger degree. — Boxb. 

Economic Uses. — ^The wood is fine and close-grained, of a pale 
mahogany colour, and is useful for many purposes. — (Boxb.) Another 
species, the H. utile, is common in the Palghaut jungles. The wood 



252 HYOSCYAMUS. 

is also of makogany colour, but is of a loose texture, soft, and hygro- 
metric. — WigM. 

(333) HyoBcyamus niger (Linn.) N. 0. Solanaoele. 

Common Henbane, Eno. • 

Description. — Stem viscous, branched ; leaves oblong, sinu- 
ately toothed, or sinuate-pinnatifid, viscously pubescent, lower 
ones petioled, the rest half stem-clasping, sub-decurrent; flowers 
sub-sessile, erect, arranged on simple, unilateral, recurved, leafy, 
terminal spikes, the corolla minutely reticulated with purple 
veins on a pale rose-coloured and yellowish ground, marked 
with a dark-purple throat. Fl, Feb. — March. — Linn. Spec. 
p. 257. — Dec. Prod. xiiL s. 1, p. 546. — H. agrestis. Ait. — Siveet 

FL Oard. i. t. 27.—Bot. Mag. t 2394 Eocky places in 

Northern India. Cultivated. 

Medical Uses. — The medicinal properties of Henbane are too 
weU known to require any detailed account in a work of this kind. 
One of its most valuable powers is that of dilating the pupil in 
diseases of the eye when applied locally. This plant is cultivated 
in India for medicinal purposes, and thrives well at moderate alti- 
tudes. In the Government gardens at Hewra, in the Deccan, from 
150 to 200 lb. of the extract were annually supplied for the use of 
the Bombay army. Large supplies have also been prepared at 
Hoonsoor, in Mysore, and, on testing, proved equally efficacious 
with the European articla Henbane-seeds are met with in the 
native bazaars, but they are imported from Turkey. Another 
species (H. insanus) is a common plant in Beluchistan, where it is 
known Ijy the name of Kohl hung, or Mountain Hemp. It has 
powerfully poisonous properties. It is smoked in small quantities, 
and also employed for criminal purposes. — (Pharm. of India. Stocks 
in Hooker'a Joum. Bot. 1852, iv. 178.) Another plant of this 
order is the Scopolia lurida (Dunal), growing in NepauL The 
leaves, when bruised, emit a peculiar tobacco-like odour. A tincture 
prepared from them, in the proportion of one ounce to eight ounces of 
alcohol, was found to produce extreme dilatation of the pupil ; and 
in two instances it induced bUndness, which only disappeared when 
the medicine was discontinued. — Graz. Med. Nov. 1843. Braith- 
waiters Metroffp. ix. 119. 



253 



(334) Ichnocarpiis ftntescens (R Br.) K 0. Apogtnacejb. 

Paal-Yully, Mal. Shyama-luta, Beng. Nalla-tiga, Trl, 

Description. — Twining ; leaves oblong or broad lanceolate, 
deep green above, pale below, glabrous ; calyx 5-cleft ; corolla 
salver-shaped, throat hairy, segments twisted, hairy; panicles 
terminal; follicles long, linear; flowers greenish white. Fl. 
July — Aug. — Wight Icon, t 430. — Echites frutescens, JRoxb. 

FL Ind. ii. 12. — ^Apocynum frutescens, Linn, Peninsula. 

Bengal. Travancore. Common in hedges. 

Medical Uses. — ^This plant is occasionally used as a substitute 
for sarsaparilla. It has purgative and alterative qualities. — 
Lindley. 

(335) Icica Indica {W, ^ A,) K 0. Amtridacea 

Nayor,, Beng. 

Description. — ^Tree, 70 feet ; young shoots, petioles, and 
calyx pubescent; leaves unequally pinnated; leaflets 7-11, 
petioled, oblong-lanceolate, more or less serrulated, from almost 
glabrous to densely pubescent ; panicles axillary, solitary, lax, 
much shorter than the leaves ; calyx small, 5-toothed ; petals 
5, recurved, sessile; stamens inserted with the petals and 
shorter than them; drupe globose, 1-3 celled; seeds bony, 
very hard, solitary in each cell, covered with an arilliform 
pulp ; flowers small, whitish green. Fl, March — ^ApriL — W. 

& A. Prod, i. 177. — Bursera serrata, Wall, Chittagong. 

Assam. 

Economic Uses. — The timber is close-grained and hard, is much 
esteemed, and used for furniture. It is as tough as oak, and much 
heavier. 

(336) Indigofera aspalathoides {VaJil,) LsauMiNOSiE. 

SheveDar-Vaymboo, Tam. ManneU, Mal. 

% 

Descbiption. — Shrubby, erect, young parts whitish, with 



254 INDIGOFERA. 

adpressed hairs ; branches slender, spreading in every direc- 
tion ; leaves sessile, digitately 3-5 foliolate ; leaflets narrow- 
cuneate, small, under side with a few scattered hairs ; peduncles 
solitary, 1-flowered, about the length of the leaves ; legumes 
cylindrical, pointed, straight, 4-6 seeded ; flowers rose-coloured. 
Fl Nearly all .the year.— TT. & A. Prod. i. 199,— Wight Icon, 
t 332. — I. aspalathifolia, Boxb, Fl. Ind. iil 337. — Aspalathus 

Indicus, Linn. — Eheede, ix. t. 37. Peninsula. Common on 

waste lands. 

Medioal Uses. — The leaves, flowers, and tender shoots are said 
to be cooling and demulcent, and are employed in decoction in 
leprosy and cancerous aflfections. The root chewed is given in 
toothache and aphthae. The whole plant rubbed up with butter is 
applied to reduce oedematous tumours. A preparation is made from 
the ashes of the burnt plant to clean dancbuff from the hair. The 
leaves are applied to abscesses ; and an oil is got &om the root, used 
to anoint the head in erysipelas. — Avnslie, Rheede, 

(337) Indigofera enneaphylla (Linn,) Do. 

Cheppoo-neringie, Tam. Cherra-gaddaun, Tel. 

Description. — Perennial, procumbent; young parts and 
leaves pubescent with white hairs; branches prostrate and 
edged ; leaves pinnate, sessile, leaflets 3-5 pairs, obovate- 
oblong ; racemes sessile, short, dense, many-flowered ; legumes 
oval, pubescent, not winged ; seeds 2, ovate and truncated at 
one end ; flowers small, bright red. Fl, Nearly all the year. 
—W. & A. Prod, L 199.— Wight Icon, t. WS.—Roxb. Fl, Ind. 
iii. 376. Dindigul hills. 

Medioal Uses. — The juice is given as an antiscorbutic and 
alterative in certain affections. An infusion of the whole plant 
is ditbretic, and as such is given in fevers and coughs. — Ainelie, 

(338) Indigofera tinctoria (Linn,) Do. 

Common Indigo, Eno. Ameri, Mal. Ayerie, Tam. Neelie, Tel. Neel, Beng. 
and Hind. 

Description. — Shrub, 2-3 feet, erect, pubescent; branches 
terete, firm ; leaves pinnated ; leaflets 5-6 pairs, oblong-ovate, 
cuneate at the base, slightly decreasing in size towards the 
apex of the leaf ; racemes shorter than the leaves, sessile, 
many-flowered ; flowers small, approximated at the base of the 



INDIGOFERA. 255 

raceme, more distant and deciduous towards the apex, greenish- 
rose colour; calyx 5-cleft, segments broad, acute; legumes 
approximated towards the base of the rachis, nearly cylindrical, 
slightly torulose, deflexed and curved upwards ; seeds about 
10, cylindrical, truncated at both enda Fl, July — Aug. — W. 
& A. Prod. I 202.— Wight Icon. t. 365.— Boxb. Fl. Ind. iiL 

379.— L Indica, Zam. — RJieede, i 54. QuUon. Concans. 

Cultivated in Bengal and elsewhere. 

Medical Uses. — ^With regard to the medical properties of this 
plant, Ainslie states that the root is reckoned among those medicines 
which have the power of counteracting poisons, and that the leaf has 
virtues of an alterative nature, and is given in hepatitis in the form 
of a powder mixed with 'honey. The root is also given in decoction 
in calculus; and the leaves rubbed up in water and applied to the 
abdomen are efficacious in promoting urine. Indigo itself is fre- 
quently applied to reduce swellings of the body. Liman states that 
the negroes in Jamaica use a strong infusion of the root mixed with 
rum to destroy vermin in the hair. Powdered indigo has been em- 
ployed in epilepsy and erysipelas, and sprinkled on foul ulcers is 
said to cleanse them. The juice of the young branches mixed with 
honey is recommended for aphthas of the mouth in children. The 
wild indigo, /. patLcifolia (Delile), is considered an antidote to 
poisons of all kinds. The root boiled in milk is used as a purgative, 
and a decoction of the stem is considered of great efficacy in mer- 
curial salivation used as a* gargle. — Ainslie. Beng. Disp. Lindleg. 

Economic Uses. — According to Loureiro, the indigo plant is spon- 
taneous in China and Cochin China, and is cultivated all over Uiose 
vast empires. The ancients were acquainted with the dye which we 
call inddgo, under the name of Indicum. Pliny knew that it was 
a preparation of a vegetable substance, but he was not acquainted 
with the plant, nor with the process of making the dye. Even at 
the close of the sixteenth century it was not known in England what 
plant produced it. The celebrated traveller Marco Polo thus men- 
tions indigo as one of the products of Quilon, where the plant grows 
wild. " Indigo, also, of excellent quality and in large quantities, is 
made here. They procure it from a herbaceous plant, which is taken 
up by the root, and put into tubs of water, where it is suffered to 
remain till it rots, when they press out the juice. This, upon being 
exposed to the sun and evaporated, leaves a kind of paste, which is 
cut into small pieces of the form in which we see it brought to us.'' 
To the present day indigo is manufactured at Quilon, though pro- 
bably some hundred years ago it was made in considerable quanti- 
ties. The account given above is a tolerably correct one of the rude 
process of its manufacture. It is one of the most profitable articles 
of culture in Hindostan, chiefly because labour and land are cheaper 
than anywhere else, and partly because the raising of the plant and 



256 INDIGOFERA. 

its mannfacture may be carried on ev^i without the aid of a house. 
It is chiefly cultivated in Bengal in the delta of the Ganges, on those 
districts lying between the Hooghly and the main stream of the 
former river. The ground is ploughed in October and November 
after the cessation of the rains, the seeds are sown in March and 
beginning of ApriL In July the plants are cut when in blossom, 
that being the time when there is the greatest abundance of dyeing 
matter. A fresh moist soil is the best, and about 12 lb. of seeds 
are used for an acre of land. The plants are destroyed by the 
periodical inundations, and so last only for a single year. When 
the plant is cut it is first steeped in a vat till it has become macerated 
and parted with its colouring matter, then the liquor is let oS into 
another vat, in which it undergoes a peculiar process of beating to 
cause the fecula to separate from the water; the fecula is then let off 
into a third vat, where it remains some time,' after which it is strained 
through cloth bags and evaporated in shallow wooden boxes placed 
in the shade. Before it is perfectly dry it is cut into small pieces an 
inch square ; it is then packed up for sale. Indigo, however, is one 
of the most precarious of Indian crops, being liable to be destroyed 
by insects, as well as inundation of the rivers. It ib generally 
divided into two classes — ^viz., the Bengal and Oude indigo. Madras 
indigo is not much inferior to that grown in BengaL 

In the Jury Eeport of the Madras Exhibition it is said, in former 
years the usual mode of extracting indigo, as practised in Southern 
India, was from the dry leaf, a process which will be found i^dnutely 
described in the pages of Heyne and Hoxbuigh. But this is now 
almost entirely superseded by the better system of the green leaf 
manufacture, which is foUowed in aU the indigo-growing districts of 
this Presidency, save the province of South Arcot. In the latter, 
the dry leaf process is still persevered in, but probably it is so only 
because of the distance to which the leaf has generally to be carried 
before it reaches the factory, and the consequent partial drying that 
takes place on the journey. Notwithstanding the importance of 
the traffic, the general manufacture is so indifferently conducted, or 
rather on so imperfect a system, that the value of the article pro- 
duced is seriously diminished, and its currenqv injured as an article 
of trade. It is not that the quality of Madras indigo is inferior to 
the ordinary run of that of Bengcd, but indigo is commonly manu- 
factured over the Madras Presidency in driblets, one vat-owner often 
not producing enough to fill even a chest; and the consequence 
is, that no one can make a purchase of a quantity of indigo in the 
Madras market upon a sample, as is commonly done in Bengal, — 
that every parcel, and often the same chest, is of mixed qualities, 
and that the value of the dye becomes thereby disproportionately 
depreciated at home. 

The best indigo comes from the district of Kishnagur, Jessore, 
Moorshedabad, and Tirhoot. Eoxbuigh stated that he extracted 
most beautiful light indigo from the /. ccertdea — (Roxb.), and in 



INGA. 257 

greater quantities than he ever procured from the common indigo 
l)lant.* — Roxh, Simmonds. Jury Rep, Mad. Exhib, 

(339) Inga dulcis (Willd,) Do. 

ManiUa Tamarind, Eno. Coorookoo-x>ally, Tam. Sima chinta, Tel. 

Description. — Tree, 30 feet ; extreme branches pendulous, 
armed with short straight thorns ; leaves bigeminate ; leaflets 
oblong, very unequal-sided ; petiole shorter than the leaflets ; 
pinnae and leaflets each one pair ; flowers capitate, heads 
shortly peduncled, racemose, the racemes panicled; legumes 
turgid, much twisted ; seeds glabrous, smooth, imbedded in a 
firm edible pulp; flowers small, yellowish-greenish. Fl, Jan. — 
Feb.— JT. & A. Prod. i. 269.— Wight Icon. t. 198.— Mimosa 

dulcis, Roxb. Cor. i. t. 99. — Flor. Ind. ii. 556. Cultivated. 

Madras. 

Economic Uses. — ^This tree makes an excellent hedge-plant, and 
is much used for that purpose on the Coromandel coast, especially 
at Madras. The sweet pulp in the legumes is reckoned wholesome. 
The timber is also said to be good. — {Roxb. Pers. Obs.) Isolated 
trees are found of 18 inches diameter. In general appearance it 
resembles the English hawthorn. The wood is hard. Roxburgh 
was of opinion that it was a native of the Philippines, but it appears 
that it had been imported thither from Mexico. It is now frequently 
met with, particularly towards the coast. It is easily raised from 
seeds, and the hedge it forms, being occasionally clipped, makes a 
neat and serviceable enclosure. Inga has been transferred to a new 
genus, Pithecolobiiim — {Benth. Land. Joum. Bot. ii. 423) ; and 
another species, the P. Saman, a tree of rapid growth, from Central 
America, has recently been introduced and planted in the Cuddapah 
Codoor plantations. It was forwarded by Mr Thwaites from Ceylon, 
who considered it to be a tree of great value for railway fuel It is 
known in Mexico as the Gemsaro tree, and the specimen is described 
in Squier's * Central 'America' as 90 feet high, with some of the 
» branches quite horizontal, and 92 feet long, and 5 feet in diameter ; 
the stem at 4 feet above the base 21 feet in circumference, and the 
head of the tree describing a circle of 348 feet. — Beddome's Report 
to Government^ 1870. 

(340) Inga xylocarpa (Dec.) Do. 

Idou-moullou, Mal. Conda-tangheroo, Tel. Jamba, Ddk. 

Description. — Tree, 60 feet, unarmed; leaves conjugately 

* For a detailed account of the process of planting and preparing Indigo, see 
Appendix £. 

17 



258 lONIDIUM — ^IPOMCEA. 

pinnated ; leaflets 2-4 pairs, with an odd one on the outside 
below the pairs, ovate - oblong, acute; peduncles in pairs, 
axillary, long ; flowers globose-capitate ; legumes ovate-oblong, 
hatchet -shaped, woody, many-seeded; flowers small white. 
Fl, April — May. — W. & A, Prod. i. 269. — Mimosa xylocarpa, 

Boxb, Cor. t 100. — FL Ind. il 543. Coromandel. HiUs of 

the Ooncans. 

Economic Uses. — ^The wood of this tree is chocolate-coloured 
towards the centre. It is esteemed useful by the natives for its 
extreme hardness and durability, especially for plough-heads, as weU 
as for knees and crooked timbers in shipbuilding. — Roxb. 

(341) lonidiom saffiraticosum (Ging,) N. 0. Yiolace^. 

Orala-tamaray, Tam. Oorelatamara, Mal. Pooroosbaratanum, Tel. Ruttun- 
puruss, DuK. Noonboia, Benq. 

Description. — Perennial ; stem scarcely any ; leaves alter- 
nate, sub-sessile, lanceolate, slightly serrate, smoothish ; peduncles 
axillary, solitary, l-flowered, shorter than the leaves, jointed 
above the middle, with 2 bracts at the joints ; calyx 5-cleft ; 
petals 5, two upper ones smallest, linear-oblong, two lateral 
ones sub-ovate, with long recurved apices, lower one largest, 
broad-cordate, supported on a claw ; capsules round, 1-celled, 
3-valved; seeds several; flowers small, rose-coloured. FL 
Nearly all the year. — W. & A, Prod, p. 32, 33. — Wight Icon, t 
308. — ^Viola suffruticosa, Linn, — Roocb. FL Ind, i 649. — Rheede, 
ix. t 60. Peninsula. Travancora 

Medical Uses. — ^The root in infusion is diuretic, and ia a remedy 
in gonorrhoea and affections of the urinary organ& The leaves and 
tender stalks are demulcent, and are used in decoction and electuary, 
and also employed, mixed with oil, as a cooling liniment for the 
head. — (Alnslie.) It may not be unworthy of remark that a species 
of this family of plants, the /. parviflorum (Viola pannjlora, Linn.), 
is used as an undoubted specific in Elephantiasis in South America. 
It is there known as CuichanchuUi. For instances of its eflects see 
Curtis (Comp. to) Bot, Mag. i. 278. 

(342) Ipomoda pes-caprsd (Sweet) N. 0. Convolvulacejk. 

Goat's-foot Creeper, Eno. Schovanna-adamboe, Mal. Chagul Khooree, Beno. 
Dopate-luta, Hind. 

Description. — Perennial; creeping but never twining; 
leaves long-petioled, roundish, deeply 2-lobed, smooth; ped- 



IPOMCEA. 259 

uncles axillary, solitary, 2-flowered ; sepals oblong, acute; seeds 
covered with a brownish pubescence; flowers large, reddish 
purple. FL Nearly all the year. — Convolvulus pes-capraj, 
Linn. — Roid), FL Ind. i. 486. — C. bilobatus, Roxb, — C. Bra- 

siliensis, Linn, — Rheede, xi. t 57. Peninsula. Common on 

sea-shores. 

Medical Uses. — ^This plant is found on q^ndy beaches, where it 
is of great use in helping to bind the loose soil, and in time rendering 
it sufficiently stable to bear grass. Groats, horses, and rabbits eat it. 
The natives boil the leaves and apply them externally as an anodyne 
in cases of colic, and in decoction they use them in rheumatism. 
Another species, according to Ainslie (the /. gemella), has its leaves, 
which are mucilaginous to the taste, toasted and boiled with clarified 
butter, and thus reckoned of value in aphthse. 

(343) Ipomcaa turpethnm {R, Br,) Do. 

Indian Jalap, Bkno. Shevadie, Tau. TeUa-tegada, Tel. Doodh-kulniee, Beng. 
Teoree, Bkng. 

Description. — Perennial, twining; stem angular, winged, 
glabrous or a little downy; leaves alternate, cordate, ovate, 
acuminated, sometimes entire or angularly sinuated or crenated ; 
peduncles axillary, 1-4 flowered, bracteate at the apex ; outer 
sepals the largest, ovate-roundish ; corolla twice as long as the 
calyx, white ; capsule 4-sided, 4-celled ; seeds round, black, 1 
in each cell ; flowers white, with a tinge of cream colour. FL 
Nearly all the year. — Convolvulus turpethum, Linn. — Roxb. 
Fl. Ind. i. 476. Malabar. Coromandel. 

Medical Uses. — The bark of the root is employed by the natives 
as a purgative, which they use fresh rubbed up with milk. About 
6 inches in length of the root is reckoned a dose. Cattle do not 
eat the plant. The root, being free from a nauseous taste and smell, 
possesses a decided superiority over jalap, for which it might be sub- 
stituted. Turpethum is derived from its Arabic name. A resinous 
substance exudes from the root when wounaed, which might probably 
be turned to some account ; it is merely the milky juice of the fruits 
dried. Eoxburgh has a long note upon this plant, wherein he com- 
municates the following information on the subject of its medical 
virtues, as received from Dr Gordon of the Bengal establishment : 
" The drug which this plant yields is so excellent a substitute for 
jalap, and deserves so much the attention of practitioners, that 1 
doubt not the following account will prove acceptable. It is a 
native of all parts of continental and probably of insular India also, 
as it is said to be found in the Society and Friendly Isles and the 



260 ISONANDRA. 

New Hebrides. It thrives best in moist shady places on the sides 
of ditches, sending forth long climbing quadrangular stems, which 
in the rains are covered with abundance of large, white, bell-shaped 
flowers. Both root and stem are perennial. The roots are long, 
branchy, somewhat fleshy, and when fresh contain a milky juice 
which quickly hardens into a resinous substance, altogether soluble 
in spirits of wine. The milk has a taste at flrst sweetish, afterwards 
slightly acid ; the dried root has scarcely any perceptible taste or 
smell. It abounds in woody fibres, which, however, separate from 
the more resinous substance in pounding, and ought to be removed 
before the trituration is completed. It is, in fact, in the bark of the 
root that all the purgative matter exists. The older the plant the 
more woody is the bark of the root ; and if attention be not paid in 
trituration to the removal of the woody fibres, the quality of the 
powder obtained must vary in strength accordingly. It is probably 
from this circumstance that its character for uncertainty of operation 
has arisen, which has occasioned its disuse in Europe. An extract 
which may be obtained in the proportion of one ounce to a pound 
of the dried root would not be liable to that objection. Both are 
given in rather larger proportion than jalap. Like it, the power and 
certainty of its operation are very much aided by the addition of 
cream of tartar to the powder, or of calomel to the extract I have 
found the powder in this form to operate with a very small degree of 
tenesmus and very freely, producing three or four motions within 
two to four hours. It is considered by the natives as possessing 
peculiar hydragogue virtues, but I have used it also with decided 
advantage in the first stages of febrile affections." 

According to the Kaja Nirghaunta, the Teoree is dry and hot ; 
a good remedy against worms ; a remover of phlegm, swellings of 
the limbs, and diseases of the stomach. It also heals ulcers, and is 
useful in diseases of the skin. It is known to be one of the best 
purgatives. 

The Bhavaprukasha has the following observation : " The white 
Teoree is cathartic ; it is pungent ; it increases wind, is hot and 
efficacious in removing cold and bile ; it is useful in bilious fevers 
and complaints of the stomacL The black sort is somewhat less 
efficacious ; it is a violent purgative, is good in faintings, and dimin- 
ishes the heat of the body in fevers with delirium." — {Ainslie, Eoxb, 
WallicKa Ohs.) It should be here added that it has entirely fallen 
into disuse in European practice ; and Sir W. O'Shaughnessy found 
it so uncertain in its operation, that he pronounced it as unworthy of 
a place in the pharmacopoeia. — Pharm, of India, 

(344) Isonandra acnniiiiata (Lindl) K 0. Sapotagea. 

Indian Gutta-tree, Eno. Pauchoontee or Pashonti, Mal. Pauley or Pali, Tam. 

Description. — Large tree, 80-90 feet ; leaves fascicled at the 



ISONANDRA. 261 

extremities of the branches, somewhat coriaceous, dark green 
above, paler beneath, entire, long-petioled, oblong - obovate, 
tapering at the base, terminating in a sudden blunt acumin- 
ation ; flowers axillary, generally solitary, occasionally 2-3 
• together ; calyx biserial, — outer deeply 3-cleft, segments broad, 
acute at the apex, leathery, valvate, — inner of 3 distinct sepals 
attached to the base of the outer calyx, alternate with its 
divisions, smaller, longer, equal, acuminated at the apex, of 
dirty white colour, imbricated in estivation; corolla deeply 
6-cleft, occasionally 5-cleft, deciduous, tomentose at point of 
insertion at the stamens, colour darkish red; stamens 12-18, 
usually 16, inserted into the throat of the coroUa, shorter than 
the corolla, sessile, extrorse, 2-ceUed, aU perfect, alternate in 
two rows ; ovary tomentose, superior, 6-celled, each cell with 
one ovule; style nearly 3 times the length of the ovary; 
stigma simple ; fruit chartaceous, size of an almond ; seed 
exalbuminous, erect ; flowers dullish red. Fl. Jan. — April. — 
Bassia eUiptica. — Dalz. Bomb. Flor, — Dr Cleghom's Report. 

Wynaad. Coorg. Travancore forests. Annamallay 

mountains. 

Economic Uses. — ^This tree, which promises to be of some import- 
ance among the vegetable products of the Peninsula, has only been 
discovered of late years. Although first actually noticed by Mr 
Lascelles in the Wynaad forests in 1850, yet the great attention 
paid to its locality and extensive distribution among the forests of 
the Western Ghauts by General CuUen, entitles the latter officer to 
an equal share in the merit of its discovery. '' I feel bound to 
mention," says Dr Cleghom, in his report to Government, " the con- 
tinued exertions of General Cullen, who has done more to introduce 
this interesting tree and its useful product to public notice than any 
other individual." The tree has an extensive range, being found at 
the foot of the Ghauts as well as at elevations of about 3000 feet 
above the sea. It is so lofty a tree, and runs to such an immense 
height without giving off any branches, that the naked eye is unable 
to distinguish the forms of the leaves, and it is generally recognised 
by the fruit and flowers found fallen at the base. The bark is rusty, 
often whitish from the presence of numerous lichens ; and a section 
of the trunk shows a reddish and sometimes mottled wood. The 
timber, when fully grown, is moderately hard, but does not appear to 
be much sought after by the natives. The exudation from the trunk, 
which has some similarity to the gutta-percha of commerce, is pro- 
cured by tapping, and the quantity is not inconsiderable; but it 
would appear that the tree requires an interval of rest, of some hours, 



262 ISONANDRA. 

if not days, after frequent incision. " In five or six hours," says 
General Cullen, "upwards of IJ lb. (more than a catty) was col- 
lected from 4 or 5 incisions in one tree." Again he writes in the 
same month (April) : " Incisions were made in forty places, at distances 
nearly 3 feet apart, along the whole trunk. The quantity produced 
was 2 1 dungalies (a dungaly is about half a gallon), the reeds were 
placed again, but in the evening no more milk was found ; but the 
bark is thin, and the juice soon ceases to flow, although there. is 
plenty of it in the tree.'' The gum when fresh is of a milky white 
colour, the larger lumps being of a dullish red. Specimens of the 
gum were forwarded to England, to be reported on by competent 
persons, and on an analysis of its properties, Messrs Teschemachar 
& Smith stated : " It is evident that this substance belongs to the 
class of the vegetable products of which caoutchouc and gutta-percha 
are types, and that it greatly resembles * bird-lime ' in its leading 
characteristics, but in a higher degree. It is evident that for water- 
proofing purposes it is (in its crude state) unfit ; for although the 
coal-tar, oil of turpentine paste, might be applied to fabrics, as similar 
solutions of caoutchouc now are, and a material obtained impervious 
for a time to wet, yet, that owing to the capacity of this substance to 
combine with water, and become brittle in consequence at ordinary 
temperatures, such a waterproofed fabric would become useless very 
quickly. "We do not, of course, in any way imply, that in the hands 
of some inventors this and other difficulties to its useful application 
may not be overcome. Although unfit for waterproof clothing, 
movable tarpauling, and its like, yet it might be usefully employed 
to waterproof fixed sheds, or temporary erections of little cost, 
covered with calico or cheap canvas ; but there are already a numer- 
ous class of cheap varnishes equally adapted for such a purpose, so 
that, as a waterproofing material, it is but advisable for the present 
to look upon it as useless. 

" Its perfimie, when heated, might possibly render it of some value 
to the pastille and incense makers. 

"Its bird-lime sticky quality might be made available by the 
gamekeeper and poacher in this country for taking vermin and 
small birds ; we almost doubt whether a rabbit, hare, or pheasant, 
could free itself, if hair, feathers, or feet, came in contact with it 
We think it might be useful and more legitimately employed by the 
trapper for taking the small fur-bearing animals ; turpentine would 
cleanse the soiled furs. The only extensive and practical use, how- 
ever, in this country, to which we at present think it may probably 
be with advantage applied, is as a subaqueous cement or glue. We 
beg to forward you some deal-wood glued together with this sub- 
stance melted and applied hot, which we have now kept under water 
for several days, and two fragments of glasses which have been 
similarly treated. You will observe that the cement has hardened 
at the edges, but probably without injury to its cementing propeiv 
ties. We have no reason to think that it would not rot under 



ISORA. 263 

water more rapidly than wood does, but experience must be the sole 
guide here. We have reason to think such a glue or cement would 
be readily tried, and if found good, employed by joiners and others, 
having been applied some time since to examine a glue, which after 
application resisted the action of water." 

With regard to the wood, Mr Williams, assistant conservator of 
forests, reported as follows to Dr Cleghorn : " It is not unlike saiU 
in the grain, and yet it takes after the character of some of the harder 
kinds of cedar and kurbah. As the wood is capable of receiving a 
good polish, I am inclined to think it ought to make good furniture. 
Its specific gravity, weighing the specimen piece in the hand, ap- 
pears to be about 50 lb. to the cubic foot ; and as the fibres possess 
both solidity and strength, I should say the wood ought to be useftd 
in making doors and windows, &c., if not too readily destroyed by 
white ants; but I doubt whether it will be found capable of sustain- 
ing much weight, for the coalescing deposit is rather too pithy to 
make it useful as beams for terracing. 

" The external surface with the bark peeled off exhibits hardness, 
and the fibres are greatly elongated and closely adhering ; but in 
planing down a portion I find that the alburnum occupies much 
more space than is apparent outside, and renders the wood too pithy 
to answer for the more substantial parts in building." 

It remains to add that the tree is very plentiful in those districts 
where it grows, and that it is found both on the eastern and western 
slopes of the Ghauts. — Memorandum on the Indian Gutta-tree of 
western coast, 

(345) Isora corylifolia {Schott and Endl.) K 0. STERCULUOEiB. 

Isora murri, Valampiri, Mal. Yalimbiri, Tam. Yalumbiicaca, TXL. Maroori, 
Hind. Antamora, Beng. 

Description.— Shrub, 12 feet ; leaves broad, slightly cordate, 
roundish, obovate, suddenly and shortly acuminated, serrate, 
toothed, upper side scabrous, under tomentose ; pedicels 2-4 
together, forming an almost sessile, axillary corymb ; petals 
reflexed ; fruit cylindrical, spirally twisted, pubescent ; flowers 
brick-coloured. Fl, Sept. — Nov. — W, & A, Prod. i. 60. — 
Wight Icon, t, 150. — Helicteres Isora, Linn, — Roxb. Fl,Jnd. 
iii. 143. — Eheede, vi. t, 30. Foot of the Himalaya. Penin- 
sula. Travancore, at the base of the hills. 

Medical Uses. — The leaves of this tree are very like the English 
hazel. The capsule has a singular appearance, being in the form of 
a screw. A liniment is prepared from the powder of it, applied to 
sore ears. It is mixed in preparation with castor-oiL The juice of 
the root is used in stomachic affections in Jamaica, as well as the 
leaves in certain cases of constipation. Seed-vessels used internally 



264 ISORA. 

in bilious affections in combination with otber medicines. Royle 
says that the natives of India, like those of Europe in former times, 
believing that external signs point out the properties possessed by 
plants, consider that the twisted £ruit of this plant indicates that it 
is useful, and therefore prescribe it in pains of the bowels. 

Economic Uses. — This is a valuable plant from the fibrous quali- 
ties of its bark. These fibres have of late been much brought to 
notice, being well adapted for ropes and cordage. They are strong 
and white-coloured. In Travancore the fibre (known as the kyvan 
nar) is employed for making gunny-bags. The fibres are cleaned by 
soaking the plant in \7ater and beating them out afterwards. The 
curtain-blinds of the verandahs of native houses are made from the 
fibre. It is one of the woods used by the natives for producing fire 
by friction. — Ainslie, Report on Prod, of Travancore, 



265 



(346) Jambosa vulgaris (Dec,) K O. MYRTACEJii. 

Rose-Apple, Esq. Gulab-jaraun, Hind. 

Description. — Tree ; leaves narrow-lanceolate, attenuated at 
the base, acuminated towards the apex ; racemes cymose, ter- 
minal ; flowers white ; fruit globose. — Dec, Prod, iii. 286. — 
W. & A, Prod, i. 332. — Eugenia Jambos, Linn. — Bozb. Fl, Ind. 
ii. 494. — Rheede Mai, i. t, 17. Cultivated. 

Economic Uses. — Tlie fruit is about tho size of a hen's egg, rose- 
coloured and white-fleshed, with the flavour of a ripe apricot. The 
tree grows rapidly and shoots up from the stmnp with vigour, yield- 
ing much firewood. In a communication to the Agri.-Hort. Soc 
of Bengal (May 1848), Colonel Ouseley observes : " I have just 
made a discovery that promises well in places where roses do not 
thrive, if the rose-apple ripens well ; most excellent rose-water can 
be distilled from the fruit, taking the seed out first. I had it dis- 
tilled four times, and it proved equal to the best rose-water, to the 
great surprise of the distiller." 

(347) Janipha Manihot (Kth,) N. 0. Eufhobbiage^. 

Bitter Cassava, Tapioca, or Mandioc plant, Eno. MaravnUie, Tam. Maracheenie, 
Mal. 

Description. — Stems white, crooked, 6-7 feet, smooth, 
covered with protuberances from the fallen leaves ; branches 
crooked ; leaves palmate, divided nearly to their base into 5 
lanceolate, entire lobes, attenuated at both extremities, dark 
green above, glaucous beneath ; midrib prominent below, of a 
yellowish -red colour; panicles axillary and terminal, 4-5 
inches long ; male flowers smaller than the female ; calyx 
purplish on the outside, brownish within, segments 5, spread- 
ing, divided nearly to the base ; female flowers deeply 5-parted, 
with lanceolate-ovate segments; root oblong, tuberous; capsule 
ovate, triangular, tricoccous ; seeds elliptical, black, shining ; 
flowers small, reddish. FL April — May. — Lindley Fl, Med, p. 



266 JANIPHA. 

185. — Jatropha Manihot, Linn, — Manihot utilissima, PoM, 
Cultivated in Travancore. 

Economic Uses. — ^A native of South America, but now cultivated 
in lower India to a great extent, especially in Travancore. It yields 
the Tapioca of commerce. The following account of the preparation a 

of this substance is given by Ainslie : " An amylum or starch is ' - '^ 
first to be obtained from the fresh roots, which starch, to form it into 
Tapioca, must be sprinkled with a little water and then boiled m 
steam; it is in this way converted into viscid irregular masses, which 
must be dried in the sun till they have become quite hard, and then 
they may be broken into small grains for use.'' Tapioca is a light 
and nourishing food, and affords a good diet for the sick. The 
poisonous substance which resides in the root is said to be hydro- 
cyanic acid. It can only be expelled by roasting, when the starch 
becomes fit for food. This starch being formed into granules by the 
action of heat, constitutes the Tapioca of commerce. Cassava flour 
is obtained by immersing the grated starch in water, when the flour 
is self-deposited, and afterwards washed thoroughly and dried in the 
sun. Cassava is said to be very nourishing, one acre being equal in 
its nutritive qualities to six acres of wheat. Recently much atten- 
tion has been paid to the cultivation of the plant, for the purpose of 
exportation to Europe from the West Indies, it having been found 
to be a most profitable article of commerce, and one requiring little 
or no care in its cultivation, the plant thriving on the most barren 
soil. This is equally the case in Travancore, where the cultivator 
has merely to clear away the low brushwood and plant it, when it 
will spring up luxuriantly on the most rocky and exposed situations, 
either in the vicinity of the sea or inland. Simmonds says on the 
subject — " The experimental researches of Dr Shier have led him to 
believe that the green bitter cassava will give one-fifth its weight of 
starch. If this be the case the return per acre would, under favour- 
able circumstances, when the land is properly worked, be enormous. 
On an estate at Essequibo, an acre of cassava, grown in fine perme- 
able soil, yielded 25 tons of green cassava. Such a return as this 
per acre would enable our West India colonies to inimdate Great 
Britain with food, and at a rate which would make flour to be con- 
sidered a luxury." If more attention were paid to its cultivation in 
India, a similar profitable return might be anticipated. The poorer 
classes in Travancore use it as food, especially when rice becomes 
scarce and dear ; and nearly one-half the population of several of the 
southern districts live on Tapioca in the months of July, August, 
and September. They reduce the root to powder for coiyee, and 
cook the raw root for curries. 

It is from the juice of this plant that the Red Indians in South 
America prepare the most deadly mandioc poison with which they 
tip their arrows. This is procured by distillation, and it is said that 
thirty drops will cause the death of a human being in six hours. 



JASMINUM. 267 

Cases are not unfrequent of children being poisoned in the country 
by incautiously eating the roots before they have undergone the 
necessary preparations. 

An extract is made from the concentrated juice of the root called 
Cassareepy the poisonous principle being destroyed duiing the course 
of evaporation. It is used in the West Indies for flavouring soups 
and other dishes. It is a powerful antiseptic. In Jamaica the 
scrapings from the fresh roots are applied to bad ulcers. — Ainslie. 
Simmonds. Pereira, Rep. on Prod, of Travancore. Pers, Obs, 

(348) Jasminnm angastifoliom (Vahl) K 0. JASMiNACEiE. 

Katu-pitsjegam-muUa, Mal. Caat-maUica, Tax. Adeyie-mallie^ Tel. Ban- 
maUica^ Hind. 

Description. — Twining; leaves opposite, ovate or oblong, 
finely pointed, smooth, of a shining deep green ; flowers ter- 
minal, generally by threes ; calycine segments acute ; segments 
of corolla 8-9, lanceolate ; berries single, ovate ; flowers large> 
white with a faint tinge of red, star-shaped, fragrant. Fl. 
March— May.— ^a:6. FL Ind. i. 96.— Wight Icon. t. 698-700. 

— Nyctanthes angustifolia, Linn. — Ehccde, vi. t 53. Coro- 

mandel forests. Travancore. 

Medical Uses. — This species being constantly covered with leaves 
of a bright shining green, renders it particularly well adapted for 
screening windows, and covering arbours in warm climates. The 
bitter root ground small and mixed with lime-juice and vassamhoo 
root is considered a good remedy in ringworm. — (Boxb. Ainslie.) 
The /. revolutum contains an essential oil of an aromatic flavour, and 
is used as a perfume. The root is said to be useful in ringworm. — 
PowelCa Punj, Prod. 

(349) Jasminnm sambac {Ait.) Do. 

Tajeregam - muUa, Mal. Pun - mullika, Mal. KOdy-mulli, Tam. Boondoo- 
mallie, Tel. But-moogra, Beno. 

Description. — Twining shrub ; leaves opposite, cordate, 
ovate or oblong, w-aved, sometimes scolloped, pointed, smooth, 
downy on the veins on the under side ; calyx segments 5-9 ; 
flowers terminal, generally in small trichotomous umbellets, 
white. Fl. March — May. — Roxb. Fl. Ind. L 88. — Wight Icon, 
t. 704. — Nyctanthes Sambac, Linn. Common everywhere. 

Medical Uses. — Of this there are two other varieties : the double- 
flowered Jasmin, called Beta in Bengal — the Nulla mulla of liheede 



208 JATROPHA. 

(vL t 50) ; and the Buro-hd and KaddamvUa of Rheede (vi. t 51). 
The plant is common in every forest in the Peninsula, and is gen- 
erally cultivated in gardens. The leaves if boiled in oil exude a 
balsam which is used for anointing the head in eye-complaints. It 
is said to strengthen the vision. An oil is also expressed from the 
roots used medicinally. The flowers, commonly known as the Moo- 
gree flowers, are sacred to Vishnoo. — {Rheede,) The flowers possess 
considerable power as a lactifuge, and are effectual in arresting the 
secretion of milk in the puerperal state, in cases of threatened 
abscess. For this purpose about two or three handfuls of the 
flowers bruised and unmoistened are applied to each breast, and 
renewed once or twice a-day. The secretion is sometimes arrested 
in about twenty-foux hours, though it generally requires two or even 
three days. — Pharm. of India, 

(350) Jatropha corcas {Linn) N. 0. EuPHORBucafi. 

Angiilar-leaved Physic-nut, Enq. Caat-anmnak, Tail Caak-avanakoo, Mal. 
Nepalam, Adivie amida, Tel. Bag-bherenda, Hind. Erundi, DUK. Bagh- 
Dliaranda, Beno. 

Description. — ^Small tree or shrub ; leaves scattered, broad- 
cordate, 5-angled, smooth; panicles terminal, or from the 
exterior axils, cymose, many-flowered ; male flowers at the 
extremities of the ramification on short articulated pedicels, 
the female ones in their divisions, with pedicels not articu- 
lated ; calyx 5-leaved ; corolla 5-petalled, campanulate, some- 
what hairy ; styles 3, short ; flowers small, green ; ovary 
oblong, smooth. Fl. Nearly all the year. — Boxh. Fl, Ind. iii. 
686. Domesticated in India. CoromandeL Travancore. 

Medical Uses. — The seeds are purgative, occasionally exciting 
vomiting. It is said that they may be safely eaten if first deprived 
of their outer teguments. They consist of a fixed oil, and an acid 
poisonous principle. The leaves are reckoned as discutient and 
rubefacient ; and the milky juice of the plant is said to possess a 
healing and detergent quality, and to dye linen blcusk. A fixed or 
expressed oil is prepared from the seeds useful in cutaneous diseases 
and chronic rheumatism applied externally ; also for burning in 
lamps. The Chinese boil the oil with oxide of iron, and use the 
preparation for varnishing boxes, &c. It is frequently used as a 
hedge-plant, as cattle will not touch the leaves. The juice of the 
plant is of a very tenacious nature, and if blown, forms large 
bubbles, probably owing to the presence of caoutchouc. The leaves 
warmed and rubbed with castor-oil are applied by the natives to 
inflammations when suppuration is wished for. The oil has been 
imported to England as a substitute for linseed-oil. It is of a pale 
colour, and can be cheaply supplied in any part of the country. It 



t 



JATROPHX — JUSSIiEA. 269 

differs from castor and croton oil in its slight solubility in alcohol ; 
but mixed with castor-oil its solubility is increased. According to 
Dr Christison, 12 or 15 drops are equal to one ounce of castor-oil. 
The juice of the plant has been applied externally in hjemorrhoids. 
A decoction of the leaves is used in the Cape Verd Islands to excite 
secretion of milk in women. — Shnmonda, Ainslie, Beng. Disp. 

J351) Jatropha glaadulifera (Eoxh) Do. 

Cj (5o vjO /v & Addaley, Tam. Nela-amUla, Tkl. 

Description. — Small plant, 1 foot, erect, pubescent ; leaves 
5-3 cleft, serrated, smooth, glaucous, almost veinless ; petioles 
sub-villose, longer than the leaves, with glandular hairs ; petals 
of female flowers ovate, the length of the calyx ; capsule muri- 
cated, as large as a hazel nut ; seed size of a pea ; flowers 
small, greenish yellow. Fl, All the year. — Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 

088. — J. glauca, VaU, ? Panderpore in the Deccan. On 

bunds of tanks ; Northern Circars. 

Medical Uses. — ^An oil is expressed from the seeds which, from 
its stimulating property, is reckoned useful externally applied in 
cases of chronic rheumatism and paralytic affections. The plant 
exudes a pale thin juice, which the Hindoos employ for removing 
films from the eyes. — Boxb. AhisUe. 

Economic Uses. — In 1862, Dr Thompson, civil surgeon, of Malda, 
submitted to the AgrL-Hort. Society specimens of cloth dyed with 
a green vegetable dye prepared from the leaves, it is believed, of this 
species. He wrote as follows : One maund of the dried leaves will 
dye 1280 yards of cloth of a fine apple-green colour. The supply is 
cheap and unlimited, and the cultivation is easily extended £rom 
cuttings or seed, requiring little care or watching, as no animal will 
eat it. The plant is doubly valuable from the seeds yielding a fine, 
clear, limpid oil for burning purposes. It takes half an hour to dye 
a whole than of cloth. For preparing the oil the seeds should be 
collected as the capsule begins to split or change colour from green 
to brown ; the latter should then be thrown down on a mat, and 
covered over with another mat, and on a few hours' exposure to a 
bright sun the seeds will have separated from the shell, for if 
allowed to remain on the shrub till quite ripe, the capsule bursts, 
and the seeds are scattered and lost. 

(352) JnsflisBa villosa (Lam,) K 0. ONAORACEiE. 

Cftramba, Mal. Lal-banlmiga, Beng. 

Description. — Perennial, herbaceous, 1 J foot, erect, more or 
less pubescent or villous ; leaves from broadly lanceolate to 



270 JUSSI.EA. 

linear acuminate, tapering at the base into a short petiole ; 
flowers almost sessile ; calyx lobes 4 or 5, broadly lanceolate 
or ovate, 3-5 nerved, much shorter than the roundish-ovate 
petals ; capsule nearly cylindrical, elongated, tapering at the 
base into a short pedicel ; flowers largish, yellow. Fl. Oct. — 
Nov. — TT. <fe A. Prod, i 336. — J. suffruticosa, Linn, — J. 

exaltata, Roxb, Fl. Ind, ii. 401. — Rlieede, ii t 50. Peninsula. 

Bengal. 

Medical Uses. — There are two varieties given by Wight of this 
plant. According to Rheede, the plant, ground small," and steeped 
in butter-milk, is considered good in dysentery ; also in decoction as 
a vermifuge and purgative. — Ainslie. 



*^t ) 



271 



K 

(353) EcBmpferia galanga (Linn.) K 0. ZiNGiBEBACEiS. 

Katsjulum, Mal. Katsjolum, Tam. Chundra Moola, Kumula, Beng. 

Description. — Rhizome biennial, tuberous; stem none; 
leaves stalked, spreading flat on the surface of the earth, 
round, ovate-cordate, margins membranaceous and waved, 
upper surface smooth, somewhat woolly towards the base; 
flowers fascicled, 6-12 within the sheath of the leaves, ex- 
panding in succession, pure white with a purple spot on the 
centre of each of the divisions of the inner series ; bracts 3 to 
each flower, linear, acute, half the length of the tube of the 
corolla ; calyx the length of the bracts ; tube of corolla long, 
filiform, limbs double, both series 3-parted. Fl, Oct. — Nov. 

— Wight Icon, t 899. — Roxh. Fl. Ind. i. 15. ^Peninsula. 

Bengal. Much cultivated in gardens. 

Medical Uses. — This plant is said to be very common on the 
mountainous districts beyond Chittagong, and is brought by the 
mountaineers for sale to the markets in Bengal, where the inhabi- 
tants use it as an ingredient in their betel. The root is fragrant, 
and used medicinally by the natives as well as for perfumes. Re- 
duced to powder and mixed with honey it is given in coughs and 
pectoral affections. Boiled in oil it is externally applied in stoppages 
of the nasal organs. — Rlteede, Roxh, 

(354) Kcsmpferia rotunda (Linn.) Do. 

Melan-kua, Mal. Bhuchampa, Bekq. 

Description. — Leaves oblong, coloured; spikes radical, 
appearing before the leaves, which are oblong, waved, and 
usually stained underneath ; upper segments of the inner 
series of the corolla lanceolate, acute, lower ones divided into 
two broad obcordate lobes ; flowers near, fragrant, sessile, pur- 
plish white ; scapes embraced by a few common sheaths, very 
short, greenish purple ; calyx above, 1-leafed, as long as the 
tube of the corolla, somewhat gibbous ; apex generally two- 
toothed, and of a dotted purplish colour. Fl. March — ApriL 
—Roxh. Fl. Ind. i. l&.— Wight Icon. t. 2029.— K longa. 
Redout. — Rheede, xi. t. 9. Native place unknown. 



272 KANDELIA — KYDIA. 

Medical Uses. — This species is mucli cultivated in gardens for 
the beauty and fragrance of its flowers. When in Hower the plant 
is destitute of leaves. The whole plant, according to Eheede, is first 
reduced to a powder, and then used as an ointment It is in this 
state reckoned very useful in healing wounds, and taken internally 
wiU remove cofigulated blood or any purulent matters. The root is 
useful in anasarcous swellings. It has a hot, ginger-like taste. — 
Ainslie. Roxb. Rlieede, 

(355) KaJidelia Bheedii (W. ^ A,) K O. Ehizophorage^. 

Tsjeron-kandel, Mal. 

Description. — Shrub; leaves quite entire, linear- oblong, 
obtuse, 2-3 chotomous, 4-9 flowered; inflorescence axillary; 
calyx tube campanulate, segments linear, persistent ; petals as 
many as the segments of the calyx, membranaceous, cleft to 
below the middle into numerous capillary segments; fruit 
oblong, longer than the tube of the calyx ; germinating embryo 
subulate-clavate, acute; flowers largish, white and green. — 
W. & A. Prod, i. Zll,—WigU III t 89.— Ehizophora Candel, 

Linn. — Bheede, vi. L 35. Malabar. Sunderbunds. Deltas 

on Coromandel coast. 

Medical Uses. — This species of mangrove is common on the 
back-waters in Travancore. The bark mixed with dried ginger or 
long pepper and rose-water is said to be a cure for diabetes. — (lUteede.) 
It is also used for tanning purposes at Cochin. — Pers, Obs, 

(356) EydiA calycina (Eoxh.) K O. Byttneriace^. 

Description. — ^Tree ; leaves alternate, 5-nerved, somewhat 
5-lobed ; calyx campanulate ; capsule 3-valved, 3-ceIled, 
perfect cells 1 -seeded, involucels of fertile flowers usually 
4-leaved, longer than the calyx, spathulate, enlarging with 
the fruit; filaments united their whole length into a tube; 
style elongated, stigmas projecting; male involucel 4-6 leaved 
shorter than the calyx, lanceolate, blunt; filaments united 
about half their length, free above ; petals in both obliquely 
cordate, clawed, emarginate,ciliate ; flowers white or pale yellow- 
ish. FL Aug. — Dec. — W. & -4. Prod. i. 70. — Roxh, Cor, iii. i, 

Vi^,—Fl Ind, iii. 1^9. — Wight Icon, t, 879, 880. ^VaUeys 

of the Circar mountains. Mysore. Slopes of the Neilgherries. 

Economic Uses. — The bark is mucilaginous, and is employed in 
the northern provinces to clarify sugar. — RoyJe. 



273 



,J^ 



Kit.-' • 



(357) Lablab vulgaris {Bam,) 'N/O. LEouMiNosiE. 

Chota-sim, Hind. Ban-Bhim, Beno. Anapa-anoomooloo, Tel. Avarei, Mut- 
cheb, Tah. 

Description. — Twining; leaves pinnately trifoliolate; leaflets 
entire; racemes axillary, elongated; pedicels short; corolla 
papilionaceous ; calyx bi-bracteolate, campanulate, tubular 
4-cleft ; legume broadly scimitar-shaped, gibbous below the 
apex, and ending abruptly in a straight or recurved cuspidate 
point ; seeds longitudinally oval, of various colours ; flowers 
red, purple, or white. Ft, Nov. — Feb. — W. & A, Prod. i. 250. 
Wight Icon, t 57-203.— ifca;&. Fl Ind, iii. 305.— Dolichos 
lablab, Linn. Peninsula. BengaL Cultivated. 

Economic Uses. — There are several varieties differing in the colour 
of their seeds and forms of their legumes, some of which are culti- 
vated, and others are not. Of one variety which is cultivated on 
the Coromandel coast, Eoxburgh states that it will yield in a good 
soil about forty-fold. The seeds bear a low price comparatively, 
and are much eaten by the poorer classes, particularly when rice is 
dear. They are not palatable, but are reckoned wholesome sub- 
stantial food. Cattle are fed with the seeds, and greedily eat the 
straw. Another variety, which has white flowers, is cultivated in 
gardens and supported on poles, often forming arbours about the 
doors of native houses. The pods are eaten, but not the seeds. The 
pulse of the best kind is imported from Madras to Ceylon. — {Roxh,) 
The different kinds are distinguished by the colours of their flowers, 
which vary from white to red and purple, and by the size and shape 
of the pods, which exhibit every degree of curvature, one kind being 
designated as the Bagh-nak (tiger's claw), from its rounded form. 
The same diversity occurring in the seeds has given rise to the 
many specific varieties, or even species, which after all may weU be 
reduced to the present form of I-Ablab. — W. Elliott. 

(358) Lagenaria vulgaris (Ser.) N. 0. CuoaRBrrAOKs. 

White Pnmpkih, Bottle-gourd, Ei«a. Hunea-kuddoo, DuK. Shora-Kai, Tam. 
Bella-schors, Hal. Lavoo, Bkno. Anapa-kai, Tel. 

Description. — Stem climbing softly pubescent ; calyx cam- 

18 



274 LAGERSTROEMIA. 

panulate ; petals rising from within the margin of the calyx ; 
tendrils 3-4 cleft ; leaves cordate, nearly entire or lobed, lobes 
obtuse, or somewhat acute, glaucous ; flowers fascicled, white ; 
petals very patent ; fruit pubescent, at length nearly glabrous 
and very smooth ; seeds numerous, flesh- white, edible ; fruit 
bottle-shaped, yeUow when ripe. Fl. July — Sept. — W. & A, 
Prod. i. 341. — Cucurbita lagenaria, Linn. sp. — BosA. FL Ind, 
iii 718. — Rheede, viiL t. i. 4, 5. Cultivated. 

Medical Uses. — The pulp of the fruit is often used in poultices ; 
it is bitter and slightly purgative, and may be used as a substitute 
for colocynth. A decoction of the leaves mixed with sugar is given 
in jaundice. ^ 

EooNOMio Uses. — The fruit is known as the bottle-gourd. The 
poorer classes eat it, boiled, with vinegar, or fill the shells with rice 
and meat, thus making a kind of pudding of it. In Jamaica, and 
many other places within the tropics, the shells are used for holding 
water or palm-wine, and so serve as bottles. The hard shell, when 
dry, is used for faqueers' bottles, and a variety of it is employed in 
making the stringed instrument known as the Sitar, as well as buoys 
for swimming across rivers and transporting baggage. There is one 
kind, the fleshy part of which i§ poisonous. — lioyle. Don. 

(359) Lagerstroamia microcarpa (E, W.) N. 0. LTTHBACEiE. 

Ventek, Veveyla, Tam. 

Description. — Large tree ; leaves from elliptic to ovate, 
often attenuated or acute at the base, obtusely pointed at the 
apex, glabrous above, pale beneath, often very finely downy ; 
panicles axillary ,and terminal, glabrous or hoary, with minute 
pubescence ; flowers very numerous, white ; calyx white out- 
side, with hoary pubescence ; six outer stamens longer than 
the others ; capsule scarcely an inch long. — Wight Icon. t. 

109. — Bedd. Flor. Sylv. t 30. Western forests, but not on 

the eastern side. 

Economic Uses. — A handsome tree, abundant in all the western 
forests of the Madras Presidency, flowering in the hot weather. The 
wood is light-coloured, straight, and elastic. It is very much used 
for building purposes, and also in dockyards. It makes capital 
coflfee-cases, but if left in the forests exposed will soon decay, and be 
rapidly attacked by white ants. — Beddome. 

(360) Lagerstroemia parviflora (Roxh.) Do. 

Cliinangee, Tel. 

Description. — Tree; branches quadrangular; leaves opposite, 



LAGERSTROSMIA — LAWSONIA. 275 

entire, from oblong or oval and obtuse to ovate and acute, pale 
beneath ; peduncles axillary, 3-6 flowered ; calyx 6-cleft, even ; 
petals 6, flattish, shortly unguiculate ; the six outer stamens 
longer than the rest ; capsule oblong, 3-4 celled ; flowers smaD, 
white, fragrant. Fl. May— June.— fT. & A, Prod. i. 308.— 

Wight Icon, t Q^.—Roxb. FL Ind. ii. 505.— Cor. i. 66. 

Circars. Courtallum. Neilgherries. Bengal. " 

Economic Uses. — Of this large tree there are two varieties, one 
which has the under sides of the leaves downy, and the other having 
them glabrous. The wood is very hard, and is reputed to be an 
excellent timber. It is light brown, close-grained, straight, and 
elastic. It is used for building, boat-timber, ploughs, and axe- 
handles. — Beddome Flor. Sylv. t. 31, 

(361) Lagerstrounia reginB (Roxb,) Do. ^ ^ ^^ 

Kadali, Tam. Adamboc. Mal. Jarool. Beno. -^^ i:* ru f^k cloche 

Descripxion. — Tree ; petals 6, orbicular, waved, shortly un- 
guiculate ; leaves opposite, entire, oblong, glabrous ; panicles 
terminal ; calyx 6-clefb, longitudinally furrowed and plaited ; 
capsule 3-6 valved, 3-6 celled ; seeds numerous ; flowers purple 
or rose-coloured. Fl. April — July. — W. & A, Prod. i. 308. — 
Wight Icon, t. 4tli.—Roxh, Cor. i. t 65.— Rheede, iv. t. 20-21. 

— Bedd, Flor. Sylv. t. 29.: Circars. Courtallum. Travan- 

core. 

Economic Uses. — This is without exception, when in blossom, 
one of the most showy trees of the Indian forests. It is now com- 
monly cultivated in gardens on the western coast, where the moist 
damp climate is most suitable for its growth, and the full develop- 
ment of the rich rose-coloured blossoms. In the forests near the 
banks of rivers it grows to an enormous size, some having purple 
flowers, and forming a most beautiful and striking appearance. The 
timber is reddish, tough, and very durable under water, though it 
soon decays under ground. It is much used for building and boats. 
In the Madras gun-carriage manufactory it is used for light and 
heavy field-checks, felloes, and cart-naves, framing and boards of 
waggons, timbers and ammunition-box boards. In Burmah, accord- 
ing to Dr Brandis, it is more in use than any other timber except 
teak, and is there used for a vast variety of purposes. — Beddome. 

(362) LawBonia alba (Z^?w.) Do. G-crum, 

Henna, Broad Egyptian Privet. Eno. Maroodanie, Tam. Ooounta Chettoo. Trt.. 
Mayndie, Uind. Mailanachi, Ponta-letsche, Mal. -^"^ 

DEScmpnoN. — Shnib, 6-10 feet ; calyx 4-partite ; petals 4, 



276 LEBIDIEROPSIS — LEEA. 

unguiculate, alternate with the lobes of the calyx, obovate, 
spreading ; stamens in pairs alternating with the petals ; leaves 
opposite, oval-lanceolate, quite entire, glabrous ; flowers pan- 
icled ; ovary sessile, 4-celled ; capsule globose, 3-4 celled ; seeds 
numerous ; flowers white or pale greenish. FL Nearly all the 
year. — W. & A, Prod. L 307. — Wight III. t 94. — L. spinosa, 

Linn, — L. inermis, Rodd), — Bheede^ i. t. 40. Peninsula. 

Bengal. 

Medical Usbs. — The powdered leaves beaten up with catechu, 
and made into paste, are much used by Mohammedan women to dye 
their nails and skin a reddish-orange. The colour will last for three 
or four weeks before requiring renewal The plant is supposed to 
possess vulnerary and astringent properties. The flowers have a 
strong smeU, from which, as well as from the leaves and young 
shoots, the natives prepare a kind of extract which they reckon use- 
ful in leprosy. The leaves are also used externally applied in cut- 
aneous affections. In Barbary the natives use them for staining the 
tail and mane of their horses red. The plant is often employed for 
making garden hedges. The old plants become somewhat thorny, 
but the species called spinosa, says Roxburgh, is nothing more, pro- 
bably, than the same plant growing in a dry sterile soil, the branch- 
lets becoming then short and rigid, with sharp thorny points. — 
Ainslie, RoxK 

(363) LebidieropslB orbicnlata (Muller), N. 0. EuPHOHBiACiLfi. 

var. Collina. 

Wodisha, Tisl. Wodagd manim, Tam. 

Description. — Tree ; leaves elliptic or obovate, round-ob- 
tuse, obtuse or slightly cordate at the base, pubescent on the 
rib below ; flowers subsessile, softly grey hairy white ; sepals 
oblong triangular ovate ; petals very minute glabrous, irregu- 
larly rhomboid above ; capsules glabrous ; seeds globose. Fl. 
— March — May. — Bee. Prod. xv. s. 2, p. 509. — Cluytia collina, 
Roodb. — Bridelia collina, Hook, et Am. Bot. Beech, p. 211. — 
C. patula et retusa. Wall. Circars. Orissa. Concans. 

Economic Uses. — The wood is of a reddish colour, very hard and 
durable, much used in Eajahmandry and the Northern Circars. The 
bark or outer crust of the capsules is said to be very poisonous. — 
Boxb. 

(SQi) Leea macrophylla (Baxh.) K O. Vitacrb. 

Toolsoo-moodryia, Beno. 

Description.— Herbaceous, 4 feet ; stems angular ; leaves 



LE UCAS — LIMON I A. 277 

simple, stalked, dentato-serrate, broad-cordate or lobed, pos- 
terior lobes overiapping each other ; calyx 5-cleft ; petals 5 ; 
cymes trichotomous, terminal ; flowers numerous, small, white ; 
berries depressed, obscurely 6 or more lobed, when ripe black 
and succulent. FL June — Aug. — i2oa?6. Fl. Ind, i. 653. — 
Wight Icon, t 1154. Bengal. Both Concans. Palghaut. 

Medical Uses. — The root is astringent and mucilaginous, and is 
a reputed remedy for ringworm. — Roxh, J, Orah. 

(365) Lencas linifolia (Spreng). K O. Labiatjs. 

Description. — Herbaceous, erect, slightly pubescent or 
tomentose ; leaves oblong-linear, entire or remotely serrated ; 
verticils dense, subequal, many-flowered ; bracts linear, hoary ; 
calyx elongated above, mouth very oblique, lower teeth very 
short, upper longest; flowers white. FL Dec. — Jan. — Dec. 
Prod. xii. 533. — Phlomis zeylanica, Roxb, Jacq. Ic. rar. i. t. 111. 
Bengal. Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — The Cinghalese attribute miraculous curative 
powers to this plant. The leaves are bruised, and a teaspoonful of 
the juice given, which is snuffed up by the nostrils, and used by the 
natives in the North- West Provinces as a remedy in snake-bites. 
The fresh juice is also employed in headache and colds. — (Long. 
Ind, Plants of Bengal.) The juice of the leaves of the L. a^jera is 
applied successfully in psora and other chronic eruptions. — Pharm. 
of India. 

(366) Limonia acidissiina {Linn.) K 0. Aurantiacks. 

Tsjera Caat-naregam, Mal. 

Description. — Shrub, 6-10 feet ; leaves pinnate, with 2-3 
pairs of leaflets and an odd one ; leaflets oblong, retuse, cren- 
ated ; spines solitary ; petioles broadly-winged ; flowers cor- 
ymbose ; corymbs umbelliform, 2-3 together from the axils of 
the fallen leaves ; petals 4 ; fruit globose, size of a nutmeg, 
yellowish, but red when perfectly ripe ; flowers small, white, 
fragrant. Fl. March — May. — W. & A. Prod. i. 92. — L. crenu- 

lata, Roocb. Cor. i. 86. — Bheede, iv. t. 14 Coromandel. 

Malabar. Hurdwar. Assam. 

Medical Uses. — The pulp of this fruit is flesh-coloured, is very 
acid, and is used by the inhabitants of Java instead of soap. The 
leaves are good in epilepsy. The root is purgative, sudorific, and 



278 LINUM. 

used in colic pains. The dried £ruits are tonic, and said to resist 
contagious air from small-pox, malignant and pestilential fevers, and 
considered an excellent antidote to various poisons, on which account 
they are much sought for, especially by the Arabs and other mer- 
chants on the western coast, where they form an article of commerce. 
— Gibson, Rheede. 

(367) Linnm usitatissimum (lAnn.) N. 0. LiNACEiE. 

Common Flax, Eno. Alleeveray, Tam. Musina, Beno. Tisi, Hutd. \J\see, 

Description. — Annual, erect, glabrous; leaves alternate, 
lanceolate or linear, acute, entire ; panicles corymbose ; sepals 
ovate, acute or mucronate, with scarious or membranaceous 
margins ; petals slightly crenated, three times larger than the 
calyx ; stamens alternate with the petals, having their fila- 
ments united together near their basis; capsule roundish, 
pointed at the apex, 5-celled, each cell divided into two parti- 
tions, containing a single seed ; seeds oval, smooth, brown on 
white, mucilaginous outside, with oily and farinaceous kernels ; 
flowers blue. FL Dec— Feb.— JT. & A. Prod, i. 134— iJoa*^ 

Fl. Ind, ii. 100. Neilgherries. Cultivated in Northern 

India. 

Medical Uses. — An oil is expressed from the seeds without heat 
As the oil made in India has not the full drying properties of that 
prepared in Europe, a considerable quantity of the seeds is imported. 
This arises from the Indian seeds being mixed with those of mus- 
tard, with which they are grown, the mixture deteriorating the 
quality of the oil. The oil-cake made from the seeds after the ex- 
pression of the oil is very fattening food for cattle. Linseed-meal is 
the cake coarsely pulverised, and is used for making emollient 
poultices. European practitioners in this country consider linseed a 
valuable demulcent, according to Ainslie, and is useful in diarrhoea, 
catarrh, dysentery, and visceral obstructions. A decoction of the 
seeds forms an excellent enema in abrasion of the intestines. The 
meal of the seeds is used for cataplasms ; the oil mixed with lime- 
water (carron oil) has been a favourable application to bums and 
scalds. Linseed-oil is one of the chief ingredients in oil varnishes 
and painters* inks ; by boiling wdth litharge its drying properties are 
much improved. The inferior seeds which are not sufficiently good 
for oil are boiled and made into a flax-seed jelly, esteemed an excel- 
lent nutriment for stock. Linseed contains l-5th of mucilage, l-6th 
of fixed oil. The former resides entirely in the skin, and is separ- 
ated by infusion or decoction, the latter by expression. — Simmonds, 
Ainslie, 



LINUM. 279 

Economic Uses. — Tlie native country of the flax-plant is unknown, 
though it has been considered as indigenous to Central Asia, from 
whence it has spread to Europe, as well as to the surrounding 
Oriental countries. For centuries it has been cultivated in India, 
though, strange to say, for its seeds alone ; whereas in Europe it is 
chiefly sown for the sake of its fibres. The best flax comes from 
Russia, Belgium, and of late years from Ireland, where it has been 
cultivated with the greatest success. Much attention has lately been 
directed to the sowing of the flax-plant in India for the sake of the 
fibres; and although the experiments hitherto made have not in 
every case met with that success which was anticipated, yet there 
seems little reason to doubt that when the causes of the failure are 
well ascertained, and the apparent difficulties overcome, that flax 
will be as profitably cultivated on the continent of India as it is in 
Europe ; while European cultivators must eventually supersede the 
rj'ots, whose obstinate prejudice to the introduction of novelty is fatal 
to any improvement at their hands. 

As their object is solely to plant for the seeds alone, they gener- 
ally mix the latter with other crops, usually mustard, a system which 
could never be persisted in when the object is for fibres. Among 
those parts of India where flax has best succeeded may be men- 
tioned the Saugor and Nerbudda territories, Burdwan and Jubbul- 
pore. In the former districts especially the rich soil and temperate 
climate are peculiarly favourable for its growth. In the Punjaub also 
its cultivation has been attended with the most successful results, as 
appears from the report of Dr Jamieson, who says : " For some 
years I have been cultivating flax on a small scale, from seeds pro- 
cured from Russia, and its fibres have been pronounced by parties 
in Calcutta of a very superior description. There is nothing to pre- 
vent this country from supplying both flax and hemp on a vast scale. 
In the Punjaub thousands of acres are available ; and from the 
means of producing both flax and hemp, this part of India will 
always be able to compete with other countries." In the Madras 
Presidency it has been grown with the best results on the Neil- 
gherries and Shevaroy Hills, near Salem ; and it would probably 
succeed equally well wherever the temperature is low, accompanied 
with considerable moisture in the atmosphere. The chief reason of 
the failures of the crops in Bengal and Behar was owing to the want 
of sufficient moisture after the cessation of the rains during the 
growth of the plant. In the Bombay Presidency it has been grown 
for the seeds alone. In India the time of sowing is the autumn. 
The soil should be of that character which retains its moisture, 
though not in an excessive degree. If not rich, manure must be 
amply supplied, and the plant kept free from all weeds. The best 
seeds procurable should be selected, of which the Dutch and American 
are reckoned superior for this country. Dr Roxburgh was the first 
who attempted the cultivation of flax in India. In the early part of 
this century he had an experimental farm in the neighbourhood of 



280 LINUM. 

Calcutta. Since his day the impiovements which have taken place, 
resulting from extended observation and experience, have of course 
been very great, and specimens of flax which have been sent from 
Calcutta to the United Kingdom have been valued at rates varying 
from £30 to £60 a-ton. 

The following information on the mode of the culture of flax in 
India is selected from a report made by Mr Denreef, a Belgian 
farmer, whose practical experience in this country enabled him to 
be a correct judge, and whose report is printed entire in the Journal 
of the Agri-Horticultural Society of Bengal. Such portions of land 
as are annually renewed by the overflowing of the Ganges, or which 
are fresh and rich, are the best adapted for the cultivation of flax. 

After the earth has been turned up twice or thrice with the Indian 
plough, it must be rolled ; because without the aid of the roller the 
large clods cannot be reduced, and the land rendered fine enough to 
receive the seed. The employment of the roller, both before and 
after sowing, hardens the surface of the earth, by which the moisture 
of the soil is better preserved, and more sheltered from the heat of 
the sun. About and near Calcutta, where manure can be obtained 
in great abundance for the trouble of collecting it, flax may be pro- 
duced of as good a quality as in any part of Europe. 

Manure is the mainspring of cultivation. It would certainly be 
the better, if the earth be well manured, to sow first of all either 
Sunn (Indian hemp), or hemp, or rice, or any other rainy-season 
crop ; and when this has been reaped, then to sow the flax. The 
tillage of the land by means of the spade (mamoty) used by the 
natives (a method which is far preferable to the labour of the plough), 
with a little manure and watering at proper seasons, will yield 
double the produce obtainable from land tilled without manure and 
irrigation. 

The proper time to sow the flax in India is from the beginning of 
October until the 20th of November, according to the state of the 
soiL The culture must be performed, if possible, some time before 
the soil The flax which I have sown in November was generally 
much flner and much longer than that sown in the former month, 
which I attributed to the greater fall of dew during the time it was 
growing. The quantity of country seed required to the Bengal beega 
is twenty seers, but only fifteen seers of the foreign seed, because it 
is much smaller and produces larger stalks. The latter should be 
preferred ; it is not only more productive in flax, but, owing to the 
tenderness of its stalks, it can be dressed much more easily. 

The flfi^ must be pulled up by the roots before it is ripe, and while 
the outer bark is in a state of fusibility. This is easUy known by 
the lower part of the stalks becoming yellow ; the fusion or disappear- 
ing of the outer bark is effected during the steeping, which may be 
fixed according to the temperature ; say, in December at six days, 
in January five, in February four days, and less time during the hot 
season. The steeping is made a day after the pulling, when the seed 



LOBELIA. 281 

is separated, and then the stalks are loosely bound in small sheaves, 
in the same way as the Sunn, The Indians understand this business 
very well, but in taking the flax out of the water it should be 
handled softly and with great care, on account of the tenderness of 
its fibres. When it is newly taken out, it should be left on the side 
of the steeping-pit for four hours, or until the draining of its water 
has ceased. It is then spread out with the root-ends even turned 
once, and when dry it is tit for dressing or to be stapled. 

To save the seed, the capsules, after they are separated from the 
stalks, should be put in heaps to ferment from twenty-four to thirty 
hours, and then dried slowly in the sun to acquire their ripeness. 

When flax is cultivated for the seed alone, the country flax should 
be preferred. Six seers per beega are sufficient for the sowing. It 
should be sown very early in October, and taken up, a little before 
perfect ripeness, by its roots, separately, when it is mixed with 
mustard seeds : the flax seed, being intended for the purpose of dry- 
ing oil, is greatly injured by being mixed with mustard seed, by 
which mixture its drying qualities are much deteriorated. 

The oil which is procured from the seeds, and known as Linseed 
oil, is obtained in two ways — either cold drawn, when it is of a pale 
colour, or by the application of heat at a temperature of not less than 
200®. This latter is of a deeper yellow or brownish colour, and is 
disagreeable in its odour. One bushel of East Indian seeds will 
yield 14| lb. of oil; of English seeds, fix)m 10 to 12 lb. Nearly 
100,000 quarters of seeds are annually exported to Great Britain for 
the sake of the oil they contain. Great quantities are also shipped 
from Bombay, where the plant is cultivated for the sake of its seeds 
alone. The export of linseed from Bombay, says Dr Royle, is now 
estimated at an annual value of four lacs of rupees. — Simmonds. 
Ainslie, Lindley. 

(368) Lobelia nicotianodfolia (Heyne). N. 0. LoBELiACEiE. 

Dawul, Deonul, Boke-nul, Mahr. 

Description. — Stem erect ; leaves subsessile, oblong, lanceo- 
late, denticulate, narrowed at the base, acuminated ; racemes 
many-flowered ; bracts leafy ; pedicels slightly longer than the 
bract, bibracteolate in the middle ; sepals lanceolate serrated ; 
coroUa pubescent, lateral lobes long-linear, centre ones lanceo- 
late ; two lower anthers penicillate at the apex ; flowers purple. 
— Dec. Prod. vii. 381. — Drury Eandb. ii. 109. — Wight Blustr. 
t 135. Neilgherries. Canara. 

Medical Uses. — ^The seeds of this plant, which is found on the 
mountain-ranges of the Peninsula and Ceylon, are extremely acrid. 
An infusion of the leaves is used by the natives as an antispasmodic. 
— Pharm. of India. 



282 LUFFA. 

(369) Lnfiia acutangula (RoxK) N. O. Cucurbitacrs. 

Torooi, Hind. Jhmgo, Beno. Beer-kai, Tel. Peeclienggab, Mal. Peekon- 
kai, Tam. 

Description. — Climbing ; stems glabrous ; leaves 5-angled 
or 5-lobed ; male racemes long peduncled ; stamens distinct ; 
calyx segments of the female flowers covered with glands ; 
fruit (about 1 foot long and 2-3 inches thick) clavate, obtusei, 
or shortly pointed, pretty smooth, 10-angled, the angles sharp 
and smooth ; seeds (black) irregularly pitted, 2-lobed at the 
base; flowers large, yellow. FL Nearly all the year. — W, <fe 
A, Prod. i. 343. — Roxh. FL Ind. iii. 713. — Cucumis acut- 

angulus, Linn. — Rheede, viii. t 7. Peninsula. Hedges and 

waste lands. Cultivated. 

Economic Uses. — The lialf-grown fruit is one of the best native 
vegetables in India. The natives use it much in their curries. 
Peeled, boiled, and dressed with butter, pepper, and salt, it is little 
inferior to boiled peas. — Roxh, 

(370) Lnffa amara {Roxh.) Do. 

Kerula, Hind. Sendu-beer-kai, Tel. Tito-dlioondhool, Benq. 

Description. — Climbing; stems slender; leaves a little 
scabrous, roundish-cordate, slightly 5-7 lobed ; calyx 5-toothed; 
petals 5, distinct ; male racemes long peduncled ; fruit oblong, 
tapering towards each end, acutely 10-angled ; seeds blackish 
grey, marked with elevated minute black dots ; margin turned, 
2-lobed at the base ; flowers large, yellow. FL Aug. — Oct. — 

W. & A. Prod. i. 343. — Roxh. FL Ind. iii 715. Peninsula. 

Bengal. 

Medical Uses. — ^This is bitter in every part. The fruit is 
violently cathartic and emetic, and the juice of the young roasted fruit 
is applied by the natives to their temples in cases of headache. The 
seeds in substance or infusion are used as emeto-cathartic. — (Roxh.) 
Dr Green states that the plant is not only a grateful bitter tonic, 
but a powerful diuretic when given in infusion in doses of from one 
to two fluid ounces three or four times a-day, two drachms of the 
fresh stalks being put to one pint of boiling water. Combined with 
nitro-hydrochloric acid, he found it useful in dropsy supervening on 
enlargement of the spleen and liver from malarious poison. — {Pharm. 
of India.) The L. pentandra is edible. In the Peshawur valley 
the seeds are given, mixed with black pepper in warm water, as 
emetic or cathartic. — Stewart Punj. Plants. 



LUMNITZERA. 283 

(371) Lnmnitzera racemosa (Willd.) N. 0. CoMBRETACEie. 

Eida Eande], Mal. 

Description. — Tree; calyx 5 -cleft; segments rounded; 
petals 5, acute, inserted on the calyx and longer than it ; leaves 
alternate, cuneate-obovate, alternated at the base into a short 
petiole, glabrous, thick and somewhat fleshy ; spikes axillaiy, 
5 stamens longer than the other alternating ones, and about the 
length of the petals ; drupe clove-shaped, ovate-oblong, bluntly 
angled, crowned with the calyx ; nut linear-oblong angled, 1- 
seeded ; flowers small white. — W, & A. Prod. i. 316. — Petaloma 
alternifolia, Roxh, — Bruguiera Madagascariensis, Dec. — Bheede, 

vi. t. 37. Salt-marshes in the S. provinces and Malabar. 

S. Concans. Sunderbunds. 

Economic Uses. — The timber is very strong and durable, and is 
used as fuel in Calcutta, where it is brought in great quantities from 
the Sunderbunds. It grows in the backwater in Cochin among 
species of Rhizophora. — Boxb. Wight 



284 



M 
(372) Maba buxifolia (Pers.) K 0. Ebbnacea 

Erumbelie, Tam. Pishanna, Tel. 

Description. — Shrub or small tree ; leaves alternate, oval, 
entire, smooth ; male flowers axDlary in the lower leaves, 
3-fold, sessile, white; calyx 3-cleft; corolla 3 -cleft, hairy; 
stamens 6, short, inserted round a semi -globose receptacle ; 
female flowers axillary, sessile, white or yellowish, very small ; 
style 1 ; berry round, smooth, pulpy, size of a pea ; seeds 2, 
flat on one side. FL March — June. — Wight Icon, t. 763. — 
Ferreola buxifolia, Roxb, Cor, i. t, 45. Circar Mountains. 

Economic Uses. — The berries are edible, and agreeable to the taste. 
The wood is dark-coloured, very hard and durable, and useful for 
various economical purposes. — Eoxb, 

(373) Macaranga Indica (R W.) K. 0. Euphorbiacks. 

Vuttathamaray, Tah. Putta-thaniara, Mal. 

Description. — Tree ; leaves stipuled, peltate ; stipules 
paired, broad-ovate, cuspidate ; male flowers panicled, glome- 
rate; bracts petioled, glandulose ; calyx 3 -parted, pubescent; 
stamens 6-8; female panicles axillary; flowers solitary or 
paired, pedicelled, bracteate ; style 1 ; ovary 1-celled ; calyx 
4-parted ; capsule covered with resinous points, flowers green- 

isL Fl. Dec. — Jan. — Wight Icon, t, 1883. Neilgherries. 

Travancore. 

Economic Uses. — A gummy substance exudes fix)m the cut 
branches and base of the petioles. It is of a light crimson colour, 
and has been used for taking impressions of leaves, coins, and medal- 
lions. When the gum is pure and carefully prepared the impressions 
are as sharp as those of sulphur without its brittleness. This sub- 
stance is very little known. The M, tomentosa is also to be found 
in Travancore, and a similar gum exudes from both species. The 
leaves afford a good rilanure for rice-fields, and are much used for 
that purpose. Coffee-trees thrive well if planted under the shade of 
these trees, as the fallen leaves, which are large, enrich the soil — 
Jury Rep, Mad, Exhih, Pers, Ohs, 



MALLOTUS. 285 



(374) MaUotns PMlippensis (Muller). Do. 

Ponnagam, Mal. Capilapodi, Tam. Yassuntagimda, Tjcl. Eamal, Hind. 
Toong, BKNO. 

Description. — Small tree or under-shrub ; younger branch- 
lets, petioles, and inflorescences rusty - tomentose ; leaves 
rhomb-ovate, acuminate, acute at the base, entire or slightly 
toothed, clothed with scarlet tomentum beneath, glabrous 
above ; spikes of either sex axillary and terminal, rusty- 
tomentose; male bracts 3-flowered, female 1-flowered: bracts 
triangular-ovate, acute ; segments of the female calyx ovate- 
lanceolate; stamens 12-15; ovary densely scarlet; capsules 
slightly 3-comered, globose, covered with scarlet dust. Dec. 

Prod. XV. s. 2, p. 980. — Eottlera tinctoria, Bopcb, Common 

almost everywhere. 

Medic A.L Uses. — ^The mealy powder covering the capsules yields 
a dye caUed Kamila dye, which is used as a vermifuge, and whose 
action, according to Dr Eoyle, depends on the minute stellate hairs 
found in the powder. Kamila is the powder rubbed off the capsules, 
and which is also found, though in smaller quantities, on the leaves 
and stalks of the plant. The powder is of a rich red colour, and has 
a heavy odour. 

Economic Uses. — ^The dye is used all over India, especially for 
silk, to which it imparts a fine yellow colour. It is rarely used for 
cotton. When the capsules are ripe in February or March they are 
gathered ; the red powder is carefully brushed off and collected for 
sale, no preparation being necessary. This substance is scareely 
acted on by water, and has no particular taste. To spirit it gives a 
rich deep orange, inclining to red. Neither spirit nor alkaline solu- 
tion dissolves it, for the minute grains of powder are seen adhering 
to the sides of the vessels if shaken, about the size of small grains of 
sand. Alum added to the alkahne infusion renders the colour more 
bright and permanent The Hindoo silk -dyers use the following 
method : — Four parts of powder, one of powdered alum, two of salts 
of soda (sold in the bazaars), rubbed well together with a small 
quantity of oil of sesamum. When well mixed it is boiled in water 
proportionate to the silk to be dyed, and kept boiling smartly, accord- 
ing to the shade required, turning the silk frequently to render the 
colour uniform. Of the dye which is called Cupda-Mung in Hin- 
dustanee, the jurors at the Madras Exhibition reported as foUows : — 
" The tree is widely spread over the Madras Presidency, and large 
supplies of the dye might be easily obtained. The colouring matter 
does not require a mordant, all that is necessary being to mix it with 
water containing about half its weight of carbonate of soda. On silk 
the colour is a rich flame or orange tint of great beauty and extreme 



286 MALVA — MANGIFERA. 

stability ;" and " the fact that the material supplied by commerce 
contains between 70 and 80 per cent of real colouring matter ought 
to induce the silk-dyers of this country to turn their attention to 
it."* — Roxh, Jury Rep. Mad, Exhib, 

(375) lial¥a rotnndifolia (Linn.) K. 0. Malvaoeje. 

Description. — ^Annual; steins herbaceous, spreading; leaves 
cordate, roundish, shortly and obtusely Igbed, crenated ; peti- 
oles elongated, sometimes with a line of hairs on their upper 
side; pedicels several, unequal, axillary, l-flowered; bracteoles 
3 ; carpels much wrinkled ; flowers middle-sized, pale purple. 
M. Feb.— March.— TT. & A. Prod. L io.—Dec. Prod. I 433. 
Peninsula. 

Medical UsEsi — The mucilaginous and emollient leaves are 
used for poultices, and also as an external application in cutaneous 
diseases. The natives reckon them useful in piles, and also in ulcera- 
tions of the bladder. — Powell Punj. Prod. 

(376) Mangifera Indica {Linn.) K. 0. TEREBiNTHACEiE. 

Common Mango, Eko. Am, Beno. and Hind. Mamadichitoo, Tkl. Mava, Mal. 
Mam-manim, Tam. 

Description. — Tree; leaves alternate, lanceolate, acuminated, 
glabrous ; calyx 5 - cleft ; petals 5 ; panicles terminal, much 
branched, pubescent, erect ; drupe obliquely-oblong or some- 
what reniform ; seed solitary ; flowers small, greenish-yellow- 
ish. Ft. Jaa— March.— ir. & A. Prod. i. 110.— Roxb. Ft. 
Ind. i. 641. — Rheede, iv. t. 1, 2. Common everywhere. 

Medical Uses. — The kernel of the fruit is used in India as well 
as in Brazil as an anthelmintic. Dr Kirkpatrick states having used 
it in this character in doses of 20 to 30 grains, and found it most 
effectual in expelling lumbricL It contains a large proportion of 
gallic acid, and has been successfully administered in bleeding piles 
and menorrhagia. — {Pharm. of India.) As the fruit contains 
much acid and turpentine, it acts as a diaphoretic and refrigerant. 
— (Powell Punj. Prod.) From wounds in the bark issues a soft 
reddish-brown gum-resin, hardening by age, and much resembling 
bdellium. Burnt in the flame of a candle, it emits a smell like that 
of cashew-nuts when roasting. It softens in the mouth and adheres 
to the teeth, and in taste is somewhat pungent and bitter. It dis- 

• For a careful report on the colouring matter, see Anderson in Ed. Phil. 
Jour., April 1858 ; and for its vermifuge properties, ace Indian Annals of Medical 
Science. Also a valuable paper by D. Hanbur}'^ in the Phami. Journal. 



MANISURIS. 28 7 

solves entirely in spirit, and partly so in water. Mixed with lime- 
juice or oil, it is used externally in scabies and cutaneous affections. 
The bark of the tree is administered in infusion in menorrhagia and 
leucorrhoea; and the resinous juice, mixed with white of egg and a 
little opium, is considered a good specitic on the Malabar coast for 
diarrhoea and dysentery. — Aindie. 

Economic Uses. — ^The Mango is well known as the most delicious 
of Indian fruits. It is esteemed very wholesome, and when unripe 
is much used in tarts, preserves, and pickles. There are many varie- 
ties, all more or more less having a peculiar turpentine flavour, though 
the best kinds are generally free from it. The kernels of the nut 
seemingly contain much nourishment, but are only used in times of 
scarcity and famine, when they are boiled and eaten by the poorer 
classes. In the pulp of the fruit there is sugar, gum, and citric acid; 
gallic acid has also been procured from the seed, and also stearic 
acid. Interesting experiments were made some time ago, by a French 
chemist, upon the process of procuring the gallic acid, which he 
stated might be used in the preparation of ink instead of galls. 
Whenever the fruit is cut with a knife, a blue stain is seen on the 
blade, which is due to the presence of gallic acid. The timber is 
soft, of a dull-grey colour, porous, soon decaying if exposed to wet, 
but useful for common purposes. In largo old trees the wood 
acquires a light chocolate colour towards the centre of the trunk and 
larger branches, and is then hard, close-grained and somewhat dur- 
able. The Mango-tree is best propagated by grafting, though it will 
readily grow from seeds. In the latter case the seed must be sown 
soon after it is taken from the &uit, but the produce is so inferior 
that it is hardly worth the trouble bestowed upon it. The wood, 
burnt with sandal-wood, is one of those used by the Hindoos for 
burning corpses, and is reckoned sacred for this purpose. The 
natives use the leaves as tooth-brushes, and the stalks instead of 
betel for chewing : powdered and "calcined, they employ the latter 
also to take away warts. — Moxb, Journ, of As, Soc, 

(377) Manisarifl granularis (Linn,) K. 0. Graminacks. 

Trinpali, Hind. 

Description. — Height 1-2 feet ; culm very resinous, sub- 
erect, hairy; spikes terminal and axillary, several together, 1 
inch in length; leaves numerous, very hairy, stiff, sharp; rachis 
jointed, much waved ; flowers male and hermaphrodite, 4-10 
of each sort. Fl, Oct. — Dec. — Roxb. Fl. hid, i. 352. — Cor, ii. 
t. 118. — Peltophorus granularis, Beauv. Peninsula. Behar. 

Medical Uses. — This plant is medicinal, and is administered 
internally, in conjunction with sweet-oil, in cases of spleen and liver- 
complaints. — A inslie. 



288 M AUANTA — MABSDENIA. 

(378) liaranta dichotoma (Wall,) K 0. Marantaoks. 

Mookto-patee, Pattee patee or Madarpatee, BsNO. 

Description. — Stems straight, 3-6 feet, very smooth polished; 
branches numerous, dichotomous, spreading, jointed at every 
division; leaves alternate, petioled, ovate-cordate, smooth, 
entire, acute, with fine parallel veins; petioles sheathing; 
racemes terminal, usually solitary, jointed, a little flexuose ; 
flowers in pairs on a common pedicel, from the alternate joints 
of the rachis ; calyx 3-leaved ; border of coroUa double, ex- 
terior of 3 equal, recurved segments, interior of 5 unequal 
ones far extending above the rest; flowers large, white. Fl. 
April — May. — Boxb. Fl, Ind. i 2. — Phrynium dichotomum, 
Roai. Coromandel. Bengal. 

Economic Uses. — The split stems are very tough, and from them 
are made the Calcutta mats called Sital-pati^ which signifies a cool 
mat. The stems are 4 feet long, thin as paper, shining and striated 
in the inside. — Golebrooke In, As, Res, Roxh, 

(379) Marsdenia tenacissima {R. W,) N. 0. Asolepiao&£. 

Description. — Twining ; corolla salver-shaped ; leaves op- 
posite, cordate, acuminate, tomentose on both surfaces ; cymes 
large ; segments of corolla broad, obtuse ; leaflets of corona 
broad, truncate, nearly entire at the apex, or bifurcate ; flowers 
greenish yellow. Fl, April — Wight Contrib, p. 41. — Icon, t, 
590. — Asclepias tenacissima, Roxb, FL Ind. ii. 51. — Cor. iii 
t, 240. EajmahaL Chittagong. Mysore. 

Economic Uses. — ^The bark of the young shoots yields a large 
portion of beautiful fine silky fibres, with which the mountaineers 
of Eajmahal make their bowstrings, on account of their great strength 
and durability. These fibres are much stronger than hemp, and 
even than those of the Sanseveria Zeylanica, A line of this sub- 
stance broke with 248 lb. when dry, and 343 lb. when wet. Wight 
considers this species not to be a native of the Peninsula. The 
specimens in the Madras herbarium are — ^the one from the mission- 
ary's garden ; the other (A, echinata) was sent to Klein by Heyne, 
but is not the plant of Eoxburgh. The milk exuding from wounds 
made in the stem thickens into an elastic substance, acting like 
caoutchouc on black-lead marks. — (Roxb, Wight) Another species, 
the M. tinctoria, is cultivated in Northern India, being a native of 
Silhet and Burmah. The leaves yield more and superior indigo to 



MELANTHESA MELIA. 289 

the Indigofera tinctoria, on which account it has been recommended 
for more extensive cultivation. — Boxb. Wight 

(380) Melanthesa rhaxnnoides (Reiz,) N. 0. Euphorbiace^. 

Pavala-poola^ Tam. Surasaruni, Hikd. 

I)escription. — Shrub; leaves oval, rounded at the apex, 
acute at the base, glabrous ; peduncles axillary, the inferior 
ones paired, male, upper ones solitary, female, about the 
length of the petiole ; fruit embraced by the short calyx ; 
berries globose, bright red, mealy when ripe ; flowers small, 
greenish. Fl, Nearly all the year. — Wight Icon, t 1898. — P. 
Vitis Idoea. — Roxh, Fl. Ind. iii. 665.- Coromandel coast. 

Medical Uses. — The bright-red fruits give this shrub a rather 
lively and attractive appearance. The leaves are used by Hindoo 
practitioners in discussing tumours, especially carbuncles, applied 
warm with castor-oiL In Behar the dried leaves are smoked as 
tobacco when the uvida and tonsils are swollen. The bark of tlie 
root mixed with long-pepper and ginger is drunk as a tonic. — Rheede. 
Ainslie, Wight 

(381) Melia azedarach (Linn,) N. 0. MELucEiE. ^ 

Common Bead-tree or Persian Lilac, Eira. Malay-vaymboo, Tam. ySPwmka vepa, 
Tel. Mullay vaempoo, Mal. 

Description. — Tree, 40 feet ; petals 5, nearly glabrous ; 
calyx small, 5-cleft; stamen tube lO-cleft; leaves alternate, 
bipinnate, deciduous ; leaflets about 5 together, obliquely 
ovate-lanceolate, serrated, finely acuminated, glabrous; ped- 
uncles axillary, simple below, above panicled, branched, and 
many-flowered ; flowers smallish, white externally, lilac at the 
top, fragrant ; fruit size of a cherry, pale yellow when ripe ; 
nut 6-celled; cells 1 -seeded. FL March. — W,&A.Prod. i. 

117. — Wight Icon, t. 160. Common in the Deccan. Con- 

cans. N. India. 

Medical Uses. — The pulp surrounding the seeds is said to be 
poisonous, and, mixed with grease, is reputed to kill dogs. This, 
however, is doubtful The root, which is nauseous and bitter, is 
used in North America as an anthelmintic. A valuable oU is pro- 
cured from them. — (Ainslie. Lindley,) Melia azederach has been 
considered poisonous from the time of Avicenna ; but it is only in 
larger doses that its &uit can be considered as such. Loureiro 
I'ecognises the utility of aze/lnracJi in worm cases, and Blume states 

19 



290 MELIA — MEMECYLON. 

that both it and Af. axadirachta are employed in Java as anthebnintics. 
A decoction of the leaves is said to be astringent and stomachic, 
and also to be injurious to insects, and employed with success 
against porrigo. — Royle, 

EcoNOMio Uses. — The mature wood is hard and handsomely 
marked, and might be used for many economical purposes. The 
tree has been naturalised in the south of Europe. — Jury Rep. Mad, 
ExMK 

(382) Melia composita {Wilhl) Do. 

MuUay-vaymboo, Tam. 

Description. — Large tree ; young shoots, petioles, and pan- 
icles very mealy ; leaves bi-pinnate, alternate ; pinnae about 
3 pair; leaflets 3-7 pair to each pinnae, ovate, acuminata, 
crenulated, glabrous, 2-3 inches long; panicles axillary, 
scarcely half the length of the leaves; flowers numerous, 
small, whitish, inodorous; calyx and petals mealy; stigma 
large, with a 5-pointed apex ; drupe ovate, size of a large 
olive, smooth, and yellowish green when ripe. — W, & A, Prod. 
Ill, — Melia robusta, Roodb. — M. superba, do. — Bedd. Fhr. 
Sylv. t 12. Malabar. Canara. Mysore. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — A handsome tree, with smooth dark-brown 
bark. The timber is often used by planters for building purposes, 
and it is desirable to be introduced into Madras for avenues, as it 
grows quickly, especially from seeds. It is said that white ants 
will not attack it. — Beddame. 

(383) Memeeylon tinctorium {Kom.) N. 0. Melastomacks. 

Kasliawa, Mal. AlH chettn, Tkl. Eayampoovoocheddi, Gasaa-cheddy, Caaha- 
xnaroin, Tam. 

Description. — Shrub, 10-12 feet; calyx with a hemispher- 
ical or sub-globose tube ; petals 4 ; branches terete ; leaves 
shortly-petioled, ovate or oblong, l-nerved; peduncles axil- 
lary, and below the leaves on the elder branches bearing a 
more or less compound corymb of pedicellate flowers ; stamens 
shortish ; style about the length of the stamens ; fruit globose, 
crowned with the 4-toothed limb of the calyx; fruit 1-2 
seeded; flowers bluish purple. Fl. April — May. — W, & A. 
Prod, i. 319. — M. tinctorium, Willd. — M. edule, -KoxJ. Cor. i. 

t 82. — Bheede, v. t. 19. Travancore. Malabar. Coro- 

mandel. 



MESUA. 291 

Medical Uses. — A lotion is made £rom the leaves, used by the 
natives as an eye-wash ; and the root in decoction is considered very 
beneficial in excessive menstrual discharge. 

EooNOMio Uses. — ^The pulp of the fruit when ripe is eaten by the 
natives. It is rather astringent. The leaves are used in dyeing, 
affording a delicate yellow lake. The shrub is very common, and 
highly ornamental in gardens, when in flower the stem being crowded 
with the beautiful sessile purple florets. The leaves are used by the 
mat-makers in conjunction with kadukai (myrohalan nuts) and vut- 
t£mg-cuttay (sappan wood) in imparting a deep-red tinge to the mats. 
They are also good for dyeing cloths red. — (Aimlie, Pers, Oha,) 
The native names for the blue flowers of this shrub are Allij Cassa^ 
and Vassa Casa, the first being its northern or Telugu, the latter its 
Tamil, designation. The native dyers employ it as an adjunct to 
chayroot for bringing out the colour, in preference to alum, which 
injures the thread. By itself it gives an evanescent yellow. It is 
very cheap, costing 1 anna the marcal. — Jury Rep, Mad.Ezhih, 1857. 

(384) Mesua ferrea (Linn.) N. 0. Clusiace^. 

Belutta-champagam, Mal. NagkuBhur, Beno. 

Description. — Tree, 40 feet; sepals 4, unequal; petals 4, 
alternate with the sepals ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, acumin- 
ated, glaucous beneath, upper side shining, midrib and mar- 
gins coloured ; flowers stalked, axillary, large, white, fragrant ; 
fruit about the size of a small apple, 1-celled, 1-4 seeded. Fl. 
March— -April.— JT. & A, Prod. L 102.— Wight Icon, t 117. 

— RoQcb. Fl. Ind. ii. 605. — Bheede, iii. t 53. Courtallum 

hills. 

Medical Uses. — ^The dried flowers are said to possess stimulant 
properties, but are probably of little importance in medicine. The 
expressed oil of the seeds ia much employed by the natives in North 
Canara as an embrocation in rheumatism. The bark and roots are 
also an excellent bitter tonic in infusion or decoction. — Pharm. of 
India. 

Economic Uses. — This tree is much cultivated in Java as well as 
in Malabar for the beauty and fragrance of its flowera When dried 
they are mixed with other aromatics, such as the white sandal-wood, 
and used for perfuming ointment. The fruit is reddish and wrinkled 
when ripe, with a rind like that of the chestnut, which latter it 
much resembles both in size, shape, substance, and taste. The tree 
bears fruit in six years from the planting of the seed, and continues 
to bear during thrce centuries. It is planted near houses, and affords 
an excellent shade. The bark, wood, and roots are bitter and sweet- 
scented. The blossoms are found in a dried state in the bazaars. 



292 MICH ELI A — MIMTJSOPS. 

and are called Nagheswr ; they are used medicinally, and are 
much esteemed for their fragrance, on which latter account the 
Burmese grandees stuff their pillows with the dried anthers. Hound 
the hase, or rather at the hottom of the tender fruits, a tenacious 
and glutinous resin exudes with a sharp aromatic smelL — Roxh. 
AimtUe, 

(385) Michelia champaca (Linn,) K 0. Maonoliaceje. 

Chempacam, Mal. Champaka or Chumpa, Beno. 

Description. — Tree, 30-40 feet ; petals numerous, disposed 
in several rows; leaves alternate, entire, lanceolate, acuminated, 
glabrous ; flowers on short peduncles, axillary ; spathe of one 
leaf; carpels 2-valved; seeds several; flowers large, yellow, 
fragrant. Fl. Nearly all the year. — JV. & A. Prod, i. 6. — 

Roxb, Fl. Ind. a. 656,— Wight III, L 13. Cultivated in 

Bengal. Gardens in the Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — The bitter aromatic bark has been successfully 
employed in the Mauritius in the treatment of low intermittent 
fevers. The bark of the root is red, bitter, and very acid, and when 
pulverised is reckoned emmenagogue. The flowers beaten up with 
oil are applied to fetid discharges from the nostrils. All parts of 
the tree are said to be powerfully stimulant. — Lindley, Roxh, 
Pharm, of India, 

EooNOHio Uses. — This tree is highly venerated by the Hindoos, 
and is dedicated to Yishnoo. It is celebrated for the exquisite per- 
fume of its flowers. Sir W. Jones states that their fragrance is so 
strong that bees will seldom, if ever, alight upon them. The natives 
adorn their heads with them, the rich orange colour of the flowers 
contrasting strongly with their dark black hair. The fruit is said to 
be edible. The name Champaca is derived from Ciampa, an island 
between Cambogia and Cochin-China, where the tree grows. The 
wood is light, but is used for making drums. The seeds are said to 
destroy vermin. — {Roxh, Don,) Another species is the M, nila- 
giricaf the timber of which is used in house-building. It is of a 
handsome mottled colour, and has been tried at Bombay for ships. — 
Wight J, Grah. 

(386) MimuBops elengi {Linn.) K 0. Sapotaceje. 

Elengee. Mal. Maghadam, Tam. Poghada, Tel. Bholseri, DuK. Mukari,- 
HiND. Bukul, Bbnq. 

Description. — Tree, middling size ; leaves alternate, oval- 
lanceolate or oblong, acuminated, glabrous ; pedicels shorter 
than the petioles, many together, l-flowered ; calyx 8-cleft, in 



MIMUSOPS. 293 

a double series, segments lanceolate, 4 exterior ones larger 
and permanent ; corolla-tube very short, fleshy, segments in a 
double series, exterior ones 16, spreading, interior ones 
8, generally contorted, and converging, lanceolate, and slightly 
torn at the extremities ; berry ovd, smooth, yellow when ripe, 
usually 1-celled ; seeds solitary, oblong ; flowers white, frag- 
rant. FL March — ^ApriL — RoxK Fl, Ind, ii. 236. — Cor. i. t 

14. — Wight Icon, t 1586. — Rheede, i. t 20. Peninsula. 

Bengal Silhet. 

Medical Uses. — ^According to Horsfleld, the bark possesses 
astringent tonic properties, and has proved useful in fevera A de- 
coction of the bark forms a good gargle in salivation. A water distilled 
from the flowers is used by the natives in Southern India, both as a 
stimulant medicine and as a perfume. — Pharm. of India. 

Economic Uses. — ^This tree has an ornamental appearance. The 
flowers, which appear twice Q-year, are somewhat fragrant and power- 
fully aromatic. The natives distil an odoriferous water from them. 
The fruit is edible. The seeds yield an abundance of oU, in request 
for painters. If the leaves are put in the flame of a candle, they will 
make a smart crackling noise. The tree is much cultivated in the 
gardens of the natives, especially round the mausoleums of the Mo- 
hammedans. Dr Eoxburgh said he only once found it in a wild state. 
It was on the mountains of the Eajahmundry district. — Eoxb, 

(387) Mimusops hezandra (Roxh.) Do. 

• Palloe, Tam. Palla, Tel. 

Description. — Tree ; leaves alternate, cuneiform or obcor- 

date, deeply emarginate, glabrous and shining on both surfaces; 

calyx 6-cleft, with 3-interior and 3- exterior segments ; corolla 

tube very short, interior segments 6, the exterior 12 ; pedicels 

1-6 together, nearly as long as the smooth petioles, 1-flowering ; 

berry size and shape of an olive, yellow when ripe ; flowers 

small, whitish. FL March — April. — Rocd). Fl, Ind. ii. 238. — 

Cor. L t 15. — Wight Icon, t 1587. Mountains of the Cir- 

cars. Bombay. 

Economic Uses. — ^The wood is much used in Guzerat for a variety 
of purposes, such as sugar-mill beams and well-frames. It is also 
much used by washermen to beetle their cloths on, being remarkably 
heavy and tough. The fruit is eatable. — Roxb. Dr Gibson, 

(388) Mimusops Kanki (Linn.) Do. 

Manilkara, Mal. 

Description. — ^Tree ; leaves alternate, obovate, very blunt. 



294 MOLLUGO. 

silvery or hoary beneath, crowded at the ends of the branches ; 
flowers fascicled, hexandrous; fruit oval, drooping; flowers 
yellowish white, tinged with rose. FL March — April — Rosib. 
Fl Ind. ii. 238.— Rheede, iv. t 35. ^Malabar. 

Medical Uses. — The bark is astringent, and yields a kind of gummy 
fluid. The leaves ground and mixed with the root of Curcuma and 
ginger are used as cataplasm for tumours. The tree is extensively 
cultivated in China and Malabar on account of its acid and esculent 
firuit, which is said to increase the appetite. The leaves boiled in 
gingely oQ and added to the pulverised barks are reckoned a good 
remedy in Beriberi — {Rheede, Hooker,) The seeds yield an oil 
which is applied to the eyes in ophthalmia, and also internally as an 
anthelmintic. — PowelVs Punj, Prod. 

(389) Mollngo cerviana (Ser.) N. 0. CARTOPHYLLACEiE. 

Parpadagum, Tam. Parpatakum, Tel. Gliimaahak, Beng. 

Description. — Small plant half a foot ; stems straightish, 
ascending, terete; leaves opposite, or alternate by abortion, 
linear, verticillate, very narrow, bluntish, glaucous ; calyx 5- 
parted ; petals none ; peduncles elongated, bearing 3 umbellate 
flowers ; stamens usually 5, or less by abortion ; capsule 
3-valved, 3 -celled, many-seeded; calyx white on the inside. 

— W. & A. Prod. i. 44. — Pharnaceum cerviana, Linn. 

Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — ^This plant mixed with oil is made into an oint- 
ment for scabies and other cutaneous diseases. The young shoots 
and flowers are given in infusion as a mild diaphoretic in fever cases. 
— Ainslie. 

(390) Mollugo spergola {Linn.) Do. 

Toora, Tam. Chatarashi, Tel. Ghimi Shak, Bexq. 

Description. — Small plant ; stem very straggling and 
branched ; leaves more or less succulent, oblong or obovate, 
mucronate, alternated towards their base ; pedicels 1-flowered, 
several together, forming a simple sessile umbel ; stamens 3-5 
or 10 ; petals narrow, cleft to the middle, or none ; seeds rough 
with numerous tubercles ; flowers small, white. Fl. Nearly all 
the year. — W. & A. Prod. i. 44. — M. verticillata, Roxb. Fl. Ind. 
i. 360 (not Linn) — Pharnaceum mollugo, Linn. — Roxb. Fl. 
Ind. ii. 102. — Rheede, x. t 24. Peninsula. Bengal. 



MOMORDICA. 295 

Mbdioal Usbs. — ^The bitter leaves aro esteemed by the natives as 
'stomachic, aperient, and antiseptic, and are given in infusion, and are 
considered especially efficacious in suppressed lochia. Moistened 
with castor-oil and applied warm, they are said to be a good remedy 
in ear-ache. — Aindie. 

(391) Momordica Oliarantia {Linn,) K 0. Cucxtbbitaoele. 

Korola, BiNO. Pandipasd, Mal. Pava-kai, Tax. 

Description. — Climbing ; steins more or less hairy ; leaves 
palmately 5-lobed, sinuate, toothed, when young more or less 
villous on the under side, particularly on the nerves ; peduncles 
slender, with a reniform bracteole, moZe ones with the bracteole 
about the middle, /emoZe with it near the base ; fruit oblong or 
ovate, more or less tubercled or muricated ; seeds with a thick 
not<5hed margin and red aril ; flowers middle-sized, pale yellow. 
Fl. Aug.— Oct.— JT. Jk A. Prod. i. Z4&.—Roxb. Fl Ind, iii. 
707.— Wight Icon. ii. t. 504.— M. muricata, Willd.—Rheede 
Mal. viii. t 9, 10. Cultivated everywhere in the Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — There are two chief varieties differing in the 
forms of the fruit, the one having the fruit longer and more oblong, 
the other with the fruit smaller, more ovate, muricated, and tuber- 
cled. There are besides these many intermediate gradations. The 
fruit is bitter but wholesome, and is eaten in curries by the natives. 
It requires, however, to be steeped in salt water before being cooked. 
That of the smaller variety is most esteemed. The whole plant 
mixed with cinnamon, long-pepper, rice, and marothy oil {Hydno- 
carptisinebrians), is administered in the fonn of an ointment in psora, 
scabies, and other cutaneous diseases. The juice of the leaves mixed 
with warm water is reckoned anthelmintic. The whole plant pul- 
verised is a good specific externally applied in leprosy and malig- 
nant ulcers. — Rheede. Dr Gibson. Wight. 

(392) Momordica dioica {Roxh.) Do. 

Erimapaael, Mal. Paloopagbel, Tam. Agakara, Tel. 

Description. — Climbing, disecious; root tuberous; stems 
glabrous ; leaves long-petioled, cordate at the base, from entire 
to 3-4 lobed, toothed, upper side slightly scabrous, under 
smooth or nearly so ; peduncles slender, with entire bracteoles, 
male with the bracteole close to the flower, and concealing the 
lower part, female one small near the base ; fruit ovate, muri- 
cated ; seeds oval, surrounded with a large red aril ; flowers 



296 MORINDA. 

large, yellow. Fl Sept.— Nov.— J^. & A, Prod. i. 348.— 
Wight Icon, t. 505, 506. — Bheede, viii. t. 12. Peninsula. 

Medioal Uses. — Of this species there are several varieties, differ- 
ing chiefly in the forms of the leaves. The young green £ruits and 
tuberous roots of the female plants are eaten by the natives. They 
sometimes weigh £rom 2 to 3 lb. Rheede says that this plant is 
truly cephalic, for mixed with cocoanut, pepper, red sandal, and other 
ingredients, and applied in the form of Uniment, it stops all pains 
in the head. The root, which is mucilaginous to the taste, is pre- 
scribed by Hindoo practitioners in the form of electuary in hoemor- 
rhoids. — Ainslie. Rheede. 

(393) Morinda citrifolia (Linm) N. O. Cinchonace.is. y,^ 

Indian MafDeTry, Eno. Manja-paTattay, Noona, Tail Cada pilva, Mal. MoI- 
agha. Maddichettoo, Tel. A1, Atchy, Hind. 

Description. — Small tree ; leaves opposite, oval, alternated 
at both ends, shining ; capituli shortly peduncled, leaf opposed ; 
branchlets 4-angle(i ; corolla long-infundibulifonn 5 (occa- 
sionally 4-7) cleft ; anthers half hid in the tube ; style the 
length of the tube ; berries concrete 'into an obtuse ovate 
shining fruit ; flowers white. Fl. Nearly all the year. — W, & 

A. Prod. i. 419.— i?oaj&. Fl. Ind. i. 54:L—Pheede, i. t 52. 

Coromandel. Cultivated in Kandeish, Berar, and the Deccan. 
Bombay. 

Medical Uses. — The fruit is used among the Cochin-Chinese as 
a deobstruent and emmenagogue. The expressed juice of the leaves 
is externally applied in gout j and applied fiesh to wounds and ulcers, 
are said to accelerate their cure with great efficacy. £y a chemical 
process, a kind of salt is extracted from the leaves, reckoned useful 
in cleaning bad and inveterate ulcers. — Wight Ainslie. Bheede. 

Economic Uses. — ^A scarlet dye is procured from the root, used 
for handkerchiefs, turbans, &c. The colouring matter resides chiefly 
in the bark of the roots. The small pieces, which are best, are worth 
from 4 to 5 rupees a maund. It is exported in large quantities from 
Malabar to Guzerat and the northern part of Hindoostan. Dr Gibson 
says they are partly dug up the second year, and are in perfection 
the third. The wood is of a deep yellow colour, and useful for 
ordinary purposes. The natives use it for their wooden slippers. 
The M. tinctoria (Roxb.) is considered to be the same species in its 
wild state. It is common in most parts of India. The green fruits 
are eaten by the natives in their curries. The wood is hard, very 
durable, variegated red and white, and employed for gun-stocks in 
preference to any other wood. This latter is the Tagaroo of the 
Teloogoos. — {Roxb. Simmonda.) The M. tomeniosa (Munjenatie 



MORINDA — MORINGA. 297 

in Malayalim) is common in Travancore. A dye is procured from the 
interior of the wood in older trees. The timber, which is yellow, 
will take an excellent polish, and is useful for yarious economical 
purposes. — Pers, Ohs. 

(394) Morinda umbellata {Linn.) Do. 

Noona-marum, Tam. Chota-Alka, DuK. Moolooghoodoo, Tel. 

Descmption. — Climbing, glabrous ; corolla short infundi- 
buliform; leaves from oblong-lanceolate to cuneate oblong, 
pointed; stipules membranaceous, united in a truncated sheath; 
peduncles terminal, 3-7 in a sessile terminal umbel about half 
the length of the leaves; capituU globose; calyx margin 
entire ; limb 4 (occasionally 5) cleft ; filaments short, inserted 
into the bottom of the dilated part of the tube among many 
hairs ; anthers exerted ; flowers white. Fl. March. — W. <k 
A. Prod. i. 420. — M. scandens, Roa^, FL Ind, i. 548. — 
Rheede, vii. t. 27.— — Courtallum. Travancore. Malabar. 

Economic Uses. — ^The root yields a dye of permanent yellow ; 
and with the addition of sappan-wood a red dye is prepared from 
the same in Cochin China. Simmonds says that the colours dyed 
with it are for the most part exceedingly brilliant, and the colouring 
matter far more permanent than many other red colours are. With 
improved management it would probably rival that of madder. 
This will apply to the various species of the Indian mulberry plant. 
In this species the number of stamens varies in the same head 
of flowers, but there are usually only four. — Wight. Simmonds. 
Ainslie. Lour. 

(395) Moringa pterygosperma {Gosrtn.) IT. 0. MoRiNGACEiB. 

Horse-radish tree, Eko. Mooringby, Tam. Mooraga, Tel. Moongay, DuK. 
Si\jna, HiiTD. Sbajina, Benq. Mooringeh, Mal. 

Description. — Tree, 30-35 feet ; leaves 2-3 pinnate with 
an odd leaflet ; calyx 5-cleft ; petals 5, nearly equal, the upper 
one ascending ; filaments hairy at the base ; racemes panicled ; 
5 stamens without anthers ; seeds numerous, 3-angled, the 
angles expanding into wings ; flowers white. Fl. Jan. — July. 
— W. ik A. Prod. i. 178. — Guilandina Moringa, Linn. ap. — 
Hyperanthera Moringa, Vahl. — Roxb. Fl. Ind. ii. 368. — Rheede, 
vi. t. 11. Common in gardens in the Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — ^The native practitioners prescribe the fresh root 
as a stimulant in paralysis and intermittent fevers. They also use 
it in epilepsy and hysteria, and reckon it a valuable rubefacient in 



I 



298. MUCUNA. 

paLsy and chronic rheumatism. In Java the roots have been re- 
ported beneficial in dropsy. The same virtues have been ascribed 
to the horse-radish of Europe, a syrup made with an infusion of 
which the celebrated Dr CuUen found efficacious in removing hoarse- 
ness. The root has a pungent odour and a heavy aromatic taste. 
Dr Wight suggested that it would greatly increase the activity of 
sinapisms. An oil is prepared from the seeds which is used ex- 
ternally for pains in the limbs, gout, and rheumatism. In the West 
Indies it is used as a salad oil, because it does not congeal or turn 
rancid. The leaves, bark, and root, according to Rheede, are anti- 
spasmodic. The juice of the leaves mixed with pepper is applied 
over the eyes in vertigo ; and mixed with common salt is given to 
children in flatulency. It is also used to hasten suppuration in 
boils. The bark, rubbed up in rice-water mixed with cummin-seed, 
is a cure for gumboils and toothache. The leaves simply warmed 
are applied in hydrocele, and also good for ulcers and guinea-worm. 
A gum resembling tragacanth exudes from this tree if an incision be 
made in the bark. It is used, in headache, mixed with milk and 
externally rubbed on the templea It is also locally applied to 
buboes and venereal pains in the limbs. In Jamaica the wood is 
employed for dyeing a blue colour. — Ainsh'e, BJieede, 

Economic Uses. — The root of this tree is much like the English 
horse-radish. The long legumes are well known as a vegetable so 
often used both by Europeans and natives in curries. The seeds 
were formerly known as the Ben nuts, from which the oil of Ben was 
extracted. It is chiefly used by perfumers and watchmakers. Both 
leaves and flowers are eaten by the natives. — Wigltt. Lindley. 



(396) Macuna gigantea {Dec,) K 0. Leoumingsje. 

Eakavalli, Mal. 

Description. — Climbing, perennial; leaflets ovate, acute, 
adult ones glabrous ; flowers almost umbellate, at the apex of 
long pendulous peduncles; pedicels long, slender; 3 lower 
segments of the calyx short, tooth-like, the other very short ; 
legumes linear-oblong, deeply furrowed along the sutures, not 
plaited, armed with stifi', stinging hairs, 3-6 seeded; seeds 
oval; flowers large, sulphur-coloured. FL Aug. — Dec. — W. 
& A, Prod, L 254. — Carpopogon giganteum, Roxb, — Bheede, 
"• viii. t 36. Malabar. CoromandeL Concans. 

Medical Uses. — Rheede states that the virtues of this plant in 
rheumatism are very conspicuous. The bark, pulverised and mixed 
with dried ginger and other ingredients, rubbed over the parts 
affected; is one of the best modes of administering it. — Bheede. 



I 



MUCUNA. 299 



(397) Mucuna prorita {Hook,) Do. 

* 

Cowhage, Enq. Naicorma, Mal. Poonaykalie, Tam. Peeliadagoo kaila, Tel. 
Eiwach, Hind. Kanchkoorie, Duk. Alkushee, Beno. 

Desckiption. — Annual, twining; branches pubescent or 
slightly hairy; leaves pinnately trifoliolate ; leaflets ovate, 
upper side glabrous, under sprinkled with adpressed silvery 
hairs; racemes shorter than the leaves, drooping; pedicels, 
shorter than the calyx ; calyx cleft to the middle, white with 
adpressed hairs, segments broad-lanceolate; corolla papilion- 
aceous ; vexillum cordate, incumbent on the alae, alse oblong- 
Unear, sometimes slightly cohering, keel straight below, 
slightly falcate in the upper part, terminated by an acute 
beak ; legume slightly curved like an S, densely clothed with 
rigid stinging hairs, 6-seeded ; flowers large, dark purple. Fl. 
Dec. — Feb. — W, & A, Prod. i. 255. — Carpopogon pruriens, 

Roxb. — Rheede, viiL t. 35. Peninsula. Bengal. Dheyra 

Dhoon. 

Medical Uses. — The root in infusion is administered in cholera, 
and a syrup thickened with the hairs till it is of the consistence of 
honey is 'prescribed by European practitioners as a good anthel- 
mintic ; but the natives do not use the stinging hairs of the pods 
for this purpose. There is no doubt, Aiuslie observes, but that it 
is simply by these mechanical means that the hairs act in worm 
cases. ^Neither the tincture nor decoction has the same effect. K 
the pods are incautiously touched, they will cause an intolerable 
itching in the fingers. In the West Indies a decoction of the root 
is reckoned a powerful diuretic and cleanser of the kidneys, and is 
also made into an ointment for elephantiasis. The leaves are applied 
to ulcers, and the beans reckoned aphrodisiac. A vinous infusion 
of the pods (12 to a quart) is said to be a certain remedy for the 
dropsy. — Ainslie, Rheede, 

Economic Uses. — The seeds of many species are edible, and 
reckoned equal to the English bean. Among these may be enumer- 
ated the id. monosperma (Dec), known as the Negro Bean, a 
favourite vegetable with Brahmins ; the M. nivea is also cultivated, 
the tender fleshy pods of which, when stripped of their exterior 
skin, make a most excellent vegetable for the table, scarcely inferior 
to the garden-bean of Europe. The present species is a native of 
both Indies. The seed is said to absorb the poison of scorpions, and 
to remain on the sting until all is removed. — PowelVs Punj. Prod. 
Roxb. 



300 MUSA. 



(398) Mnsa paradisiaca (Linn.) N. 0. Mubagbjs. 

Common Plantain, Eng. Vala, Mal. Valie, Tax. Eomarettie, Tbl. Kayla^ 
Hind. Kach Kula, Beno. Maos, Duk. 

Description. — Herbaceous ; stem simple, thickly clothed 
with the sheathing petioles of the leaves ; leaves forming a 
tuft on the apex of the stem; spike of flowers compound, 
rising from the apex of the stem, each division enclosed in a 
large spathe with male flowers at the base, female or herma- 
phrodite ones at the upper end; perianth with 6 superior 
divisions, 5 of which are grown together into a tube, slit at 
the back, the 6th is small and concave; style short; fruit 
oblong, fleshy, obscurely 3-5 cornered, with numerous seeds 
buried in pulp ; flowers yellowish whitish. Fl. All the year. 
M. sapientum, Racb, FL Ind. i. 663. — Cor, iiL 275. — Eheede, i. 
t. 12-14. Cultivated everywhere. Chittagong. 

Medical Uses. — The tender leaves are in common use for dress- 
ing blistered surfaces. For this purpose a piece of the leaf, of the 
required size, smeared with any bland vegetable oil, is applied to 
the denuded surface, and kept on the place by means of a bandage. 
The blistered surface is generally found to heal after four or five days. 
For the first two days the upper smooth surface of the leaf is placed 
next the skin, and subsequently the under side, until the healing 
process is complete. This is considered better than the usual mode 
of treatment with spermacetti ointment. Dr Van Someren occasion- 
ally employed the plaintain leaf as a substitute for gutta-percha 
tissue in the water-dressing of wounds and ulcers, and found it 
answer very well. A piece of fresh plantain leaf forms a cool and 
pleasant shade for the eyes in the various forms of ophthalmia so 
common in the East. The preserved fruit, which resembles dried 
figs, is a nourishing and antiscorbutic article of diet for long voyages. 
In this state they will keep for a long time. — (P/iarm. of Indm.) 
Long, in his History of JamJiica, says that on thrusting a knife into 
the body of the plant the astringent lumped water that issues out is 
given with great success to persons subject to spitting blood, and in 
fluxes. 

Economic Uses. — ^This extensively cultivated planjb is common to 
both Indies. The ancients were acquainted with the fruit ; and the 
name of Pala, which is used in Pliny's description of it, is identical 
with the word Vala, which is the Malayalum name to the present 
day. Probably all the cultivated varieties in this country have sprung 
from a single species, of which the original, according to Dr Eox- 
burgh, was grown from seeds procured from Chittagong. A wild 
variety, probably the M, superha^ which is found in the Dindigul 



MUSA. 301 

valleys, I have often met with on the mountains in Travancore, at 
high elevations. 

In the Himalaya it is cultivated at 5000 feet, and may be found 
wild on the Neilghemes at 7000 feet. It is cultivated in Syria as 
far as latitude 34^, but, Humboldt says, ceases to bear fruit at a 
height of 3000 feet, where the mean annual temperature ia 68°, and 
where, probably, the heat of summer is deficient. Lindley enumer- 
ates ten species of Musa, some of which grow to the height of 25 or 
30 feet, but the Chinese species (M, Chinensia or Cavendishii) does 
not exceed 4 or 5 feet in height. The specific name of the plant 
under consideration was given by botanists in allusion to an old 
notion that it was the forbidden fruit of Scripture. It has also been 
supposed to be what was intended by the grapes, one branch of 
which was borne upon a pole between two men that the spies of 
Moses brought out of the Promised Land. The plantain is con- 
sidered very nutritious and wholesome, either dressed or raw ; and 
no fruit is so easily cultivated in tropical countries. There is hardly 
a cottage in India that has not its grove of plantains. The natives 
live almost upon them ; and the stems of the plantain, laden with 
their branches of fruit, are invariably placed at the entrance of their 
houses during their marriage or other festivals, appropriate emblems 
of plenty and fertility. Its succulent roots and large leaves are well 
adapted for keeping the ground moist, even in the hottest months. 
The best soil for its cultivation is newly-cleared forest-land where 
there is much decayed vegetation. Additional manure will greatly 
affect the increase and flavour of the fruit. Some of the varieties 
are far inferior to the rest ; the Guindy plantains are the best known 
in Madras, which, though small, are of delicious flavour. The plant 
must be cut down immediately after the fruit is gathered ; new 
shoots spring up from the old stems ; and in this way it will grow 
on springing up and bearing for twenty years or more. In America 
and the Society Isles the fruit is preserved as an article of trade. 
A meal is prepared from the fruit, by stripping off the skins, slicing 
the core, and, when thoroughly dried in the sun, powdering and 
sifting it It is much used in the West Indies for infants and 
invalids, and is said to be especially nourishing. Kegarding its 
nutritive qualities, Professor Johnston published the following infor- 
mation in the * Journal of the Agriciiltural Society of Scotland : ' 
" We find the plantain /rui^ to approach most nearly in composition 
and nutritive value to the potato, and the plantain mecU to those of 
rice. Thus, the fruit of the plantain gives 37 per cent, and the raw 
potato 25 per cent of dry piatter. In regard to its value as a food 
for man in our northern climates, UuifiM»4ii^4nM9ii-49«WnV3linlt 
it is ipifit to sustain life and health ; and as to warmer or tropical 
climates, this conclusion is of more weight. The only chemical 
writer who has previously made fownpnl observations upon this point 
(M. Boussingault) says, ' I have not sufficient data to determine the 
nutritive value of the banana, but I have reason to believe that it 



d(^i^ 



302 MUSA. 



is superior to that of potato. I have given as rations to 
employed at hard labour about 6^ lb. of half-ripe bananas and 2 ounces 
of salt meat/ Of these green bananas he elsewhere states that 38 
per cent consisted of husk, and that the internal eatable part lost 56 
per cent of water by drying in the sun. The composition of the ash 
of the plantain also bears a close resemblance to that of potato. 
Both contain much alkaline matter, potash, and soda salts ; and in 
both there is nearly the same percentage of phosphoric acid and 
magnesia. In so far, therefore, as the supply of those mineral 
ingredients is concerned, by which the body is supported as neces- 
sarily as by the organic food, there is no reason to doubt the banana, 
equally with the potato, is fitted to sustain the strength of the 
animal body." 

Dried plantains form an article of commerce at Bombay and other 
parts of the Peninsula. They are merely cut in slices and dried in 
the sun, and being full of saccharine matter, make a good preserve 
for the table. Exports from the former place to the extent of 267 
cwt., valued at rupees 1456, were shipped in 1850-51. The juice 
of the unripe £ruit and lymph of the stamens are slightly astringent 
In the West Indies the latter has been used as a kind of marking 
ink. 

All the species of Musa are remarkable for the number of the 
spiral vessels they contain, and one species (if. textilis) yields a fine 
kind of flax, with which a very delicate kind of cloth is fabricated. 
The plantain fibre is an excellent substitute for hemp in linen thread. 
The fine grass cloth, ship's cordage and ropes, which are made and 
used in the South Sea fisheries, are made from it. The outer layers 
of the sheathing foot-stalks yield the thickest and strongest fibres. 
It is considered that there would be no difficulty in obtaining from 
this plant alone any required quantity of fibre, of admitted valuable 
quaUty, which might be exported to Europe. It can be used with 
no less facility and advantage in the manufacture of paper. A pro- 
fitable export made of plantain and aloe fibre has been established 
on the western coast The best mode of preparing the fibre is thus 
given by Dr Hunter : — 

'' Take the upright stem and the central stalk of the leaves; if the 
outer ones are old, stained, or withered, reject them ; strip oflf the 
different layers, and proceed to clean them, in shade if possible, soon 
after the tree has been cut down. Lay a leaf-stalk on a long flat 
board with the inner surface uppermost, scrape the pulp off with a 
blunt piece of hoop-iron fixed in a grove in a long piece of wood. 
(An old iron spoon makes a very good scraper.) When the inner 
side, which has the thickest layer of pulp, has been cleaned, turn 
over the leaf and scrape the back of it When a good bundle of 
fibres has been thus partially cleaned and piled up, wash it briskly . 
in a large quantity of water, rubbing it all well and shaking it about 
in the water, so as to get rid of all the pulp and sap as quick as 
possible. Boiling the fibres in an alkaline ley (potash or soda dis- 



MUSA. 303 

solved in water), or washing with Europe soap, gets rid of the sap 
quickly.' The common country soap, which is made with quick- 
lime, is too corrosive to be depended upon. After washing the 
fibres thoroughly, spread them out in very thin layers, or hang them 
up in the wind to dry. Do not expose the fibres to the sun when 
damp, as this communicates a brownish-yellow tinge to them, which 
cannot be easily removed by bleaching. Leaving the fibres out at 
night in the dew bleaches them, but it is at the expense of part of 
their strength. All vegetable substances are apt to rot if kept long 
in a damp state." 

In the Jury Heports of the Madras Exhibition it is stated : ^' It 
yields a fine white silky fibre of considerable length, especially lighter 
than hemp, flax, and aloe fibre, by one-fourth or one-fifth, and 
possessing considerable strength. There are numerous varieties of 
the plantain, which yield fibres of different qualities, viz. : — 

Bnstaley, superior table plantain. 
Poovaley, or small Guindy variety. 
Payvaley, a pale ash-coloured sweet fruit. 
Monden, 3-sided coarse fruit. 
Shevaley, large red fruit. 
Putchay lAden, or long curved green fruit 

"These varieties, as might be expected, yield fibres of very different 
quality. This plant has a particular tendency to rot, and to become 
stiff, brittle, and discoloured, by steeping in the green state ; and it 
has been ascertained by trial that the strength is in proportion to 
the cleanness of the fibre. If it has been well cleaned, and all the 
sap quickly removed, it bears immersion in water as well as most 
other fibres, and is about the same strength as Eussian hemp. The 
coarse large-fruited plantains yield the strongest and thickest fibres ; 
the smaller kinds yield fine fibres, suited for weaving, and if carefully 
prepared, these have a glossy appearance like silk. This gloss, how- 
ever, can only be got by cleaning rapidly, and before the sap has 
time to stain the fibre ; it is soon lost if the plant be steeped in 
water." 

In Dr Koyle's experiments on its strength, some prepared at 
Madras broke at 190 lb., that from Singapore at 390 lb., a 12- 
thread rope broke at 864 lb. ; proving that it is of great slarength, 
and applicable to cordage and rough canvas. Perhaps its value in 
the European markets might be £50, or at any rate X35 a-ton the 
coarser fibres, if sent in sufficient quantity and in a proper state. 
Bespecting the manufacture of paper from the plantain fibres, the 
subjoined information is selected from Dr Eoyle's memorandum :— - 

"Among cultivated plants there is probably nothing so well 
calculated to yield a large supply of matenal, fit for making paper of 
almost every quality, as the plantain, so extensively cultivated in 
all tropical countries on account of its fruit, and of which the fibre- 
yielding stems are applied to no useful purpose. As the fruit already 
pays the expenses of the culture, this fibre could be afforded at a 



304 MYRICA — MYRIOPHYLLUM. 

cheap rate, as from the nature of the plant consisting almost only 
of water and fibre, the latter might easily be separated. One planter 
calculates that it could be afforded for X9, ISs. 4d. per ton. Some 
very useful and tough kinds of paper have been made in India from 
the fibres of the phuitain, and some of finer quality from the same 
material both in France and in the country." 

Plantains and bananas are mere varieties of the same plant. — 
Roxb, Royle, Fib, Plants, Simmonds. Indian Journal of Arts 
and Sciences. 



(399) Myrica sapida(Tra?/.) N. 0. Myricaceje. 

Description. — Tree ; leaves lanceolate, acuminate or obtuse 
at the apex, quite entire, glabrous, coriaceous ; aments cylin- 
dric, alternate, remote, with a pubescent rachis; male flowers 
with an ovate puberulous bract ; stamens 3-5, longer than the 
bract ; anthers glabrous ; female flowers with a pear-shaped 
granular fruit ; nut very hard, attenuated at both ends. — Wall, 

Tent. Flor, Nep. p. 59, t 45. Khasia hills. Slopes of the 

Himalaya. 

Medical Uses. — The bark, called Kaephul in Hindostani, forms 
an export to Patna and the low country, where it enjoys much re- 
pute as an aromatic stimulant, and is used as rubifacient and ster- 
nutatory. Dr Irvine (Med, Top, of Ajmert) states that he found 
kaephul and ginger mixed the best substance with which to rub 
cholera patients, to promote reaction. — Pharm, of India. 

(400) Myriophyllnm verticillatum (Linn.) N. 0. Haloragej!:. 

^ tf - u<4 JvclCCU Poonateoo, Tkl. f* J '^ <^ VTj ) 

Description. — Small aquatic plant, consisting of filiform 
roots, and jointed shoots and stems, some creeping, some float- 
ing below the water ; leaves sessile, verticillate, oblong, linear- 
lanceolate ; male flowers axillary, sessile, 1-4 in the verticel, 
smaller than the female; spathe 1-flowered ; corolla 3-petalled, 
petals reflected ; female flowers on a distinct plant, axillary, 
generally solitary ; capsule apparently siliquose, 1-celled, 3-5 
seeded ; flowers small, yellow. Fl. Aug. — Dec. — Roxh, H, B. 
p. 12. Bengal. 

Economic Uses. — ^When the male flowers are ready to expand, 
the murexed spathe bursts, the flowers are then quickly detached, 
and swim remote from the parent plant on the surface of the water 
in search of the female flowers, resting on the extremities of the re- 



MYRISTICA. 305 

fleeted leaflets of the perianth and petals of the corolla. The sagar- 
refiners use the herb while moist to cover the surface of their sugar, 
as clay is used in the West Indies. Two or three days suffice for 
the use. — Boxb. 

(401) Ifyristica Malaharica (Lam,) 1^. 0. Myristicac&s. 

Malabar Nutmeg, Enq. 

Deschiption. — Tree; leaves narrow-oblong or elliptic-lan- 
ceolate, acute at both ends or obtuse, quite glabrous, glaucous 
beneath ; in male, inflorescence axillary, dichotomously cymose, 
many-flowered, longer than the petiole ; female few-flowered, 
alabastrum globose, pubescent externally, bract very broad, 
embracing the base ; fruit oblong, tawny, hairy ; aril lacunose ; 
lobes twisted and folded into a cone at the top. — Dec. Prod. 
xiv. lU\—Hook. & Thams. Flar. Ind. L 163.— Rheede, 
MaL t 5. Forests of Malabar and Travancore. 

Medical Uses. — This tree yields a kind of nutmeg larger than 
the common nutmeg, and possessing but little fragrance or aromatic 
taste. When bruised and subjected to boiling, it yields a quantity 
of yellowish concrete oil, which has been employed as an efficacious 
application to bad and indolent ulcers, allaying pain, cleansing the 
surface, and establishing healthy action. For this purpose it requires 
to be melted down with a small quantity of any bland oiL It may 
be found serviceable as an embrocation in rheumatism. — Pharm, of 
India. 

(402) Myristica moschata (Thunh.) Do. 

Nutmeg-tree, Enq. Jadikad, Tam. U (tl% 

DESCMPnoN. — Tree ; leaves ovate, elliptic, acute at the base, 
acuminate at the apex, lateral nerves on both sides, 8-9 ; ped- 
uncles supra-axillary, males few-flowered, females 1-flowered ; 
pedicels nearly equalling the peduncle ; bracteole under the 
flower broadly ovate, scale-shaped ; flower nodding ; perigonium 
ovoid, half 3-cleft, nearly equalling the pedicel, strigose exter- 
nately with adpressed hairs ; anthers 9-12 ; fruit ovoid-globose, 
drooping ; aril laciniated, red, aromatic, covering the seed. — 
Dec. Prod. xiv. 189. — M. fragrans, Houtt Hist. Nat. ii. part 
3, p. 233. — Blume Bumphia, p. ] 80, t. 65. — M. officinalis, Linn. 
Hook. Exot. Bot. t. 155, 156. — Bumph. Ami. t. 4. Culti- 
vated. 

20 



306 MYRISTICA. 

Medical Uses. — ^A Tolatile oil resides in the kernel of the fhiitb 
It is stimulant and carminative, and in larger doses narcotic. It is 
used in atonic diarrhoea and some forms of dyspepsia, but is chiefly 
used as an addition to other remedies. It is used largely as a con- 
diment. Oil of nutmeg is a useful application in rheumatism, par- 
alysis, and sprains, diluted with a bland oil Mace, the false aril 
investing the shell of the kernel as met with in commerce, is of a 
pale cinnamon yellow, and an odour and taste analogous to those of 
nutmegs. It yields by distillation a volatile oil, which, in compo- 
sition, effects, and uses, is similar to that of nutmegs. It i/i chiefly 
lised as a condiment. — Pharm. of India. 

EcoNOMio UsE& — Indigenous to the Indian* Archipelago, but has 
long been successfully cultivated in the warm moist climate of the 
western coast of India. The tree begins to bear at eight years old ; 
it is in its prime at twenty-five years, and continues to bear fruit till 
sixty or older. The mace is dried in the sun, but the nutmegs are 
smoked by slow fires of wood for three months before they are fit 
for exportation. The refuse nuts are ground down, and by steaming 
and pressure afford a brown fluid, which cools into the so-called 
"nutmeg soap." — (T, (Mey,) In 1870-71 about 7 cwt of nut- 
mregs were exported from Bombay, and 30 cwt. from Madras, valued 
respectively at Rs. 575 and Rs. 3012. — Trade Reports. 



307 



IT 

(403) Naresamia alata (W. ^J..) N. 0. Meliacba. 

Nela-naregam, Mal. 

Description. — Small shrub, glabrous; calyx small, cup- 
shaped, 5-cleft ; petals 5, very long, strap-shaped, distinct, 
free ; filaments united into a long slender tube that is inflated 
and globular at the apex, the mouth with 10 very slight 
anther-bearing crenatures; leaves trifoliolate; leaflets cuneate- 
obovate, quite entire, sessile; petiole margined; flowers on 
long axillary solitary peduncles, white ; capsule slightly mem- 
branaceous, 3-comered,3-valved; seeds 2. J"/. April — May. — 

W. & A. Prod, i 1\&.— Wight Icon. t. 90.—BJieede, x. 22. 

Travancore. 

Medical Uses. — This is a pretty little plant, and will flower £reely 
when introduced in gardens. It grows wild in the' Travancore 
forests. The root and leaves are used in rheumatism, and the juice 
of the plant mixed with cocoonut-oO. is used in cases of psora. — 
Eheede. Fers. Obs. 

(404) Nandea Oadamba (Roxb.) N. 0. CiNOHONAOEiB. 

Vella Oadamba, Tabc. Rudrakshakamba, Tel. Cuddnm, Hum. Kudum, Bbno. 

Description. — Large tree with a perfectly straight erect 
trunk ; leaves opposite, between bifarious and decussate, oval, 
sfliooth, entire; petioles smooth; peduncles terminal, solitary; 
heads of flowers globose ; calyx 5-partite ; capsules 4-sided, 
4-celled ; seeds numerous, not winged ; flowers small, orange- 
coloured, fragrant. FL April — May. — Foxb. FL Ind. L 516, 
Bengal Wynaad. Malabar on river banks. 

EooNOMio Uses. — This is a large and ornamental tree. It is 
common about Calcutta, and is planted for the extensive shade it 
yields. The wood is of a yellow colour, and is used for various 
kinds of furniture. — Eoxb. Jury Rep. 



308 NAUCLEA. 

(405) Nandea cordifolia (Roxb,) Do. 

Maiga cadambs^ Tam. Dadnga, Tel. Kelikudom, Beno. 

Desckiption. — Tree 40-50 feet ; leaves opposite, decussate, 
cordate, roundish, pubescent on the upper side, tomentose on 
the under; general peduncles axillary, 1-3 together, partial 
one shorter than the general, rather longer than the globose 
head of flowers ; calyx 5 - partite, segments clavate ; corolla 
pubescent, lobes spreading; capsule 2-celled; seeds 6, winged 
at the extremities ; flowers small, yellow. FL Nov. — ^Dec. — 
W. & A. Prod. I 391.— Boo*. Fl. Ind. i. 614.— Cbr. 1 1 63. 

Coromandel mountains. Goncans. Hurdwar. Bengal 

Travancore. 

Economic Uses. — The wood is exceediBgly beautiful, and like 
that of the box-tree. It is very close-grained, and is procured from 
1 to 2 feet in diameter. It is good especially for furniture, being 
light and durable. If, however, exposed to wet, it soon decays. In 
Bombay the carpenters use it for planking. — Roxb. Jury Rep. 
Mad. Exhib. 

(406) Nanclea parvifolia {Roxb.) Do. 

Bota-cadam;e, Tel. Neer-cadamba, Tam. 

Description. — Tree 30-40 feet, glabrous except in the axils 
of the nerves on the under side of the leaves; branches brachi- 
ate; leaves opposite, ovate or oval, bluntish; general peduncles 
opposite, terminal, bearing a pair of small deciduous leaves, 
partial ones scarcely so long as the globose head of flowers ; 
limb of calyx very short, and almost truncated; lobes of corolla 
spreading ; capsule containing 2 cocci splitting at the inner 
angle; flowers small, yellow. J7. April — Aug. — W. & A. 
Prod. L 391.— -Boa*. Fl. Ind. i 513.— Cor. i. t. 52.— Wight 

III. ii. 123. — N. orientalis, Linn. Coromandel. Concans. 

Bengal. 

Economic Uses. — The wood of this tree is of light chestnut 
colour, fine and close grained. It is useful for many purposes, but 
if exposed to wet it soon rots. It is used in Malabar for flooring, 
planks, packing -boxes, and similar purposes. — Roxb, Jury Rep. 
Mad. Exhib. 



^ Ka^-^ Ut^^^^ ^ (^^ /^4^^ i"^ 0^ 




/ (^07) NelamMom speciosum (TFi'/Zc?.) N. 0. !N'elumbiacejb. 

Eg3rptian or Pythagorean Bean, Eno. Tamaray, Tak. Tamara, Bem-tamara, 
Mal. Yerra-tamaray, Tel. Lalkamal; Kongwel; Kamal ; Padam ; Ambuj, Himd. 
Pudmapodoo ; Eomol ; Ponghuj, Beng. Kung-evelka, DuK. 

Description. — ^Aquatic ; leaves orbicular, attached by their 
centre, glabrous, under surface pale, margins somewhat 
waved ; peduncles longer than the petioles, erect ; root-stock 
horizontal, fleshy, sending out many fibres from the under- 
surface ; petioles long, rising above the surface of the water, 
scabrous with acute tubercles ; corolla pol)rpetalous ; con- 
nectivum produced beyond the cells of the anthers into a 
clavafe appendage; nuts loose in the hollows of the torus, 
1-2 seeded ; flowers large, white or rose-coloured. FL nearly 
all the year. — JT. & A. Prod. i. 16, — Wight HI i. t 9.— 
— Boocb. Fl. Ind, ii 647. — Nymphsea Nelumbo, Linn, — BJieede, 

xi. t 30, 31. Common in tanks in the Peninsula and other 

parts of India. 

EooNOMic Uses. — It is universally believed that this is the sacred 
Egyptian Lotus, which originally found its way from India, where it 
was indigenous, and the fruit was known as the Pythagorean bean. 
If this be the case, it is a singular fact that, while the plant still 
survives in its native country, it has died out after the lapse of cen- 
turies in Egypt, for the real Lotus is no longer found on the waters 
of the Nile. Up to the 17th century it was commonly believed to 
be peculiar to Lower Egypt, but no one had ever met with it there. 
Herodotus has alluded to the plant, and indeed accurately describes 
it. He called it the " Lily of the NQe," but this must not be con- 
founded with several species of the Nymphsea tribe which are found 
in the Nile to the present day. Of the Lotus he says, — " There 
are also other lihes, like roses, that grow in the river, the fruit of 
which is contained in a separate pod, that springs up from the root 
in form very hke a wasp's nest ; in this there are many berries fit to 
be eaten, of the size of an olive stone, and they are eaten both fresh 
and dried." It grew abundantly in all the lakes and canals. Strabo 
and particularly Theophrastus have both mentioned the sacred plant 
of Egypt, and the latter has most minutely described it, but the 
savans who accompanied Napoleon in his expedition to that country 
looked in vain for it It has long ago disappeared. The most 
remarkable part of the plant is the structure of the seed-receptacle^ 
which has been aptly compared to a pomegranate cut iii half^ or, as 
Herodotus says, like a wasp's nest. When ripe, the seeds are loose 
each in their separate cell, and if shaken make a noise like a rattle. 
Unlike the Nymphaea, the stems, petioles, and flower-stems of the 



310 NERIOM. 

Lotus are raised above the water, a peculiarity wldch may serve to 
distinguish, it, where so many errors have been made in the specifica- 
tion of the two genera. La this country as well as in China and 
Ceylon the flowers are held especially sacred. The roots and seeds 
were eaten by the Egyptians in the time of Herodotus, as they are 
now in India. It is also cultivated for the purpose. The mode of 
sowing the seeds is by flrst enclosing them in bidls of clay and then 
throwing them into the water. The same method was adopted by 
the early Egyptians. Sir J. Staunton remarked that the leaf from 
its structure growing entirely round the stalk has the advantage of 
defending bot£ flowers and fruit arising from its centre from contact 
with the water. The stem never fjEiils to ascend with the water from 
whatever depth, where its leaf expands, rests upon it^ and often 
rises above it There are several varieties with white or rose-coloured 
flowers, and with or without a prickly stem. When the tan*ks are 
dry the roots are embedded in the mud, but on the appearance of the 
rain they burst out again, and the surface of the water, as if by a 
miracle, becomes covered with the large broad leaves. As a modem 
writer has observed, ** There is no plant in the world which posses- 
ses so much interest in an historical point of view as the Lotu& The 
emblem of sanctity amongst the priests of an extinct religion four 
thousand years ago, it is now no longer known in the countries 
where once it was held sacred, and has sought refuge in the gardens 
and conservatories of the far-off lands of the west, of which the 
votaries of Isis never dreamt." Dr Eoxburgh says that the tender 
shoots of the roots between the joints are eaten by the natives either 
simply boiled or in their curries. The seeds are eaten either raw, 
roasted, or boiled. The leaves and flower-stalks abound in spiral 
tubes, which are extracted with great care by gently breaking the 
stems and drawing apart the ends; with these fllaments are prepared 
those wicks which are burnt by the Hindoos in the lamps placed 
before the shrines of their gods. The leaves are used as substitutes 
for plates; and in China the seeds and slices of the root are served 
up in summer with ice, and the roots are laid up in salt and vinegar 
for the winter. — Eoxb. Loudon. 

(408) Nerinm odomm {Ait) K 0. Apoctnagilb. 

Sweet-scented Oleander, Eng. Tsjovanna Aralee, Mal. Aralee, Tax. Ghenneni, 
Tel. Eaneer, Duk. Kaner, Hind. Lal-kharabee, Bkno. 

Description. — ^Shrub, 6-8 feet; calyx 5-cleft; corolla salver- 
shaped, throat crowned by lacerated segments, segments of the ^ 
limb twisted, unequal - sided ; leaves linear lanceolate, 3 in 
a whorl, veiny beneath, with revolute edges ; peduncles ter- 
minal ; flowers pale-red, fragrant ; follicles cylindrical. Fl, 

June — Aug. — Eoo^, Fl. Ind. ii. 2.— iZAeecfo, ix. t 1-2. Near 

banks of rivers. Common in gardens. 



NICOTIANA. 311 

Medical Uses. — ^There are two or three varieties with deep red, 
white, rose-coloured, single and double flowers. The bark of the 
root is used externally as a powerfiil repellent, and made into a 
paste is applied in cases of ringworm. The root itself taken in- 
ternally acts as a poison. — (Ainslie,) The root contains a yellow 
poisonous resin, tannic acid, wax, and sugar, but no alcaloid or 
volatile poison. The same poison resides in the bark and flowers. 
It is very soluble in carbonate of soda, and, though not volatile, is 
carried off mechanically when the plant is distiUed with water. It 
is used in leprosy, eruptions of the skin, and boils. — PowdVa Punj. 
Plants. 

m 

(409) Nicotiana Tabacnm (Linn,) K O. Solanao&s. 

Tobacco plant, Eno. 

Description. — Herbaceous, pubescent, glutinous, stem erects 
tapering, branched above ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, 
sessile, lower ones decurrent, haK stem-clasping ; flowers pedi- 
celled bracteate; segments of the oblong calyx lanceolate, 
acute, unequal; corolla outwardly downy, throat somewhat 
inflated, segments of the much-spreading limb acute ; capsule 
the length of the calyx, or slightly longer. — Dec, Prod. xiii. pt. 

1, p. 557.— Lam. III. t. lU.—Woodv. Med. Bot. L t. 60. 

Cultivated, 

Medical Uses. — ^The juice of tobacco-leaves is powerfully sedative 
and antispasmodic. It is used medicinally in dropsy and similar 
affections. As a local application it has been employed for relieving 
pain in rheumatic affections and skin diseases. Tobacco-smoking is 
sometimes effectually resorted to in asthma, spasmodic coughs, and 
nervous irritability. Poultices of tobacco-leaves have been success- 
fully applied to the spine in tetanus. — Pharm. of India. 

Economic Uses. — ^The tobacco plant has long been cultivated in 
India for the purpose of its leaves being manufactured into cheroots. 
Many acres of land are planted with it in the Salem and Trichinopoly 
districts, especially in the latter. Its cultivation also extends to the 
northern parts of the Deccan, and, in fact, wherever the locality may 
be favourable for its proper development. In a paper forwarded to 
the Agri.-HoTt. Soc. of Madras in May 1862, Dr Shortt gives the 
following account of its cultivation at Chingleput : — It is a cultiva- 
tion of four months. The seeds are sown into seed-beds late in the 
month of December, and the tobacco is gathered early in April. 
The beds are square, and receive the seeds sometimes before and 
sometimes after being irrigated. The beds are carefully prepared by 
free digging and turning up of the soil, when it is manured with 
equal portions of wood-ashes and dung-heap rubbislL Land in the 
mean time is prepared by the soil being freely ploughed, manured. 



312 NICOTIANA. 

and the earth drawn out into small, narrow, parallel trenches, about 
a foot wide, with intervening ridges of the same breadth. When 
the seedlings have attained between 3 and 5 inches in height, and 
have put out three or four leaves, which they do in about twenty 
days, they are ready for being transplanted. The trenches are 
previously iilled with water, and the seedlings planted on the top of 
the ridges, at the distance of 15 inches from each other, and for the 
first three or four days irrigated daily, after which irrigation is prac* 
tised every second day throughout their growth. About the fifteenth 
or twentieth day after transplantation the weeds are scraped out of 
the land either with a cocoanut-shell or an iron scraper. In about 
a fortnight after this the soil is loosened and weeds exterminated. 
Advantage is taken of this opportunity to complete the stand of 
plants by filling up the vacancies caused by the failure or accidental 
destruction of plants. Irrigation is practised as usual. At the com- 
mencement of the third month, a second hoeing or loosening of the 
soil and extermination of the weed is practised; and some two 
or three days after that, the side-shoots, which have begun to show 
themselves in the axilla of the leaves, are removed by being broken 
off. And about the end of the third month, when the stand of 
plants has attained between 2 and 3 feet in height, the tops of the 
bushes and all superfluous leaves are pinched off, leaving to each 
plant some ten or fifteen of the best-formed leaves. The plants 
throughout their growth are subject to attacks from insects of the 
caterpillar kind ; these should be looked for daily, the first thing in 
the morning, when they should be picked out and destroyed. When 
the plants have become ripe, which they do at the end of the fourth 
month, the leaves become speckled, and will frequently crack be- 
tween the fingers. At this period, should the plants have grown 
well and luxuriantly, the average size of the leaf is 25 to 30 inches 
in length, and 5 to 7 inches in breadth. The plants are then cut 
down (leaving a couple of inches of the stem in the ground), and 
allowed to be on the field to dry. In" the evening they are 
gathered and stacked into a heap in some open place for the night ; 
the next day the ground is spread over with palmyra leaves and 
straw of the varagoo (Panicum miliaceum) to the height of 6 or 8 
inches ; and on this the plants are stacked, and covered over with 
straw and palm leaves, and pressed with stones for five or six days, 
when the weights, straw, &c. are removed, the tobacco-plants taken 
up and hung in the shade by their stalks for a few days till the 
stalks become dry, when they are taken down and placed in a small 
close room, and covered as before with palm-leaves and straw, and 
pressed down by weights. Should the plants have become too dry 
and brittle, a few of the stalks are cut out and boiled with a suffi- 
cient quantity of water, to which a cake of Palmyra sugar or jaggery 
is added, and the fluid or decoction sprinkled on the tobacco previous 
to stacking the second time. The stack is turned upside down once 
in three or four days. When this has been done several times, the 



NOTONIA. 313 

leaves are stripped off the stalks and tied into bundles, each containing 
from sixty to seventy leaves ; these are again stacked in bundles, and 
have -weights placed over them, after being covered with straw, &c. 
The bundles are rearranged once in three or four days for some two 
or three weeks, when the tobacco is considered cured and fit for use, 
and is removed. The produce of one cawnie of land is about 350 
thooks of tobacco ; a thook is equivalent to 3 lb. 10 oz. The atten- 
dant expenses are — 

For ploughing the land, .... 

Watering, weeding, Ac., 

Land-rent, 



Rs. 


Afl. 


p. 


14 








15 








5 









Total, 34 

The value of the produce of one cawnie — ^viz., 350 thooks of tobacco 
— is valued at 150 rupees, from which if 34 rupees be deducted, and 
allowing 16 rupees for coj^tingent expenses, a clear profit of 100 
rupees goes to the cultivator. The seeds are so extremely minute 
and numerous that one pound suffices for planting a cawnie of land, 
and the price of the seed is eight annas a-pound. When the tobacco- 
stalks are cut down, the stumps left in the soil soon throw out fresh 
shoots ; these, if carefully weeded and watered, thrive welL The 
produce thus obtained will realise one-third of the value of the 
original crop. The tobacco from the second crop is greatly inferior 
to the first in quantity and quality, consequently it deteriorates 
in value in the market. 



(410) Notonia grandiflora (Dec,) N. 0. CoMPosiTiE. 

Description. — Shrubby ; stem thick, round, marked with 
scars of fallen leaves ; leaves oblong or obovate, quite entire ; 
corymb few-headed ; pedicels much longer than the capitulum'; 
flowers terminal, pale yellow. FL Dec. — Jan. — Dec, Prod. 
vi. 442. — Wight Contrib. 24. — N. corymbosa, Dec, — Wight 

Icon, t 484. South Travancore. Neilgherries. High rocky 

places in the Deccan. 

Medical Uses. — This plant is asserted by Dr Gibson to be a 
remedy in hydrophobia. The mode of administration is as follows : 
About four ounces of the freshly-gathered stems, infused in a pint 
of cold water for a night, yield in the morning, when subjected to 
pressure, a quantity of viscid greenish juice, which being mixed 
with the water is taken at a draught. In the evening a further 
quantity of juice made up into boluses with flour is taken. These 
medicines are to be repeated for three successive days. — Pharm, of 
India. 



nA 



J^*^t - JfoM^ vSLxn^L . Bcuu.JjLolxL 



3 14 NYCTANTHES — NYMPH^fiA. 

(411) Nyctanthes arbor tristis {Linn,) K 0. jASiciNAOEiB. 

^ Muiga-piunenLm, Mal. SingaJbar, Beno. HaningliAr, Hind. Pagala-mnlly, 

Description. — Tree, 15-20 feet, young shoots 4-sided; 
leaves opposite, short -petioled, cordate, or oblong, pointed, 
entire or coarsely serrate, scabrous; panicles terminal, com- 
posed of smaller 6-flowered terminal umbellets; calyx cam- 
panulate, slightly 5-notched, downy ; corolla tube cylindric, as 
long as the calyx, segments 5-7; involucel of 4 inverse- 
cordate, opposite, sessile leaflets; flowers numerous; tube 
orange-coloured ; border white, fragrant. Fl. Nearly all the 

year. — Bozb, FL Ind, L 86. — Bheede, i. t 21. Cultivated in 

gardens. 

EooNOMio Uses. — ^The flowers of this plant shed a delicious 
fragrance in gardens where they grow, only during the night. It is 
at sunset that they open, and before the morning the ground b 
covered with the fallen corollas. The native women collect them, 
and, stnnging them on threads, wear them as necklaces or twine 
them in their hair. The orange-coloured tubes dye a beautiful buff 
or orange colour, with the various shades between them, according 
to the preparation and mode of conducting the operation ; but no 
way has yet been discovered of rendering the colour durable. Sim- 
monds mentions the bark of this tree among other yielding tanning sub- 
stances. — {Roxh. Lindley, ) This tree is extremely com mon aloDg the 
foot of the mountains which skirt the Deyra Dhoon, and may be seen 
for several hundred feet above Eajpore in the ascent to Mussoorie. 
Dr Wallich found it in a wild state near the banks of the Irrawaddy, 
on the hills near Prome. This affords a very satisfactory instance 
of the extensive distribution of the same species along the base of 
the mountains, even when separated by 12** of latitude, or from 18** 
to 30°. — RoyU, Him, Bot, 

/>\>\^^ (412) Nymphaa edolis {Dec.) K 0. Ntmph^aokb. 

^ Eoteka, Tbl. Chhota-sundhi, Beno. 

Desckiption. — Aquatic; leaves oval, quite entire, downy 
underneath, margin sometimes slightly waved; petiole at- 
tached a little within the margin; petals 10-15; stamens 30, 
in a double series ; stigmas 10-15, rayed ; flowers white ; con- 
nectivum not prolonged ; seeds numerous. Fl, Nearly all the 
year. — W, & A. Prod, L 447. — N. esculenta, Roacb, Fl, Ind, ii. 
578. Bengal Circars. 

EcoNOHio Uses. — The tubers are much sought after by the 



NYMPHiEA, 315 

natives, both as an article of food and medicine. The capsule and 
seeds are either pickled or put into curries, or ground and mixed 
with flour to make cakes. The flowers are nearly three inches in 
diameter. — JRoxb. 

(413) NympluBa rubra (Eoxb,) Do. 

Red-flowered Water-Lily, Eng. Yerra Kulwa, Tel. Rukhta-chundanR, Hind. 
BuTO-mkto-kumbal, Bbng. 

Description. — Aquatic ; sepals 4 ; petals numerous ; leaves 
peltate, sharply toothed, downy but not spotted beneath ; lobes 
diverging ; connectivum not prolonged ; petioles inserted very 
near the margin of the leaf; flowers deep red; torus bottle- 
shaped; carpels numerous, many-seeded; stigma 10-20, rayed 
FL March— Aug.— fF. & A. Prod. i. 17,— Wight El L 10.— 

Roxh, Fl, Ind. ii 576. Peninsula in tanks and ditches. 

Tanjore. 

EeoNOMio Uses. — ^The roots and seeds are eaten by the natives ; 
and the capsules and seeds together are prepared in different ways, 
sometimes pickled, or put into curries, or made into cakes. A kind 
of starch and arrowroot is made from the underground stems and 
roots, and both are used as aliments as well as in medicine. In 
Bengal there is a small rose-coloured variety with fewer stamens. 
This is a beautiful flower, yet neither common nor so gaudy as the 
Egyptian Lotus. — Roxh. 



I 

i 



316 





(414) Odmnm Basilicnm {Linn,) K 0. Lamiaoeje. 

Sweet Basil, Eng. Timoot-patchie, Tam. Vepoodipatsa, TsL. Subzeh, DuK. 
Kala-tulsee, Pashana Cheddee, Hind. Babooitulsee, Beng. 

Description. — Herbaceous, erect, glabrous ; leaves petiolate, 
ovate or oblong, narrowed at the base, slightly toothed ; petioles 
ciliated ; racemes simple ; calyxes longer than the pedicels ; 
upper teeth ovate, concave, shortly acuminated ; whorls about 
6, rarely 10-flowered ; flowers small, white. Fl, Nearly aU 
the year. — Wight Icon, t 868. — 0. pilosum, Benth. ^nd Willd. 

— JRaxb. FL Ind,uL16, Peninsula. Bengal Oude. Tra- 

vancore. 

The varieties are : — 

a 0. anisatum, Benth. 

' More erect and less pilose ; leaves larger, thicker, 
and slightly toothed ; corollas usually villous. — 0. basilicum, 
Linn. — Booih. Fl. Ind. iii. 17. — Rheede, x. t. 87. 

b 0, glabratum^ Benth. 

Erect ; petioles and calyxes sparingly ciliated ; 
leaves scarcely toothed ; racemes elongated, simple. — 0. in- 
tegerrimum, WUId. — 0. caryophyllatiim, Roxh. Fl. Ind, iii 
16. — Goolaltulsee, Beng. Patna. 

c 0. thyrsiflorumy Benth. 

Erect, glabrous ; petioles and calyxes hardly cili- 
ated ; raceme thyrsoid ; branched flowers pale-pink.— JBoa^. Fl. 
Ind. iii. 15. — Wight Icon. t. 868. 

Medical Uses. — The whole plant is aromatic and fragrant The 
seeds are cooliug and mucilaginous, and are said to be very nourish- 
ing and demulcent. An infusion is given as a remedy in gonorrhoea^ 
catarrh, dysentery, and chronic diaiThoea. The juice of the leaves 
is squeezed in the ear in ear-ache. Dr Fleming states that the seeds 
are a favourite medicine with Hindoo women for relieving the after- 
pains of partmrition. In Europe the leaves and small branches or 



OCIMUM — ODIN A. 31 7 

leafy tops are gathered for culinary purposes, and used in highly- 
seasoned dishes. Sometimes they are introduced into salad and 
soups. — (Z>o». Ainslie,) The juice of the leaves of 0. mllomm^ 
mixed with ginger and black pepper, is given during the cold stages 
of intermittent fever. It is also prescribed to allay vomiting arising 
from irritation produced by worms. — {Long Indig. Plants of Bengal.) 
The seeds steeped in water swell and form a pleasant jelly, useful 
as a diaphoretic and demulcent — PowelVs Panj. Prod, 

(415) Ocimom saactom {lAnn,) Do. 

Holy basil, Eno. ToolasM. Tax. Toolsee, Duk. Niella-tirtoTa, Ehrislina 
toolsee, Mal. Eala-toolsie, Hind. Ealo-tolsee, Benq. 

Dbsckiption. — Stems and petioles pilose ; leaves petiolate, 
oval, obtuse, toothed, pubescent ; floral leaves sessile, shorter 
than the pedicels; racemes slender, simple or branched at the 
base ; calyx shorter than the pedicels, smoothish, upper-tooth 
obovate, concave ; corolla hardly exceeding the calyx ; flowers 
pale purple. Fl. Nearly all the year.— i2oa:&. Fl Ind. iii. 14. 
— 0. hirsutum, Benth, — Eheede, x. t 85. Cultivated in gar- 
dens and near pagodahs. 

Medical Uses. — ^The whole plant is of a dark purple, colour, and 
has a grateful smelL The root is given in decoction in fevers, and 
the juice of the leaves in catarrhal affections in children. Also an 
excellent remedy, mixed with lime-juice, in cutaneous affections and 
ringworm. The leaves, dried and pulverised, are used by natives in 
Bengal as snuff in the endemic affection of the nasal cavities called 
Peenash ; it is said to be an effectual means of dislodging the mag- 
gots. — Pharm. of India. 

(416) Odina wodier (Roxh.) ¥. 0. Anaoardiacejb. 

Woodian, Tam. Waddi gampina, TxL. Cuslimiillay Hikd. Jiwul, Bszro. 
Wodier Manun, Mal. 

Description.— Large tree ; leaves alternate about the ends 
of the branches, unequally pinnated ; leaflets 3-4 pair, oppo- 
site, almost sessile, oblong-obovate, acuminated, glabrous, 
entire, paler below ; celyx shortly 4-lobed, segments rounded ; 
petals 5, oblong, spreading ; drupe uniform, very hard, 1-celled; 
seeds solitary, of the same shape as the nut; racemes terminal, 
fascicled ; flowers small, greenish yellowish, externally purplish. 
Fl. Feb.— March.— fF. & A. Prod. i. 111.— WigJU Icon. i. t. 
'60.— -Boa*. Fl. Ind. ii. 293.— Royh III. t 31,/. 2.—Rheede, iv. 
t 32. Coromandel mountains. Bengal. Travancore. 



} 



318 OLEA — OPHELIA. 

MsDiOAL Uses. — ^A gum which exudes from the tree is beaten 
up with cocoanut-milk and applied to sprains and bruises, and the 
pulyerised bark, when boUed in or mixed with oil, is put to bad 
ulcers and wounds. The leaves boiled in oil are externally applied 
to bruisea — (Ainalie. Wight,) The bark, which is very astringent^ 
is employed in the form of decoction as a lotion in impetiginous 
eruptions and obstinate ulcerations. It also forms an excellent as- 
tringent gargle. — Pharm, of India, 

£cx)NOMio Uses. — ^This tree, says Dr Wight, is one of the most 
commonly cultivated and best known in the Peninsula, where, 
though far from being ornamental or useful, its quickness of growth 
from cuttings recommends it. The tree is planted in avenues, but 
yields no shade in the hot weather, being without leaves till June. 
The wood of the old trees is close-grained, of a deep reddish ma- 
hogany colour towards the centre. The coloured part is serviceable 
and looks well It is useful for ordinary work, especially for sheaths 
of swords, knives, &c. The bark is full of fibrous materials. — 
Wight, Jury Rep, Mad, Exhih. 

(417) Olea dioica {Roxh.) N. 0. Olbacejb. 

Indian oli^e, Eno. Kara-vetti, Mal. 

Descjription. — Tree ; leaves opposite, oblong, remotely and 
acutely serrate, acuminate, smooth, on short petioles \ panicles 
axillary and opposite below the leaves ; male flowers numer- 
ous ; calyx 4-toothed ; corolla tube very short, border 4-cleft ; 
female flowers on a separate tree ; calyx as in the male ; corolla 
none ; drupe nearly round, 1-celled, 1-seeded ; flowers small, 
whita Fl, March — April. — RocA, Fl, Ind, L 106. — Rheede, iv. 
t, 54.-- — Chittagong. Silhet Malabar. 

Egonomio Uses. — ^The fruit in si^e and colour is much like the 
English sloe. The timber of the tree is reckoned excellent, and is 
much used by the natives. — (Wall) The O. rohttsta^ indigenous to 
8ilhet, fumi^es the natives in that country with a hard and durable 
wood. — Roacb, 

(418) Ophelia elegans {R W,) 'S, 0. Gentianacea. 

Description. — Shrub, erect, ramous above, obsoletely 
4-sided ; leaves sessile, narrow, ovate-lanceolate, tapering to a 
slender point, 3-nerved, lateral nerves close to the margin; 
branches ascending, slender, bearing at each point lateral few- 
flowered cymes, forming together a large, many-flowered, leafy 
panicle ; calyx lobes narrow-lanceolate, acute, about two-thirds 



OPHELIA — OPHIORKH IZA. 319 

the length of the corolla ; lobes of the corolla obovate-cuspi- 
date ; fovese bound with longish coarse hairs ; flowers pale blue. 

Fl Aug.— Sept.— JFiflrA^ Icon. t. 1331. Pulney Hills. 

Northern Circars. 

Medical Uses. — ^A very handsome species, says Dr Wight, when 
in full flower, forming as it does a rich panicle of light-blue flowers 
streaked with deeper-coloured veins. It seems very distinct from 
all other species. The stems are used as a bitter and febrifuge in 
the northern Circars, and are there in great request. It closely re- 
sembles the 0. chiretia^ which is brought from the slopes of the 
Himalaya, and which is there reckoned useful as a tonic in inter- 
mittent fevers. Of the present species the stalks are tied up in 
bundles about a foot long and 3 or 4 inches in thickness. The 
native name in the districts where it grows is Salaras or SalajU. 
It is exported to a considerable extent, and is easily procured in the 
bazaars, where the plant is indigenous. The Honourable W. Elliot 
was the first to bring this new species of gentian to notice. — Ind, 
Annals of Med. Science. Jury Rep. Mad. Exhih. Wight. 

(419) Ophelia mnltiflora {Dalz,) Do. 

Description. — Stem quadrangular, 4-winged, ascending, 
densely leafy ; leaves round, ovate, stem-clasping, 6-nerved, 
mucronulate, glabrous, decussate ; cymes many-flowered ; calyx 
divisions lanceolate - acuminate ; corolla white, 4-divided, 
segments ovate-elliptic, their rounded pits surrounded by long 
fringes ; filaments united at the very base. — Dah. Bomb. Flor. 
156. — Hook. Joum. Bat. ii 135. Mahableshwar. 

Medical Use& — This is used in Bombay as an excellent sub- 
stitute for chiretta. The dried root occurs in pieces of 2 inches in 
length, of the diameter of a quill, giving off two or three rootlets, 
covered with a whitish-brown epidermis, wrinkled longitudinally, 
white internally, and brittle. Dr Broughton considers that its 
medicinal action and uses are similar to those of gentian and chiretta, 
for which it may be advantageously substituted. The dried plant 
also appears to be used for the same purposes. — Pharm. of India. 

(420) Ophiorrhiza mniii^ofl (Linn.) N. 0. Cinchonaceje. 

Description. — ^Perennial 1-J foot ; stem when old sufifruti- 
cose ; leaves opposite, elliptic-lanceolate, acuminated at both 
ends, glabrous, very thin, unequal in size; calyx tube turbinate, 
limb 5-cleft; corolla tube infundibuliform, short, hairy within, 
limb 5-lobed; stamens enclosed; capsule compressed, crowned 



* 



320 OPHIOXYLON. 

with the calycine segments, 2-celled, 2-valved; seeds numerous, 
somewhat hexagonal ; cymes peduncled, terminal, branched ; 
flowers nearly sessile, white. Fl. Aug. — Sept. — JV. & A. Prod. 

I 404u—Boa;b. Fl. Ind. I 701. DindiguL CourtaUum. 

Travancore. 

Medical Uses. — There are several varieties slightly differing in 
the disposition of their form of inflorescence. Dr Wallich found 
the plant growing in the forests of the valleys of Nepaul, though he 
was not quite sure whether those he gathered did not belong to a 
distinct specie& The Malays, according to Koempfer, called the root 
" earth-galls," from its intense bitterness. The root is very bitter, 
and reported to be a powerful alexipharmic. The plant in Ceylon 
is accounted a good specific in snake-bites ; the parts used are the 
leaves, root, and bark made into decoction and administered in doses 
of ^ oz. Eoxburgh doubted the good qualities ascribed to it. — 
— Ainslie. Eoxb. 



(421) Ophioxylon serpentiniun (Linn.) K 0. Apooynacks. 

Tsjovanna-amelpodi, Mal. Chivon-amelpodi, Tam. Patal-ganni, T££b Chota- 
chami,HiND. Chandra, BKNQ. h^^^ f^^rV^ 

Description. — Twining ; calyx 5 - cleft ; cWolla funnel- 
shaped, with long tube, thick in the middle, 5 -cleft, limb 
oblique ; anthers almost sessile inserted in the middle of the 
tube; leaves 3-4-5 in a whorl, cuneate-oblong, acute, sometimes 
drooping; pedicels and calyxes red; drupe black, size of a pea, 
twin or solitary by abortion ; nut wrinkled, 1-seeded ; flowers 
white, with the tube pale rose-lilac. FL All the year. — Booob. 

FL Ind. i. 694.— Wight Icon, t 84:9.—Iiheede, vi t. 47. 

Peninsula. Bengal. Malabar. 

Medical Uses. — ^Few shrubs, says Sir W. Jones, in the world 
are more elegant, especially when the vivid carmine of the perianth 
is contrasted, not only with the milk-white corolla, but with the 
rich green berries, which at the same time embellish the fiascicles. 
Kheede says it is always bearing, the berries and flowers appearing 
together at all times. The root is used internally in various dis- 
orders both as a febrifuge and for the bites of poisonous animals, 
such as snakes and scorpions, the dose being a pint of the decoction 
every twenty-four hours; the powder being also applied to the parts. 
The juice is also expressed and dropped into the eye for the same 
purpose. It is also administered to promote delivery in tedious 
cases, acting upon the uterine system in the same manner as ergot of 
rye. — Roxb. Wight. 



♦ tl 



^ ^i'-^nj'^*^ «- ORYZA. 321 

(42^0r3rza sativa {Linn,) N. 0. Gbaminaceje. 

Comraon Rice-plant, Eno. Payera, Mal. Nelloo, Tam. Dhan, Beno. Pusiiel, ^vvji ^^-^ 



^-t 





/ 



Hind. Oori, cheni, Tel. ^ /itZ^t^' -o^^. U ua-C^V 

Description. — Annual ; cumis numerous, jointed, round 
and smooth; leaves sheathing, long, scabrous outside; panicles 
terminal ; rachis common and partial, angular, hispid ; flowers 
simple, pedicelled ; calyx glume 2 - valved, 1 - flowered, the 
larger valve ending in a long, hispid, coloured awn ; corolla 

2-valved, growing to the seed. — Ro3ob. Fl. Ind. ii. 200. 

Circars. Cultivated everywhere. 

Medical Uses. — A decoction of rice makes an excellent demul- 
cent refrigerant drink in febrile and inflammatory diseases, dysuria, 
and affections requiring these remedies. Rice poultices are con- 
stantly used in hospital practice, forming an excellent substitute for 
linseed-meal. 

Economic Uses. — The rice-plant is extensively cultivated in 
almost all the countries of the East under the equator, requiring a 
summer temperature of at least 73°, humidity and heat being the 
indispensable conditions of its growth. It is grown in Japan, China, 
the Philippines, Ceylon, Siam, both shores of the Red Sea, Egypt, 
and Madagascar, and from these countries it has emigrated to the . 
coasts of Western Africa and America. The wild rice-plant, from / ^ - ^ ^ ^^* ' 
which all the cultivated varieties have sprung, iS^ found in and on 
the borders of lakes in the Circars ; and also in the back-waters of 
Travancore, near Allepey, and other places. This wild rice is never 
cultivated, though it is gathered and eaten by the richer classes in 
the Rajahmundry districts, who boil it in steam and consider it a 
great dainty. It sells at a high price. It is white, palatable, and 
wholesome. A coarse kind of confection is made from it which is 
sold in most bazaars. Rice, although the commonest and cheapest 
kind of food in the Peninsula, is far from being so universally used 
among the natives of India as people are apt to imagine. Great 
numbers in that country do not eat it. In all the North-Western 
Provinces wheat is the principal crop, and the natives have rather 
a contempt for the rice-eating districts. Still it constitutes one 
of the most important articles of food, not only in India, but 
especially in America and China. It is grown now in Italy, Spain, 
and even slightly in Germany. " A rice-field," said Adam Smith, 
" produces a much greater quantity of food than the most fertile 
corn-field. Two crops in the year, from 30 to 60 bushels each, are 
said to be the ordinary produce of an acre." Dr Roxburgh, how- 
ever, states that two crops in the year from the same land do not 
yield much more than a single crop would ; but owing to the liability 
of the seasons to fail, the cultivators rear as much as possible for 
the first crop. This is reaped in the rainy season when tbe straw 

21 



^ULOA y^c€, tAA^ ^ Cs^^^mJU 



322 ORYZA. 

cannot be preserved ; and as rice-straw is almost tlie only food which 
the cattle have in many districts, there is an absolute necessity for 
sowing the second crop for fodder. Dr Eoxburgh's statement, that 
he never saw or heard of a farmer manuring in the smallest degree 
a rice-field, is only applicable to those districts where the soil is 
sufficiently rich to yield those large crops which he speaks of. In 
Travancore and Tinnevelly, and perhaps other districts, the farmers 
invariably manure the rice -fields with leaves of trees, ashes, and 
cow-dung. The most fertile soil for rice-sowing is land periodically 
inundated in the neighbourhood of large rivers, where the plant can 
receive much fertilising matter from the overflowing of the streams. 
Yet this is not sufficient for the perfect maturity and wellbeing of 
the plant, for it requires rain also, the showers falling on the plant 
being absolutely requisite to insure the full development of the 
flowers and seeds. Eice-seed is usually first sown thick, and then 
transplanted about forty days afterwards ; the fields must be kept 
constantly supplied with water; the usual time for planting-out to the 
reaping season is about two months. This is, however, not the case 
with all kinds ; some are sown broadcast in the same place where it 
is intended the seeds should ripen. In this latter case the sowing 
should commence about fifteen days before the rains set in. There 
are several ways of watering the rice-crops. It is generally beUeved 
that the plants cannot have too much water (provided they be not 
quite submerged), except for a few days before the seeds become ripe, 
when a drier state is requisite to perfect the maturity and improve 
the quality of the grain. Of the many varieties (and there are about 
forty or fifty in the Peninsula, although Moon has enumerated one 
hundred and sixty-one growing in Ceylon) some require more water 
than others. The time of sowing depends of course upon the season, 
varying on either coast according to the setting in of the periodical 
raius. When the rice-stalks are once cut they are immediately 
carried off the fields, when they are stacked and left for two or three 
days. The farmers then proceed to thrash the grain out either by 
manual labour or by the help of cattle. The mode of separating 
the husk from the grain is by beating it with the rice -stamper. 
This work is usually performed by women. Of late years the pro- 
cess of rice-cleaning has been greatly simplified among Europeans 
by the introduction of machinery, which is usually resorted to in 
Ceylon. Although there is no actual rotation of crops so called in 
rice-lands, yet during the intervals of the seasons the natives fre- 
quently sow the land with other grains, such as horse-gram, sesamum, 
and different kinds of peas, &c., and the stubbles of these latter are 
used as manure for the succeeding crops of rice. Hill-rice is sown 
on dry and rather elevated lands which cannot be flooded, and these 
crops, therefore, must depend entirely upon the annual rains. This 
rice is called Modun in Malabar, and is of no great value. On the 
Himalaya it grows at considerable elevations, even on the slopes 
of the mountains. But this is sown in places within the influence 



i 



ORYZA. 323 

of the periodical lains, and the moistnie arising from the heated 
valleys is very fayourable to its growth. Some of the Himalayan 
rice (O. Nepalensis) which was reared without irrigation was dis- 
played at the Great Exhibition 1850. 

Specimens of wild paddy were forwarded to the Agri.-Hort. Soc. 
of India by Mr Terry from Tumlook, where it grows in any quantity 
in marshy salt-water land. It grows in similar situations all over 
Madras. 

Kice in the husk, which we call paddy, is Nelloo in Tamil, Dlian 
^ in Dukhanie, Oodlooor Ur loo in Teloogeo. The husk-seed is Arises 
^ in Tamil, Chavml in Hindustanee and Dukhanie, Beum in Teloogoo, 
Arte in Malayalum. The two great crops of rice in Southern India 
are the Caar and Soombah crops, the last of which is also called the 
Peshanum crop, and is reaped in February and March ; and the 
Hindoo doctors assert that the produce of the dififerent crops have 
different effects when medicinally prescribed. The produce of the 
Peshanum crop is more appreciated for this latter purpose. On the 
other hand, the Caar cro^, which is reaped in October, is reckoned 
inferior. In the Circars the cultivators divide the numerous varie- 
ties into two orders — ^the Poonas or the early sort, and the Pedda 
worloo, the late or great crop. . Dr Eoxburgh has given ample in- 
formation upon this subject. Eice is composed almost entirely of 
fecula, and on this account, although valuable for exportation, yet 
is not so nourishing as wheat or other cereal grains, owing to the 
absence of gluten. It is light, wholesome, and very easy of diges- 
tion, but cannot be baked into bread. Eice may be kept a very 
long period in the rough. After being cleaned, if it be of a good 
qusdity and well milled, it will keep a considerable time in European 
climates. Mustiness, however, is apt to accumulate on it, which 
should be carefully washed off if it has been long kept. Eough rice 
may remain under water twenty-four hours without injury if dried 
soon after. Eice-glue is made by mixing rice-flour with cold water 
and then boiling the mixture. This conjee is used in the process 
of papermaking, and also by weavers in dressing and preparing 
thread for the loom, and generally used by mechanics whenever 
strong adhesion may be required. There is a great percentage of 
starch in rice, moi'e so perhaps than in wheat, sometimes as much 
as 85 per cent. In manufacturing rice-starch on a large scale, 
Patna rice yields 80 per cent of marketable starch. The following 
is Jones's patent process for its manufacture, as given in the ' Phar- 
maceutical Journal :' '' 100 lb. of rice are macerated for twenty-four 
hours in 50 gaL.of the alkaline solution, and afterwards washed 
with cold water, drained and ground. To 100 gallons of the alkaline 
solution are then to be added 100 lb. of ground rice, and the mixture 
stirred repeatedly during twenty-four hours, and then allowed to 
stand for about seventy hours to settle or deposit. The alkaline 
solution is to be drawn off, and to the deposit cold water is to be 
added, for the double purpose of washing out the alkali and for 



<l >K.V^ 






324 OXALIS. 

drawing off the starch from the other matters. The mixture is to 
be well stirred up, and then allowed to rest about an hour for the 
fibre to fall down. The liquor holding the starch in suspension is 
to be drawn off and allowed to stand for about seventy hours for the 
starch to deposit. The waste liquor is now to be removed, and the 
starch stirred up, blued (if thought necessary), drained, dried, and 
finished in the usuisf way." Among other kinds the Patna rice is 
justly celebrated, but perhaps the most fertile province for rice- 
growing is Arracan, from whence great quantities of the grain are 
shipped to Europe from the port of Akyab, the importance of which 
is yearly increasing. — Roxh. Ainslie, Siminonds, 

(423) Oxalis comiculata (Linn,) N. O. OxALiDACEiE. 

Yellow Wood-sorrel, Enq. Pooliaray, Tam. Poolichinta, Tbl. Umbuti, Duk. 
AmTool, Hind. 

Description. — Stems decumbent, branched, radicating, 
leafy ; stipules united to the base of the petioles ; leaves 
palni^tely 3-foliolate ; leaflets obcordate, pubescent ; peduncles 
2-5, but mostly 2 -flowered ; stamens monadelphous ; sepals 
pubescent; petals emarginate; pistils as long as the longer 
stamens ; capsule many -seeded, densely pubescent ; flowers 
yellow. FL Nearly all the year. — W. & A, Prod, i. 142. — 
Roxb, Fl. Ind. ii. 457. — Wight Icon, i. 1 18. Common every- 
where. . Base of the Himalaya. • 

Medical Uses. — The leaves, stalks, and flowers are used by the 
Hindoos as cooling medicines, especially in dysentery. — {Aindie.) 
It contains salts of oxalic acid, and acts as a refrigerant in fevers, as 
well as an antiscorbutic. Its juice may be used to remove ink-spots, 
as it rapidly dissolves most compounds of iron. It is used externally 
to remove warts, and fibres over the cornea. — {PowelVs Punj, Prod,) 
The 0, aensitiva is reckoned tonic in Java. — Ainslie, 



325 



(424) Paderia foatida (Linn.) K 0. Cinchonace^. 

Gundhalee, Hind. Gundo-bhadulee, Beno. 

Description. — Climbing ; leaves opposite, oblong or lanceo- 
late, cordate at the base, glabrous ; panicles axillary and oppo- 
site, or terminal ; flowers sessile along the ultimate divisions ; 
berry ovate, somewhat compressed, 2-ceUed, 2-seeded ; calyx 
5-toothed; corolla infundibuliform, hairy inside, 5-lobed; 
stamens almost sessile on the middle of the tube ; flowers 
small, white. Fl. Dec. — Jan. — W. & A. Prod, i. 424. — Roxb, 
FL Ind, i. 683. Peninsula. Bengal. 

Medical Uses. — The whole plant when bruised has a fetid smell. 
The roots are used as emetic by the Hindoos. — Roxh, 

Economic Uses. — The very beautiful fibre obtained from the 
stalk has recently been attracting much attention in England. 

(425) Pandanos odoratissimns {Linn, Fil.) K O. PANDANACEiE. 

Caldera bush. Fragrant Screw-pine, Eno. Thalay, Tam. Kaida, or Thala, Mal. 
Moglieli, Tel. Keori, Beno. 

Description. — Large shrub, 10 feet or more, bushy ; roots 
issuing from lower parts of the stem or larger branches ; leaves 
confluent, stem clasping, closely imbricated in 3 spiral rows 
round the extremities of the branches, tapering to a fine tri- 
angular point, smooth, shining, margin and back armed with 
sharp spines — those on the margin point towards the apex, 
those below in various ways ; flowers male and female in ter- 
minal racemes on different plants ; in female flowers no other 
corolla or calyx than the termination of the 3 rows of leaves 
forming 3 imbricated fascicles of white floral leaves, standing 
at equal distance round the base of the young fruit; fruit 
something in appearance like a pine-apple, orange-coloured, 
composed of numerous drupes, detached when ripe, and covered 
with a deeper orange-coloured skin, interior filled with rich- 



326 PANICUM. 

looking yellow pulp, intermixed with strong fibres; seed 1, 
oblong, smooth; flowers small, fragrant FL June — Sept. — 

Roxb, Cor. i. t 94-96.— J7. Ind. iil 738.— JRAeede, ii. t 8. 

Peninsula^ near bank of streams and water-courses. 

Economic Uses. — ^Tlus large and singular-looking bush is very 
common along the banks of the canals and back-waters in Trayan- 
core, in which places it Lb planted to bind the soiL The flowers are 
seldom visible, but the large red fruit, much like a pine-apple, is 
Teiy attractive. The flowers are very fragrant, and fix)m them is 
made an oil known as the Keora-oU, The perfume is extracted 
chiefly from the male flowers. The floral leaves themselves are 
eaten either raw or boiled The lower pulpy part of the drupes is 
eaten by the natives in times of scarcity. The fusiform roots are 
used by the basket-makers to tie their work with, and also, by reason 
of their soft and spongy nature, for corks. There are manufactures 
at Cuddalore and other places, where mats, baskets, and hats are 
made from these roots, and a coarse brush for whitewashing houses : 
when beaten out with a mallet they open out like a soft brush. 
Matting and packing-bags are made from them in the Mauritius and 
China. The leaves, which abound in toughish fibres, are used for 
matting, cordage, and thatch. They are said to be good for paper- 
making also. The natives make with them a fine kind of mat to 
sleep on, which they stain red and yellow. Also used for making 
common umbrellas. In some districts the fibres are used for making 
the larger kinds of hunting-nets, and drag-ropes of fishing-nets. In 
Tinnevelly they are mixed with flax in small quantities for the 
manufacture of gunny and ropes, but they are not sold in their pure 
state. It is the farina of the male flowers which is used as a per- 
fume. In Arabia and India people bestrew their heads with it, 
as Europeans do with perfumed powder. — (Ainslie, Roxh. Jury 
Rep, Mad, Exhih,) A species of Pandantis is used in most parts of 
the Mauritius for its leaves, which are employed for the purpose of 
package-bags for the transportation of coffee, sugar, and grain from 
one place to another, and for exportation. The preparation of the 
leaves for working into matting is simple and short As soon as 
gathered, the spines on their edges and dorsal nerve are stripped off 
and the leaf divided into strips of the breadth proper for the use 
they are required for. — Col, Hardwicke, 



(426) Paiiiclun Italieam (Linn.) K 0. Graminackb. 

Italian Millet, Eno. Temiey, Tax. Tenna, Mal. Bawla^ Due. Kangoo 
Rungnee, Beno. R41a, Eora, Hind. Cora, Tkl. 

Description. — Culms erect, 3-5 feet, round, smooth ; roots 
issuing from the lower joints ; margins of leaves hispid ; 



PAPAVER. 327 

mouths of the sheaths bearded; spikes nodding; spikelets 
scattered; pedicels 2-4 flowered, with smooth intermediate 
bristles; seeds ovate. — Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 302. — Setaria Italica, 
Beauv. Cultivated. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — ^This is considered by the natives one of the 
most dehcious of cultivated grains. The Brahmins — indeed all 
classes of natives — particularly esteem it, and use the seeds for 
cakes, porridge, &c. It ig good for pastry — scarcely inferior, says 
Ainslie, to wheat ; and when boiled with milk, makes a pleasant light 
diet for invalids. It is cultivated in many parts of India, requiring 
a dry light soiL The seed-time for the first crop is in June and 
July ; for the second, between September and February. There are 
several kinds of millet cultivated in the Peninsula, among which the 
most celebrated are P. miliaceum (Willd,) and P. frumeniaceum 
(Roxb.), of which there are several varieties. — Eoxb. Ainslie. 

(427) Papaver somnifernm {Linn.) K. 0. Fapaverace^. 

Opinm Poppy, Eno. Casa casa, Tam. Cassa cassa, Tjbl. Post, HmD. Pasto, 

Description. — Herbaceous, 2-3 feet ; sepals 2, deciduous ; 
petals 4 ; stem smooth, glaucous ; leaves amplexicaul, repand, 
cut and toothed, teeth somewhat obtuse ; capsules obovate or 
glabrous ; peduncles drooping ; seeds numerous ; flowers red, 
white, or purplish. FL Feb. — March. — W. & A, Prod. i. 17. 
— Roxb. Fl, Ind. ii 571. Cultivated in high lands in North- 
em India. Neilgherries. Mysore. 

Medical Uses. — According to Dioscorides and Pliny, opium was 
formerly obtained from the Black Poppy; now it is principally 
taken from the White Poppy, the capsules being chiefly received 
from Asia Minor, India, and Egypt. The former gives a very 
active opium, which may also be procured from the common Ked 
Poppies of our gardens. Liquid opimn extracted from the Poppies 
contains from 20 to 53 per cent of water. The value of opium con- 
sists in the quantity of the alkaloid morphine which it contains. 
Morphine is obtained in crystals from opium, treated with alcohol 
and ammonia, nearly all the narcotine being separated. The pro- 
portions of morphine vary from 12.35 to 14.78 per cent. The opium 
of commerce has been gradually deteriorating. That fit)m Smyrna 
is reputed the best, and contains ordinarily only 3 to 6 per cent of 
morphine. The very best opium contains only from 8 to 9 per cent. 
— (Guibourt Joum. de Pharmacie.) The Poppy is cultivated both 
in Europe and Asia for its flowers and seeds. The half-ripe capsules 
wounded yield the juice which concretes into opium. From the 



328 PAPAVER. 

dried capsules, the decoction, syrup, and extract of Poppies are pre- 
pared. Dr Pereira considered that the capsules are more active if 
gathered before becoming ripe ; when full grown, and just when the 
first change of colour is perceptible, is the best time to collect them. 
In Great Britain, although attempts have been made to extract good 
opium from the plant cultivated there, yet it would appear that the 
results, although satisfactory, are not such as to render the manu- 
facture profitable. In Turkey, Persia, and Egypt it is extensively 
cultivated for the purpose of obtaining the opium. In Greece the 
seeds were used as fruit from the earliest times. All the parts of 
the Poppy abound in a narcotic milky juice, which is partially ex- 
tracted, together with a quantity of mucilage, by decoction. The 
heads or capsules possess anodyne properties : they are chiefly em- 
ployed, boiled in water, as fomentations to inflamed or ulcerated 
surfaces, and the syrup prepared from them with inspissated decoc- 
tion is used as an anodyne for children and to allay cough, &c. 
The milky juice of the Poppy in its more perfect state, which is the 
case in warm climates only, is extracted by incisions made in the 
capsules and inspissated, and in this state forms the opium of com- 
merce. 

The white variety is the one invariably cultivated in India. 
The Poppy-plant requires a rich soil, plenty of manuring, and fre- 
quent irrigation. The cultivation is simple enough if these three 
requisites be attended to. The lands in the neighbourhood of streams 
or other supplies of water are usually chosen for the purpose. The 
whole quantity of land under Poppy cultivation in India in 1840 
did not exceed 50,000 acres, and perhaps about as many persons were 
employed. The chief Poppy-growing districts are Behar, Patna, and 
Malwah. In the latter district it is grown at difl^jrent elevations, 
from 2000 to 7000 feet, requiring a moderate temperature, as the plant 
wiU not thrive in the plains. The Malwah opium, according to Dr 
Royle, is the produce of the P. glalyrum^ which differs from the 
Bengal opium in quality and appearance. The following mode of 
extracting the^ opium is given in the ' Bengal Dispensatory : * — 
" Early in February and March the bleeding process commences. 
Three small lancet-shaped pieces of iron are bound together with 
cotton, about one-twelfth of an inch of the blade alone protruding, 
so that no discretion as to the depth of the wound to be inflicted 
shall be left to the operator ; and this is drawn sharply up from the 
top of the stalk at the base to tte summit of the pod. The sets of 
people are so arranged that each plant is bled all over once every three 
or four days, the bleedings being three or four times repeated on each 
plant. This operation always begins to be performed about three 
or four o'clock in the afternoon, the hottest part of the day. The 
juice appears almost immediately on the wound being inflicted, in 
the shape of a thick gummy milk, which is thickly covered with a 
>)rownish pellicle. The exudation is greatest over night, when the 
incisions are washed and kept open by the dew. The opium thus 



PAP AVER. 329 

deriycd is scraped off next momiiig with, a blunt iron tool, resem- 
bling a cleaver in miniature. Here the work of adulteration begins ; 
the scraper being passed heavily over the seed-pod so as to carry 
with it a considerable portion of the beard or pubescence, which 
contaminates the drug and increases its apparent quantity. The 
work of scraping begins at dawn, and must be continued till ten 
o'clock. During this time a workman will collect seven or eight 
ounces of what is called chick. The drug is next thrown into an 
earthen vessel, and covered over or drowned in linseed-oil, at the 
rate of two parts of oil to one of chick, so as to prevent evaporation. 
This is the second process of adulteration — the ryot desiring to sell 
the drug as much drenched with oil as possible, the retailers at the 
same time refusing to purchase that which is thinner than half-dried 
glue. One acre of well-cultivated ground will yield from 70 to 100 
lb. of chick. The price of chick varies from 3 to 6 rupees a lb., 
so that an acre will yield from 200 to 600 rupees* worth of opium at 
one crop. Three pounds of chick will produce about two pounds of 
opium, from a third to a fifth of the weight being lost in evapora- 
tion. It now passes into the hands of the Bunniah, who prepares 
it and brings it to market. From 25 to 50 lb. having been collected, 
it is tied up in parcels in double bags of sheeting-cloth, which are 
suspended from the ceilings so as to avoid air and light, while the 
spare linseed-oil is allowed to drop through. This operation is com- 
pleted in a week or ten days, but the bags are allowed to remain for 
a month or six weeks, during which period the last of the oil that 
can be separated comes away ; the rest probably absorbs oxygen and 
becomes thicker, as in paint. This process occupies from April to 
June or July, when rain begins. The bags are next taken down 
and their contents carefully emptied into large vats, from 10 to 15 
feet in diameter, and 6 or 8 inches thick. Here it is mixed together 
and worked up with the hands five or six hours, until it has ac- 
quired a uniform colour and consistence throughout, and become 
tough and capable of being formed into masses. This process is 
peculiar to MalwaL It is now made up into balls of from 8 to 10 
oz. each, these being thrown as formed into a basket full of the 
chaff of the seeds-pod. It is next spread out on ground previously 
covered with leaves and stalks of the Poppy. Here it remains for a 
week or so, when it is turned over and left further to consolidate 
until hard enough to bear packing. .It is ready for weighing in 
October or November, and is then sent to market. It is next 
packed in chests of 150 cakes, the total cost of the drug at the place 
of production being about 14 rupees per chest, including all ex- 
penses. About 20,000 chests are annually sent from Malwah, at a 
prime cost charge of 2 lacs and 80,000 rupees." 

The opium produced in Malwah differs from Bengal opium in 
quality and appearance as much as Turkey opium does ; while the 
latter yields 6 J per cent of morjihia, the Malwah yields 6 per cent ; 
the Bengal half as much ; but some specimen of BareiUy opium no 



330 PAPAVEIL 

less than S^ per cent of morphia. Several causes combine to produce 
important e£fect8 in the quality of the ding. Among these, locality and 
the atmosphere exercise a considerable influence. The dew, it is said, 
has the effect of facilitating the flow of juice, and, though increasing 
it in quantity, renders it of a darker colour, and more liquid than 
otherwise. A dry state of the atmosphere, accompanied by strong 
winds, is a favourable condition for elaborating the juice in the 
capsules, and this is well known not only to the cultivators, but to 
the chemists, who are aware how the chemical nature of the drug is 
deteriorated, or otherwise altered, by the effect of soil, climate, ^c, 
the proportions of naicbtine and morphia becoming changed under 
certain conditions. 

It is in the difference of their chemical constituents that Bengal 
opium differs so much &om Turkey opium, the former possessing a 
much greater quantity of narcotine. Two kinds of opium are found 
in commerce, the Turkey and East Indian : the former solid, com- 
pact, and transparent, somewhat brittle, of a dark-brown colour ; the 
latter has much less consistence, being sometimes not thicker than 
tar, and always ductile. In colour it is more dark, nauseous, but 
less bitter. It is cheaper, and not so strong as the Turkey. It is 
often adulterated with oil of sesamum, even cow-dung, the aqueous 
extract of the capsules, gum-arabic, tragacanth, aloes, and other 
articles. 

Indian opium is acknowledged to be the best, owing to the care 
taken in its cultivation and preparation. Good opium is not per- 
fectly soluble in water ; when it is soluble in water it is of an inferior 
kind. Good opium is veiy inflammable, and bums with a clear 
flame ; inferior kinds are not inflammable. Opium is fatal to plants, 
acting as a poison to vegetable as well as animal substances. It is 
still an open question whether it can be called stimulant or sedative. 
It is believed that the practice of taking opium in England is more 
on the increase than heretofore. It enters into the composition of 
many quack medicines. It is the most powerful ingredient in 
" Godfrey's cordial," and is also employed in other soothing medi- 
cines, such as " Battley's sedative liquor," " Jeremy's sedative 
solution," &c. It is always necessary on the new purchase of opium 
for medicinal purposes to ascertain previously both the presence as 
well as the amount of morphia, some specimens being occasionally 
found on analysis to be perfectly destitute of that principle. The 
following test is given in the new * Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia : ' 
"A sol\itiou from 100 grs. of fine opium macerated 24 hours, in /. 
5ii. of water, filtered and strongly squeezed in a cloth, if treated 
with a cold solution of Egs. of carbonate of soda in two waters, 
yields a precipitate which weighs when dry at least 10 grs., and 
dissolved entirely in solution of oxalic acid." 

The stimulant effects of opium are most apparent from small doses, 
which increase the energy of the mind, the frequency of the pulse, 
&c. These effects are succeeded by languor and lassitude. In 



PAPYRUS. 331 

excessive doses it proves a violent and fatal poison. By habit, the 
effects of opium on the body are remarkably diminished. The 
habitual use of this drug produces the same effects as habitual dram- 
drinking — big tumours, paralysis, stupidity, and general emaciation. 
In disease it is chiefly employed to mitigate pain, procure sleep, and 
to check diarrhoea and other excessive discharges. It is also used with 
good effect in intermittent and other fevers. Combined with calo- 
mel it is employed in cases of inflammation from local causes, such 
as wounds, fractures, <&c. It is also employed in smallpox, dysen- 
tery, and cholera, and many other compkunts. It is taken in various 
ways in different countries. The Chinese both smoke aud swallow 
it. In Turkey it is chiefly taken in pills, being sometimes mixed 
with syrup to render it more palatable. In England the drug is 
adminii^tered either in its solid state, made into pills, or as a tincture 
in the shape of laudanum. The natives in India take it in pills, oi 
dissolved in water. They sometimes put the seeds into sweet cakes, 
which are eaten by the higher ranks of Hindoos at their fSestivals. 
In Upper India an intoxicating liquor is prepared by heating the 
capsules of the Poppy with jaggery and water. The native practi- 
tioners consider it to be injurious in typhus fever, but they administer 
it in intermittents, lockjaw, and in certain stages of dysentery; 
externally they recommend it in conjunction with ginger, arrack, 
aloes, benzoin, and bdellium, in rheumatic affections. They however 
consider, after all, that it merely is efficacious in giving temporary 
relief. The oil of the seeds is almost as good as olive-oil for culinary 
purposes. It is also used for lamps, and is much prized by artists. 
At Bhopaul the oil is sold at the rate of 4-8 rupees per maund of 
25 lb., or £40, 6s. a-ton. By mere exposure of the oil to the heat of 
the son in shallow vessels, it is rendered perfectly colourless. The 
seeds are not narcotic, nor in any way deleterious, but are eaten 
freelj by birds. It is well known that the opium trade is one of 
the monopolies of Government. Great quantities are annually 
shipped to China, although the importation is strictly prohibited by 
the Chinese Government. A chest contains about 140 lb. Accord- 
ing to Mr Thornton, the production of opium in Bengal has increased 
within the last ten years cent per cent. But it is not to China alone 
that there is so large an export trade from this country ; the drug is 
now consumed in almost every country in the world. It is sent 
both from Bombay and Bengal to China. Foreign opium is only 
admitted at a heavy duty.* — Roxb. Boyle, Bengal Dispensatory. 
Ainslie, Simmonda, Ldndley, 

(428) Papyms pangorei (Nees), N. 0. Cyperacejs. 

Madoorkati, Beno. 

Desceiption. — Eoot, perennial; culms 3-6 feet, naked, 

* For an excellent account of the cnltiyation and manufactare of opium, see 
Pharm. Jonm., vol. xi. p. 205. 



332 PARATROPIA — PARITIUM. 

obsoletely 3-sided, smooth ; leaves consisting of 2 or 3 sheaths 
embracing the base of the culms ; umbels decompound ; um- 
bellets sub-sessile ; involucre about 4-leaved, one or two longer 
than the umbel ; spikelets alternate, many-flowered ; seeds 
elliptically triangular. FL Aug. — Sept. — Boxh, FL Ind, i. 208, 
— Wight Gontrib. p. 88. — Cyperus tegetum, Roxb, Penin- 
sula. Bengal. Common in ditches and borders of tanks. 

Economic Uses. — The mats so common at Calcutta, and which 
are used for the floors of rooms, are made from this grass. When 
green, they are spHt into three or four pieces, which on drying con- 
tract sufliciently to bring the margins in contact or to overlap each 
other. In this state they are woven. — Itoxb, 

(429) Paratropia venulosa (Wall.) N. 0. ARALiAOEiE. 

Unjala, Mal. Dain, Hind. 

Description. — Tree; leaves digitate; leaflets 6-7, long- 
petioled, elliptic, shortly and suddenly pointed, quite entire, 
coriaceous, with the veins prominent ; thyrses numerous at the 
end of the branches ; flowers pedicelled and umbelled, numer- 
ous ; berry o-celled. — W. & A, Prod. i. 377. — ^Arabia digitata, 

Roxb. — Rlieede, vii t 28. Circars. Courtallum hills. 

Malabar. 

Economic Uses. — A valuable oil is procured from sections in the 
trunk. 

(430) Paritium tiliaceum (St Hit) N. O. Malvace^. 

Bola, Benq. Paroottee, MiVL. 

Description. — Small tree; leaves crenulated, sometimes 
quite entire, roundish-cordate with a sudden acumination, 
7-11 nerved, upper side glabrous, under hoary with pubes- 
cence ; involucel 10-lobed, shorter than the calyx ; capsule 
5-celled, 5-valved ; cells many-seeded ; flowers large, sulphur 
with a blood-coloured eye. FL All the year. — W. & A, Prod. 
i. 52. — Wight Icon. t. 7. — Hibiscus tiliaceus, Linn. — Rheede, i 
t. 30. Malabar and Travancore. 

Economic Uses. — ^This species is common to both Indies. For- 
Btor states that the bark is sucked in times of scarcity when bread- 
fruit fails in the West Indies. It abounds in mucilage. The fibres 



PAVETTA — PAVIA. 333 

of tlie inner bark are used in the South Sea Islands. They are 
stronger when tarred. A line when tarred and tanned broke at 
62 lb., when white at 41 lb. After a hundred and sixteen days 
maceration their strength was much diminished. Eopes, cords, and 
whips are made from these fibres. Fine mats are made from them 
in Otaheite. — Royle, 

(431) Payetta Indica {Linn.) N. 0. CiNcnoNACKJE. 

Pavuttay, Tam. Paputta and Nooni-papoota, Tbl. Kookoora-choora, Beno. 
Cancra^ Hind. Malleamothe, Mal. 

Description. — Shrub, 3-4 feet ; calyx-tube ovate, limb 
4 -toothed, teeth minute, acute ; corolla hypocrateriform, lobes 
4 (occasionally 5), 2-3 times shorter than the tube, oval, ob- 
tuse; leaves opposite, oval-oblong, acuminated, tapering at the 
base, petioled ; corymbs terminal and from the upper axils, 
their primary ramifications opposite ; stamens 4 (occasionally 
5) ; style twice the length of the corolla, glabrous ; flowers 
white ; drupe globose, crowned with the calyx, 2-celled, cells 
1-seeded. Fl April— May.— TT. & A, Prod. i. 43,1.— Wight 
Icon, t 148. — P. alba, Vahl. — Ixora Pavetta, Roxb. — Rheede, v. 
1. 10. Coromandel. Malabar. Bengal. Chittagong. Silhet. 

Medical Uses. — ^The bitter root has aperient qualities, and is 
prescribed by native doctors in visceral obstructions. The fruit is 
made into pickles. The leaves are used for manuring fields. Boiled 
in water, a fomentation is made from them for hsemorrhoid pains. 
The root pulverised and mixed with ginger and rice-water is given 
in dropsy. — Ainalie, Rheede. 



(432) Pavia Indica (Colebr.) K 0. SAPiNDACEiE. 

.ludian Horse-Chestnut, Eno. 

Desckiption. — Large tree ; leaves opposite, long-petioled ; 
leaflets 7-9, spreading, petiolate, broad-lanceolate, serrated, 
sub-acuminate, somewhat glaucous above ; terminal leaflets 
larger ; flowers numerous in terminal thyrsoid, somewhat lax 
panicles at the extremities of the branches; calyx downy, 
somewhat angular, upper lip 3-toothed, under lip 2-toothed, 
lips erect ; petals 5, unequal, oval or obovate, clawed, very 
downy on the back, fifth petal often wanting ; colour white, 
the two superior and narrow ones red and yellow at the base, 



334 PAVONIA — ^PEDALIUM. 

lateral ones blush-coloured; ovary oblong, downy. — Colebr. 
MS, — Curtis BoL Mag. t 173. Eumaon. Himalaya. 

Economic Use& — ^This ia a species of uEsculus, known as the 
Indian Horse-Chestnut, called by the hill-people Kunour or PanglOj 
and is found on mountains at elevations of from 8000 to 10,000 feet 
in Kumaon, Gurwhal, and Sirmore, also near the sources of the 
Ganges, and in Kunawur. It is a lofty and not less ornamental tree 
than the common horse-chestnut. The bu^y seeds of this species 
contain a large proportion of fecula, though combined with some 
bitter principle, and is eaten in the Himalaya as those of the horse- 
chestnut have been in other parts of the world in times of fEunine. 
The bark of the latter, from its astringent properties, being employed 
as a tonic and febrifuge, it is worthy of inquiry whether the Hima- 
layan species of Pavia is possessed of any of the same properties. — 
Mcfyle. 

It is not a little remarkable that although this handsome ^dSsculus 
was distributed by Dr Wallich in 1828, it was never noticed by any 
author until the appearance of Victor Jacquemont's work (PlantcB 
rariores quae in India Orientali collegit V, Jacquemonty 1844). 
The native country of the English horse-chestnut is still unknown, 
though this species of Pavia is very nearly allied to it, distinguished 
merely by its unarmed fruit. 

Of the species under notice the wood is soft, but strong, of a 
white colour, veined and fine-grained, polishes well, and is used for 
building and cabinet purposes. — Balfour. 

(433) Payonia odorata {WilU) N. 0. Malvagbjb. 

Peiamootie, Tah. Mootoo-polagum, Tel. 

Description. — Shrub, 2-3 feet ; calyx 5-cleft ; involucel 
12-leaved, ciliated, longer than the calyx; stems viscidly 
hairy; leaves cordate, roundish-ovate, upper one 3-lobed, 
toothed, more or less hairy and viscid, lower ones sometimes 
entire; pedicels axillary, 1- flowered; carpels 5, 2-valved, 
1 -seeded, not prickly; flowers rose-coloured. FL Nearly all 

the year.— JF. & A. Prod, L ^l.—Roxb, Fl. Ind, iii 214. 

Dindigul hiUs. Vendalore. Coromandel. 

Medical Uses. — The root is used in infusion as a diet-drink 
among the Hindoos in fevers. It is thick as a quill and light- 
coloured. — Wight. 

(434) Pedalinm murez (Linn.) N. 0. Pedaliaoejb. 

Ana-neringie, Ta.h. Eaka-mooloo, Ma.l. Y e a-nugapuUe roo, Tel. Buira- 
ghokeroo, Hnn>. and Due. * 

Description. — Small plant, 1-2 feet ; calyx 5-parted, upper 



^ i)3jKCo,C5j £fujLoa ^ ka^Gayi^^^ 



PEGAKUM — ^PENICILLARIA. 335 

segments shortest ; corolla with a 3-cornered tube and 5-lobed 
limb, sub-labiate ; stamens 4 ; leaves opposite^ obovate, obtase, 
regularly toothed, truncate, smooth ; flowers yellow on short 
pedicels ; drupe armed with sharp spines, and containing a 
2-celled, 4«-winged nut ; cells 2-seeded ; seeds arillate ; flowers 
axillary, solitary, yellow. Fl Aug. — Nov. — Roxb. Fl. Lid. iii 

114 — Burm, Ind, t 45,/. 2. — Rheede, x. t, 72. Shores of 

Coromandel. Cape Comorin. Bombay. 

Mbdical IfsBS. — ^The whole plant has an odour of musk. If the 
leaves when &esh are stirred in water they render it mucilaginous, 
and this is given as a drink in gonorrhoea. The effect, however, 
goes off in ten or twelve hours, leaving the liquid in its former state. 
The seeds are administered as a decoction for the same purpose. 
They are diuretic, and are used in dropsy. The leafy stems are 
used in thickening butter-milk, to which they give a rich appearance. 
The plant is common about Cape Comorin on the sea-shores. — 
Ainslie. 

(435) Pegannm Haimala (Linn,) N, 0. ZTooFHTLLACEiB. 

Desckiption. — Herbaceous; calyx 5-partite; stamens 15, 
shorter than the petals, some abortive; anthers linear; style 
simple ; stigma trigonal ; leaves multifid, lobes linear ; flowers 
terminal, white ; capsule 3-celled, 3-furrowed, many-seeded. 

— Dec. Prod, i 712. — Dalz. Bomb. Flor. p. 45. Indapore. 

Bejapore. Punjaub. 

Medical Uses. — The plant has a strong disagreeable odour and 
bitter taste. The seeds are stimulant, emmenagogue, and anthel- 
mintic Mild narcotic properties have been assigned to them. — 
Pharm. of India, 

(436) Penicillaria gpicata (Willd.) N. 0. Grahikaoejb. 

Kumboo, Tam. Bujura, Bsng. Pedda-gantee, Tel. ^O/^^^u* 

Description. — Culms erect, with roots from the lowermost 
joints or two, round, smooth, 3-6 feet, nearly as thick as the 
little finger; leaves alternate, sheathing, broad and long, 
mouths of the sheaths bearded ; spikes terminal, cylindric, 
erect, 6-9 inches long ; pedicels generally 2-flowered, occasion- 
ally 1-4 flowered; flowers surrounded with many woolly, 
hispid, purple bristles or involucres; calyx 2-flowered, one 



336 PENTAPTERA — PHARBITtS. 

hermaphrodite, the other male, 2-valved, exterior valvelet 
minute, interior one neariy as long as the corolla, retuse, both 
awnless ; corolla of the hermaphrodite flower 2-valved, of the 
male 1-valved; stigma 2-cleft, feathery; seed pearl-coloured, 
smooth. Fl, Sept. — Nov. — Roxh, Fl, Ind, i, 283. — Holcus 
spicatuB, Linn. — Panicum spicatum, Delile. Cultivated. 

Economic Uses. — This species is much cultivated over the higher 
lands on the coast of Coromandcl. The soil it likes is one that is 
loose and rich ; in such it yields upwards of a hundred-fold. The 
same ground will yield a second crop of this or some other sort of 
dry grain from October to January. Cattle are fond of the straw ; 
and the grain is a very essential article of diet among the natives of 
the Northern Circars. The grain is called Gantiloo in Teloogoo. — 
Raxh, 

(437) Pentaptera Aijuna (Roxb.) N. 0. Combretaoe^c. 

Cahua, Hind. Arjoon, Beno. 

Description. — ^Tree, 50 feet; leaves neariy opposite, petioled, 
oblong, acute, glabrous, entire, ..bi-glandular ; spikes usually 
tern, panicled ; drupe furnished with 6-7 thick coriaceous 
wings ; flowers small, greenish white. Fl. April — May. — Eoxb. 
FloT. Ind. ii. 438. — Terminalia Arjuna, W. ib A, Prod. i. 314 
ann. Bengal. Surat jungles. 

Medical Uses. — The bark is in great repute among the natives 
as a tonic taken internally, and a vuhierary externally applied. It 
is sold by most druggists in the bazaars. — (Roxb. Dr Gibson.) It 
is useful in bilious affections, and as an antidote to poisons. The 
fruit is tonic and deobstruent. The juice of the leaves is given in 
ear-ache. — PowelVs Punj. Prod. 

Economic Uses. — The heart- wood is dark, heavy, and strong, but 
splits on exposure to the sun, and is liable to the attacks of white 
ants. — PowelVs Punj. Prod. 



(438) PharbitiB Nil {Choisy). N. 0. Convolvulace^. 

Neel kalmee, Benq. 

Description. — Annual, twining, hairy; leaves alternate, 
cordate, 3-lobed, intermediate lobe dilated at the base, downy; 
peduncles axillary, 2-3 flowered, usually longer than tlie 
petioles ; sepals ovate-lanceolate, hispid at the base ; flowers 
pale blue, expanding in the morning and closing during the 



PHASBOLUS. 337 

day, Fl July — Sept. — Convolvulus Nil, Linn, — IpomcBa 

Nil, Both. — Boxb. FL Ind. L 501. Common in most parts 

of India. 

Medical Uses. — The seeds are sold in the bazaars, under the 
name of Kcda-daTia, as an effectual and safe cathartic. Thirty to 
forty grains of the seeds, previously roasted gently and pulverised, 
make a sufficient dose for an adult. — (Roxb,) Dr O'Shaughnessy 
remarks that in 10-grain doses it produces all the effects of jalap 
with certainty and speed ; the taste is scarcely perceptible. Four 
pods sell for one rupee. We have thus a remedy of unparalleled 
cheapness, perfectly equal to jalap as a cathartic, superior to it in 
portability and flavour, occurring in all parts of India. — (Beng. Disp.) 
The seeds are black, angular, a quarter of an inch or more in length, 
weighing about half a grain each, of a sweetish and subsequently 
rather acrid taste and heavy smelL Dr G. Bidie prepared a resin 
from the seeds called Pharbitisiny which is a safe and efficient purga- 
tive. The seeds of another species of Pharbitia is sold in the bazaars 
of Bengal and the Upper Provinces by the name of Shapiutsundo. 
Each capsule contains three seeds of a brownish -red colour, and 
studded with minute hairs. When soaked in water they swell and 
yield a mucilage. In doses of from a scruple to half a drachm of 
the sun-dried powdered seed, it acts as a gentle and safe aperient. 
It is at the same time considered to exercise a beneficial influence, 
as an alterative, in skin diseases. They are probably the seeds of 
IporruBa cymosa and /. sepiariaf which have their seeds covered 
with short brown hairs. Both species are widely difiused through- 
out India. These are sometimes called Lal-dana (Bed seed), in con- 
tradistinction to Kala-dana (Black seed). — Pharm, of India. 

(439) Phaseolus Mango (Linn.) N. 0. LEOUMiNosiE. 

Oreen Gram, Enq. Moong, Hind. Kali-moong, Kherooya, Bulat, Beno. 
Pucha-payaroo, Siroo-payaru, Tam. Woothooloo, Pessaloo. Tel. )€ 

Description. — Annual, nearly erect, hairy ; leaves pinnately 
trifoliolate ; leaflets broadly ovate or rhomboid, entire ; ped- 
uncles at first shorter, afterwards longer than the petioles ; 
racemes axillary ; corolla papilionaceous ; flowers in a kind of 
cylindrical head ; keel twisted to the left with a short spur 
near the base on the left; legume horizontal, cylindrical, 
slender, hairy, 6-15 seeded ; seeds striated ; flowers greenish 
yellow. Fl. Dec— Jan.— JT. & A. Prod. i. 245.— JRoxft. Fl. 
Ind. iii 292. — P. Max. — Boxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 295. — RJieede, viii. 
t 50. Cultivated. 

EooNOMic Uses. — ^This is extensively cultivated by the natives, to 
whom the pulse is of great importance, especially ii\ times of famine. 



338 PHASEOLUS. 

There are several varieties, one of which has dark-colouied seeds, 
and is called Black gram. Largo quantities are annually exported 
from Madras, and shipped chiefly for Pegu, Bengal, Bombay, 
Mauritius, and other places. — (Comm. Prod. Mad, Pres. Roxh.) It 
is sometimes sown in alternate drills with the great nullet {Sorghum) 
or spiked millet, and in rice cultivation a crop is generally taken off 
the same land when it has become diy. It is sown in the. cold 
weather, and reaped in the hot season, after a period varying from 
seventy-five to ninety days. So large a proportion of the pulse 
crops does it form that these are collectively called Payaroo, hence 
the word is synonymous with out pulse. The black variety, P. Max, 
(Eoxb.), is less esteemed, and is sown earlier, requiring more mois- 
ture. The flour of the green variety is an excellent variety for soap, 
leaving the skin soft and smooth, and is an invariable concomitant 
of the Hindoo bath. — ( W. Elliott) The tuberous roots of the P. 
rostratus (Wall.) are eaten by the natives. — /. Graham, 

(440) Phaseolns Boxbnrghii (W. & A.) Do. 

Mash-kulay, Benq. Minoomooloo, Tel. Moong Thikeree, Htni). Oalandoo, 
Tam. 

Description. — ^Annual, diffuse ; leaves pinnately trifoliolate, 
hairy; leaflets ovate, acuminated, slightly repand, but not 
lobed; peduncles erect, shorter than the petioles; flowers 
somewhat capitate ; keel twisted to the left with a very long 
horn near the base on the left side ; legumes very hairy, 
cylindrical, few-seeded, nearly erect ; seeds smooth, somewhat 
truncated at both ends ; flowers yellow. Ft, Dec. — Jan, 
— W.i&A, Prod, i. 246.— P. radiatus, Roxh. Ft, Ind, iii. 296 
(not Linn.) Circars. Travancore. Malabar. 

Economic Uses. — There are two other varieties, with black and 
green seeds respectively. This is the most esteemed of all the 
leguminous plants, and the pulse bears the highest price. Of the 
meal the natives make bread for many of their religious ceremonies. 
Its produce is about thirty-fold. Cattle are very fond of the straw. 
The root is said by Dr Royle to contain a narcotic principle. — 
(Roxh.) Mixed with grain it is reckoned strengthening for horses. 
An average seed is the origin of the most common weights used by 
Hindoo goldsmiths. The unit is the retti or seed of the Ahrus 
2)recatoriu8f from five to ten of which make a masha, or about 17 
grains Troy. — W. Elliott. 

(441) PhaseoluB trilobns (Aif.) Do. 

Mooganee, Beno. Pilli-pessora, Tel. Trianggnli, Hind. 

Description, — Herbaceous, procumbent, diffuse ; petioles 



PHCENIX. 339 

elongated; leaves pinnately trifoliolate ; leaves much shorter 
than the petioles, roundish and entire, 3-lobed, middle lobe 
obovate, narrower towards the base; peduncles elongated, 
ascending ; flowers few, small, capitate, yellow ; legume 
cylindrical, glabrous, or slightly hairy. FL Dec. — Jan. — 
W. & A. Prod. i. 246.— Wight Icon. t. 94— ^oic6. FL Ind, 

iii 298. — Dolichos trilobus, Dec. Common in the Deccan 

and Bengal. 

Economic Uses. — ^There are several varieties. The plant is 
cultivated for its seeds, which are eaten by the poorer classes. It 
affords good fodder. Ainslie states that the plant in Behar is 
given by the Vytians in decoction in cases of irregular fever. — 
Roxh. Ainslie. 



(442) Phoanix farinifera (Roxb.) N. O. PALicACEiE. 

Chinita-ita, Tel. Eentba, Mal. Eethie, Tam. 

Description. — Shrub, 2-3 feet; leaves pinnate ; leaflets long, 
narrow, pointed ; spathe axillary, 1 - valved ; spadix erect, 
much ramified ; branches simple, spreading ; male flowers, 
calyx 3-toothed ; petals 3 ; stamens 6 ; female flowers, petals 
3 ; berry-black, shining. FL Jan. — Feb. — RoaA, FL Ind. iii. 
785. — Cor, i. t. 74. — ?— Sandy situations and plains in the 
Deccan. Travancore. 

EcoNOHio Uses. — The sweet pulp of the seeds of this dwarf 
species of date-palm is eaten by the natives. The leaflets are made 
into mats and the petioles into baskets. A large quantity of farina- 
ceous substance, which is found m the small stem, is used as food in 
times of scarcity. In order to separate it from the numerous white 
fibres in which it is enclosed, the stem is split into six or eight 
pieces, dried, beaten in mortars, and then sifted ; this is then boiled 
to a thick gruel. It is not so nutritive as common sago, and it has 
a bitter taste. A better preparation might make it more deserving 
of attention. — (Roxb.) The Phnmix paludosa (Roxb,), an elegant- 
looking palm, is characteristic of the Simderbunds. It is easily 
recognised by its flat solitary pinnae, and the sh&pe of its fruit, which 
is sessile, on thick knobs pointing downwards, first yellow, then red, 
lastly black-purple, ovaL The trunks of the smaller trees serve for 
walking-sticks, and the natives have an idea that snakes get out of 
the way of any person having such a staff. The larger ones serve for 
rafters to houses and the leaves for thatch. It is an elegant palm, 
and well adapted for bank scenery. — RoxIk 



340 PHCENIX. 



(443) Phoonix sylvestris (Roxh.) Do. 

Wild-date, Eno. Ehajoor, BsNO. Eetchum-pannay, Tam. Eeta, Tel. Seyndie, 
Hind. 

Description.— Height 30-40 feet ; fronds 10-15 feet long ; 
petioles compressed towards the apex with a few short spines 
at the base; pinnae numerous, densely fascicled, ensiform, 
rigid ; male spadix 2-3 feet long ; spathe of the same length, 
separating into 2 valves ; spikes numerous towards the apex 
of the peduncle, 4-6 inches long, slender, very flexuose; calyx 
cup-shaped, 3-toothed ; petals longer than the calyx, ridged 
and furrowed on the inside ; femaie spikes 1^ feet long, not 
bearing flowers throughout, the lower 4-6 inches; flowers 
distant; petals 3, very broad; style recurved; fruit scattered 
on long pendulous spikes, roundish. Fl. March. — Rosdb. Fl, 

Ind. iii 787. — Elate sylvestris, Linn. — Bheede, iii 22-25. 

Common all over India. 

Economic Uses. — This tree yields Palm-wine. But free extrac- 
tion destroys the appearance and fertility of the tree, the fruit of 
those that have been cut for drawing off the juice being very smalL 
The mode of drawing off the juice is, by removing the lower leaves 
and their sheaths, and cutting a notch into the pit£ of the tree near 
the top, whence it issues, and is conducted by a small channel made 
of a bit of the Palmyra palm-leaf into a pot suspended to receive it. 
On the coast of Coromandel this palm-juice is either drunk fresh 
from the tree, or boiled down into sugar, or fermented for distillar 
tion, when it gives out a large portion of ardent spirit, commonly 
called Paria-arak on the coast of Coromandel. There, as well as in 
Guzerat, and especially in Bengal, the Khajur is the only tree whose 
sap is much employed for boiling down to sugar, mixed more or less 
with the juice of the sugar-cane. At the age of from seven to ten 
years, when the trunk of tlie trees will be about 4 feet in height, 
they begin to yield juice, and continue productive for twenty or 
twenty-five years. It is extracted from November till February, 
during which period each tree is reckoned to yield from 120 to 240 
pints of juice, which averages 180 pints. Every 12 pints or pounds 
is boiled down to one of Goor or Jagari, and 4 of this yield 1 of 
good powdered sugar, so that the average produce of each tree is 
about 7 or 8 lb. of sugar annually. This date-sugar is not so much 
esteemed as cane-sugar, and sells for about one-fourth less. 

A further description is given in Martin's ' East Indies,' where he 
says, " A tree is fit for being cut when ten years old, and lasts about 
twenty years more, during which time, every other year, a notch is 
cut into the stem just under the new leaves that annually shoot 



PHYLLANTHUS. 341 

from the extremity. The notches are made alternately on opposite 
sides of the stem. The upper cut is horizontal, the lower slopes 
gradually inwar^ &om a point at the bottom untU it meets the 
upper, and a leaf at this point collects into a pot the juice that 
exudes. The season commences about the beginning of October, and 
lasts until about the end of April. After the first commencement, 
so long as the cut bleeds, a very thin slice is daily taken from the 
surface. In from two to seven days the bleeding stops, the tree is 
allowed an equal number of days' rest, and is then cut again, giving 
daily 2 seers of juice. The juice" when fresh is very sweet, with 
somewhat the flavour of the water contained in a young cocoanut 
This is slightly bitter and astringent, but at the same time has 
somewhat of a nauseous smell. Owing to the coolness of the season, 
it does not readily ferment. It is therefore collected in large pots ; 
a little (yv) old fermented juice is added, and it is exposed to the 
sun for about three hours, when the process is complete. A tree 
gives annually about 64 seers of juice, or bleeds about thirty-two 
days. No sugar is made from the juice ; ^ seer or a pint of the 
fermented juice makes some people drunk,'^and few can stEind double 
the quantity. Mats for sleeping on are made of the leaves, and are 
reckoned the best used in the districts, and also baskets from the 
leaf-stalks, &c" The latter are twisted into ropes, and employed for 
drawing water from wells in Bellary and other places. The natives 
chew the fruit in the same manner as they do the areca-nut with the 
betel-leaf and chunam. — Boxb. Boyle. Fib. Plants. MartirCa East 
Indies. Simmonds. 



(444) Phyllanthiui mnltiflorns {WiUd.) K. 0. Euphobbiaobjc 

Poola TByr pnttay, Tam. Nella-pooroogoodoo, Tel. Eatou niiuri, BIal. 

Descrtption.— Shrubby; primary branches virgate, young 
shoots pubescent ; floriferous branchlets angular ; leaves 
nearly oval, obtuse, bifarious; flowers axillary, aggregated, 
several males and usually 1-female ; male flowers purplish ; 
berries 8-12 seeded, dark, purple, or black, soft and pulpy, 
sweet-tasted. FL Nearly all the year. — ^Anisonema multi- 
flora. K W.— Wight Icon, t 1899.— iioaJ. Ft. Ind. iii. 664. 
Eheede, x. t. 27. CoromandeL Concans. Bengal. 

Medical TJsEa — ^A common shrub near water, climbing if it has 
the support of bushes. The root, which is sold in the bazaars, is 
about a foot long and 2 inches thick, dark outside and sweetish- 
tasted. It is considered alterative and attenuant, and is given in 
decoction, about four ounces or more twice daily. The bark is used 
for dyeing a reddish brown. — Ainslie. Wight, 



342 PHYLLANTHUS — PINUS. 

(^45) Phyllanthns nimii (Linn,) Do. 

Kiijaneilie, Ma.l. Sada hajur-mimi, Beng. Kilanelly, Tam. Neela-oosbireker, 
Tel. Bheen ounlah, Duk. 

Description. — Annual, erect, ramous ; branches herbaceous, 
ascending ; floriferous branchlets filiform ; leaves elliptic, 
inucronate, entire, glabrous; flowers axillary; male flowers 
minute, two or three with one longer pedicelled ; female in 
each axil, terminating in three transverse anthers ; capsule 
globose, glabrous, 3-angled, with 2 seeds in each ceU ; seed 
triangular; flowei's minute, greenish. FL Nearly all the 
year. — Wight Icon, t. 1894 — Boai), Fl. Ind, iii. 659. — £heede, 
X. t, 15. Peninsula. Travancore. Bengal. 

Medical Uses. — The root, leaves, and young shoots are used 
mediciaally as deobstruent and diuretic ; the two first in powder or 
decoction in jaundice or bilious complaints, the latter in infusion 
in dysentery. The leaves, which are bitter, are a good stomachic 
The fresh root is given in jaundice. Half an ounce rubbed up in 
a cup of milk and given morning and evening will complete the 
cure in a few days without any sensible operation of the medicine. 
The juice of the stem mixed with oil is employed in ophthalmia. 
The leaves and root pulverised and made into poultice with rice- 
water are said to lessen oedematous swelling and ulcers. — {Boxb. 
Ainslie. Rheede.) The P, urinaria (Linn.) is said to be power- 
fully diuretic, from whence its specific name. — {Ainslie,) The fresh 
leaves of the P, simplex (Retz) bruised and mixed with butter-milk 
are used by the natives to cure itch in children. — Raxh, 

(446) Pinus Deodara {Roxb.) K 0. Conifeilb. 

Deodar Pine, Esq. 

Description. — Large tree, coma pyramidal, large, branches 
verticillate, lower ones somewhat hanging down, upper ones 
spreading, all pendulous at the apex ; leaves spreading or 
pendulous at the top of the shortened branchlets, somewhat 
30-fasciculately collected, shortish, straight, stiffish, some- 
what quadrangular, sides slightly compressed, green, bluntishly 
mucronate at the apex ; male aments solitary, erect, oblong, 
acute ; antheriferous bracts stalked, ovate above, rounded and 
denticulate at the apex ; cones solitary, erect on a short 
branchlet or on a 2-cleft branchlet twin, oval or oval-oblong, 
very obtuse, not umbilicate ; scales numerous, imbricated, 
somewhat woody ; bracts small, much shorter than the scale ; 



PIN us. 343 

nuts obovate, narrowed at the base, shorter than the obovate- 
triangnlar wing. — Roxb, FL Ind, iii. p. 651. — Dec. Prod. xvi. s. 
post, p. 408. — Cedrus deodara, Loudon {cum. fig) — Abies 
deodara, Lindl. Himalaya. 

Medical Uses. — ^This species of pine yields a coarse fluid kind of 
turpentine (Kelon ka tel, Hind.), esteemed by the natives as an 
application to ulcers and skin diseases, as well as in the treatment 
of leprosy. Dr Gibson regards it as very effectual in this latter 
disease when given in large doses. It always acts as a diaphoretic, 
but is found very variable in its action, — in some cases a drachm 
causing vomiting; in others half an ounce inducing only slight 
nausea. — (Johnst. in Cede. Med. Phys. Trans, y i. 41.) Dr Royle 
states that the leaves and twigs of the deodar are brought down to 
the plains, being much employed in native medicine. 

Another species is the P. longifolia (Roxb.), which grows at 
elevations on the Himalaya from 2000 to 6000 feet. It is known 
by the native names GJtcermllah, Sarul^ and Thansa. The natives 
of Upper India obtain fix)m it both tar and turpentine. The former 
is said to be equal to that obtained by a more refined process in 
Europe, and the turpentine is stated merely to require attention to 
render it equal to the imported article. — (Journ. As. Soc. Bang. ii. 
249). Dr Cleghom has furnished some valuable remarks on the 
manufacture of tar from this tree as well as from P. excelsa. He 
considers it fuUy equal to Swedish tar. — Agri. Hort. Soc. of India, 
1865, xiv. p. i. App. p. 7. 

Economic Uses. — The Deodar pine is highly valued for its 
timber, large quantities of which are annually felled for the railways 
and government purposes. Large forests of it exist on the Himalaya 
slopes, and especially in the Punjaub, along the banks of the Ravee, 
Beas, and other rivers. In the Chenab forests, too, they are plentiful. 
The P. exceUa, a tree in nowise inferior to the Deodar, grows in the 
same regions. The range within which the Deodar is found growing 
spontaneously extends from about 3000 to 9000 feet above the sea, 
though it rarely occurs so low as 3000 feet, and grows at a disad- 
vantage at the highest elevation. Previous to the establishment of 
the Forest Conservancy, vast quantities of these valuable timber- 
trees were recklessly destroyed, and it has been found desirable to 
form plantations for fresh plants, which, in the Punjaub especially, 
have been carried out on a large scale. According to the Conser- 
vator's report (Feb, 1867) on the forests of the Chenab and Ravee 
divisions, there were only remaining of first-class deodars 17,500 — 
viz., 12,000 in Chenab, and 5500 in the Ravee division. This 
diminution of the numbers formerly known to exist caused the 
Government to limit the number to be felled annually, and rules for 
tliis object are now strictly observed. Prices for good Deodar in the 
Punjaub, increasing in the case of logs under 20 feet in length, 
averaged &om about eight annas in 1850 to one rupee per cubic 



344 ' PIPER. 

foot in 1866. For the greater lengths, from 20 to 30 feet, which 
are very scarce, the rate of eleven cuinas has now risen at Lsdiore to 
Rs. 2, 8 ; at Attock the price is one rupee per cubic foot. — Govt. 
lieportSf July 1866. 

In Joonsar Bawur, situated between the native states under the 
Simla agency and the Rajah of Gurwhal's country, there are several 
line Deodar forests which were inspected by Dr Brandis in 1863, and 
reported upon by him. He found one beautiful forest of pure 
Deodar, which seemed to spring up with great vigour wherever it 
had a chance, and thousands upon thousands of young seedlings 
coming up as thick as corn in a field. In the Kotee forest the 
Deodar growth was perfectly extraordinary. Two of the old stumps, 
which were of huge size, though imperfect, showed that the trees in 
the twenty-one years of their life had attained a diameter of timber 
of 12 and 13 inches respectively. In another forest, in Lokan, 
there were counted in one spot, in about 4 acres, between 200 
and 250 Urst-class trees of 6 feet girth, none of them under 100 
feet in height, while many must have approached 200 feet The 
estimated contents of these nine forests of Joonsar Bawur were 
34,000 first-class and 37,000 second-class Deodars. The above will 
give some idea of the resources of these forests. These are exclusive 
of the F, excelsa {Cheel\ which also abounds there, and the Cheer 
or P. longifolia. In Major Pearson's report upon the localities at 
the head of the Jumna river he states — **It would be difficult 
adequately to describe the enormous seas of CJieer forest which line 
its banks. The trees must be numbered by hundreds of thousands, 
many of them of a huge size. The same exists on the left bank of 
the Tonse, but higher up the river the Cheel (P. excelsa) takes the 
place of the Cheer, but the latter may be considered the chief tree. 
I believe, from inquiries, that if 15,000 or 20,000 logs can be got 
down to the riyer, there would be no difficulty in sawing up a hih 
of sleepers per annum in these forests." — (Major Pearson! a Report to 
Secy, to Govt, bth Dec, 1869.) It may be interesting to mention 
here that the first conifer found in Soutbem India (Podocarpus) was 
discovered by Major Beddome in 1870 abundant on the Tinnevelly 
Hilla 

(447) Piper nigmm {Linn,) N. 0. PiPERAOBiB. 

Black-pepper vine, Eno. Molago-codi, Ma.l. Molagoo-vully, Tam. Choca, 
DuK. Moloovoo'kodi, Tel. Eala-mirch, Hind. Gol-murich, Benq. 

Desceiption. — Stem shrubby, climbing, rooting, round; 
leaves coriaceous, glabrous, pale glaucous beneath, adult ones 
revolute on the margins, the lower ones roundish-ovate, about 
equal-sided, slightly cordate or truncated at the base, 7-9 
nerved, upper ones ovate- elliptic or elliptic, usually unequal- 
sided, acutely acuminate, 7-5 nerved ; catkins hermaphrodite 



PIPER, 345 

or female, filiform, pendulous, shortly peduncled, shorter than 
the leaves ; berries globose, red when ripe ; floriferous calycule 
in the hermaphrodite, 4-lobed. Wight Icon. 1934. — Roocb, 

Fl. Ind. L 150.— Bheede, viL t. 12. Malabar forests. N. 

Circars. 

ft 

Medical Uses. — Pepper contains an acrid soft resin, volatile oil, 
piperin, gum, bassorine, malic and tartaric acids, &c. ; the odour 
being probably due to the volatile oil, and the pimgent taste to the 
resin. The berries medicinally used are given as stimulant and 
stomachic, and when toasted have been employed successfully in 
stopping vomiting in cases of cholera. The root is used as a tonic, 
stimulant, and cordial. A liniment is also prepared with them of 
use in chronic rheumatism. The watery infusion has been of use 
as a gargle in relaxation of the uvida. As a seasoner of food, pepper 
is well known for its excellent stomachic qualities. An infusion of 
the seeds is given as an antidote to arsenic, and the juice of the 
leaves boiled in oil externally in scabies. Pepper in over-doses acts 
as a poison, by over-exerting the inflammation of the stomach, and 
its acting powerfully on the nervous system. It is known to be a 
poison to hogs. The distilled oil has very little acrimony. A tinc- 
ture made in rectified spirit is extremely hot and fiery. Pepper has 
been successfully used in vertigo, and paralytic and arthritic dis- 
orders. — LdncUey. Ainslie. 

Economic Uses. — ^The black-pepper vine is indigenous to the 
forests of Malabar and Travancore. For centuries pepper has been 
an article of exportation to European countries from the western 
coast of India. It was an article of the greatest luxury to the 
Eomans during the Empire, and is frequently alluded to by his- 
torians. Pliny states its price in the Roman market as being 4s. 
9d. a-lb. in English money. Persius gives it the epithet sacrum^ as 
it were a thing to set a store by, so much was it esteemed. Even 
in later ages, so valuable an article of commerce was it considered, 
that when Attila was besieging Rome in the fifth century, he particu- 
larly named among other things in the ransom for the city about 
3000 lb, of pepper. Although a product of many countries in the 
East, that which comes from Malabar is acknowledged to be the 
best. 

Its cultivation is very simple, and is effected by cuttings or suckers 
put down before the commencement of the rains in June. The soil 
should be rich, but if too much moisture be allowed to accumulate 
near the roots, the young plants are apt to rot. In three years the 
vine begins to bear. They are planted chiefly in hilly districts, 
but thrive well enough in the low country in the moist climate of 
Malabar. They are usually planted at the base of trees which have 
rough or prickly bark, such as the jack, the erythrina, cashewnut, 
mango-tree, and others of similar description. They will climb about 
20 or 30 feet, but are purposely kept lower than that. During their 



346 PISTIA. 

growth it is requisite to remove aU suckers, and the vine should be 
pruned, thinned, and kept clean of weeds. After the berries have 
been gathered they are dried on mats in the sun, turning from red 
to black. They must be plucked before they are quite ripe, and if 
too early they will spoil "White-pepper is the same firuit freed from 
its outer skin, the ripe berries being macerated in water for the pur- 
pose. In this latter state they are smaller, of greyish-white colour, 
and have a less aromatic or pungent taste. The pepper-vine is very 
common in the hilly districts of Travancore, especially in the 
Cottayam, Meenachel, and Chenganacherry districts, where at an 
average calculation about 5000 candies are produced annually. It 
is one of the Sircar monopolies. 

The greatest quantity of pepper comes from Sumatra. The duty 
on pepper in England is 6d- per lb., the wholesale price being 4d. 
per lb. White-pepper varies from ninepence to one shilling per lb. 
It may not be irrelevant here to notice the P. frioicum (Eoxb.), 
which both Dr Wight and Miquel consider to be the original type 
of the P. nigrum, and from which it is scarcely distinct as a species. 
The question will be set at rest by future botanists. The species in 
question was first discovered by Dr Roxburgh growing wild in the 
hills north of Samulcottah, where it is called in Teloogoo the Murial- 
tiga. It was growing plentifully about every valley among the 
hiUs, delighting in a moist rich soil, and well shaded by trees ; the 
flowers appearing in September and October, and the berries ripening 
'in March. Dr R commenced a large plantation, and in 17j89 it 
contained about 40,000 or 60,000 pepper- vines, occupying about 60 
acres of land. The produce was great, about 1000 vines yielding 
from 600 to 1000 lb. of berries. He discovered that the pepper of 
the female vines did not ripen properly, but dropped while green, 
and that when dried it had not the pimgency of the common pepper ; 
whereas the pepper of those plants which had the hermaphrodite and 
female flowers mixed on the same ament was exceedingly pungent, 
and was reckoned by the merchants equal to the best Malabar 
pepper. — RoxK Simmonds, Wight Ainslie. 

(448) Pistia stratiotes (Linn.) N. 0. PisTiAOBiE. 

Kodda-pail, Mal. Agasatamaray, Tail Antarei-tamara, Tel. Unter-ghungha, 
DuK. Toka-pana, HnfD. 

Description. — Stemless, floating; roots numerous, fibrous; 
leaves subsessile, wedge-shaped at the base, elliptic or obovat^, 
alternated at the base, glaucous on the upper surface, radiate- 
veined, about 20, spreading out, central leaves smaller than 
the outer ones, inner ones erect, tomentose ; fibres long, ter- 
minated by other plants; flowers axillary, solitary, erect, on 
short peduncles, white. FL April. — Roxb, FL Ind. iii 131. — 
Bheede, xi. t. 32. Tanks and ditches everywhere. 



PLANTAGO — PLUMBAGO. 347 

Medical Uses. — ^This plaot is common throughout the country. 
Adanson affinns in his History of Senegal that the primary root is 
fixed strongly in the bank. It was suggested by Jacquin that 
perhaps the young plant may be fixed at first and break loose after- 
wards. The plant is cooling and demulcent, and is given in dysuria. 
The leaves are made into poultices and applied to haemorrhoids. In 
Jamaica, according to Browne, it impregnates the water in hot dry 
weather with its particles to such a degree as to give rise to the 
bloody flux. The leaves mixed with rice and cocoa-nut milk are 
given in dysentery, and with rose-water and sugar in coughs and 
asthma. The root is laxative and emollient. — Bheede. Ainslie. 

(449) Plantain Isphagola (Eoxb.) K. 0. PLANTAOiNACEiE. 

Ispagool, Hnro. 

Description. — ^Annual ; stem short, if any, branches ascend- 
ing, 2-3 inches long; leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate, 3- 
nerved, somewhat woolly, channelled towards the base, stem- 
clasping, 6-8 inches long ; peduncles axillary, solitaiy, erect, 
slightly villous, the length of the leaves ; spikes solitary, ter- 
minal ; flowers numerous, imbricated, small, dull white ; bracts 
1-flowered, with gi*een keel and membranaceous sides ; calyx 
4-leaved, with membranaceous margins ; corolla 4-cleft, seg- 
ments ovate, acute; capsule ovate, 2 -celled; seeds solitary. 
FL Nov. — Jan. — £oxb. Flor. Ind. i. 404. Cultivated. 

Medical Uses. — From the seeds a mucilaginous drink is prepared, 
and often prescribed as an emoDient. They are also employed by 
native practitioners in medicine, and are to be met with in the Indian 
bazaars under the name of Ispagool. — (Roxb.) The seeds are of a very 
cooling nature, and are used medicinally in catarrh, blennorhaBa, and 
affections of the kidneys. They are also deservedly recommended in 
chronic diarrhoea, two teaspoonfuls being given twice a-day with a 
little powdered sugar-candy. — (AinsUe.) The seeds are convex on the 
outside, concave within. This medicine has been especially recom- 
mended by the late Mr Twining ('Diseases of Bengal,' i. 212) 
for the chronic diarrhoea of Europeans long resident in India. This 
remedy sometimes cures the protracted diarrhoea of European and 
native children when all other remedies have failed. — Fhami, of 
India. 

(450) Plumbago rosea (Linn.) N. 0. Plukbaginacks. 

Rose-coloured Leadwort, Eva. Schettie codivalie or Choovonda-coduvalie, Mal. 
Shencodie vaylie, Tam. Yerracithra moolum, Tel. Lal-cbitra, DuK. Rukto 
cbita, Beno. 

Description. — Shrubby, perennial, stems jointed, smooth, 



348 PLUMBAGO. 

flezuous; branches nearly bifarious; leaves alternate, ovate, 
waved, smooth, entire; petioles short, stem-clasping, channelled; 
raceme axiUary and terminal, smooth ; flowers bright red. FL 

March — July. — Roxb. FL Ind, L 463. — Eheede, xiL t 9. 

Peninsula. Common in gardens. 

Medical Uses. — ^The root when bruised is acrid and stimu- 
lating ; and when mixed with oil is used externally in rheumatic 
and paralytic affections. It is also given internally for the same 
complaints. In Java it is used for the purpose of blistering, excit- 
ing great inflammation, and producing less effusion than cantharides. 
Also a good remedy in ulcers, cutaneous diseases, rheumatism, and 
leprosy. The leaves made into plasters are said by the natives to be 
a good application to buboes and incipient abscesses. — (Ainslie, 
Horsfield,) Taken internally, it is an acrid stimulant, and in large 
doses acts as an acro-narcotic poison, in which character it is not 
unfrequently employed by the natives in BengaL Its action is 
apparently directed to the uterine system, and according to Dr Allan 
Webb is one of the articles used among the natives for procuring 
abortion. The Javanese apply the root topically for the cure of 
toothache. — Pharm. of India. 



(451) Plnmbago Zeylanica (Linn,) Do. 

Tumba-codivselie, M^. Chitnunoolam or EodivayUe, Tam. Ghittormal. DuEa 
Chita, Hind. Chitra, Bsng. 

Description. — Perennial, shrubby; stems jointed, smoothi 
flexuous ; branches nearly bifarious ; leaves alternative, ovate, 
waved, smooth, entire ; racemes axillary and terminal, covered 
with much glutinous hair ; outer bract much larger than the 
lateral ones, glutinous; flowers pure white. FL Nearly all 

the year. — Boxh.FL Ind. i. 463. — Rheede, x. t 8. Courtallum. 

Travancore. Concans. BengaL 

Medical Uses. — ^The fresh bark bruised is made into a paste, 
mixed with rice-conjee and applied to buboes. It acts as a vesica- 
tory. Wight says the natives believe that the root, reduced to powder 
and administered during pregnancy, will cause abortion.— {AtTt^Zte. 
Wight) It appears to possess the properties of the preceding 
species, but is milder in its operation. A tincture of the root-bark 
has been employed as an antiperiodic. Dr Oswald states that he has 
employed it in the treatment of intermittents with good eifect. It 
acts as a powerful sudorific. The activity of both species resides in 
a peculiar crystalline principle known as Plumbagin, — {Pharm, of 
India,) The root used in combination with BishtaJi is applied in 
cases of enlarged spleen, and as a tonic in dyspepsia. In the Sand- 



?060ST£M0N. 349 

wicli Islands it is employed to stain the skin permanently black. — 
Ag. Hort, Joum, of India, 

(452) Pogostexnon Patchonli (Pellet). K 0. Lahiagejs. 

Gottam, Mal, Kottam, Tam. Pucba-pat or Patchouli, Bsnq. 

Description. — SufiFruticose, 2-3 feet, pubescent ; stems 
ascending; leaves petioled, rhombo - ovate, slightly obtuse, 
crenato-dentate ; spikes terminal and axillary, densely crowded 
with flowers interrupted at the base ; calyx hirsute ; segments 
lanceolate^ filaments bearded ; flowers white, with red stamens 
and yellow anthers. — Hookev^s Joum, of Bot i. 329. — Benth, in 
Dec. Prod. xii. 153. — Bheede, x. t. 77. Silhet. 

EooNOMio Uses. — ^The true identification of this plant was long a 
matter of discussion among botanists, but the subject has been set 
at rest by Sir W. Hooker, who managed to raise the plant in the 
Botanic Gardens at Kew, and which flowered there in 1849. It 
appears to be a native of Silhet, Penang, and the Malay Peninsula ; 
but the dried flowering-spikes and leaves of the plant, which are 
used, are sold in every bazaar in Hindostan. From the few scattered 
notices of this celebrated perfume, it would appear that it is exported 
in great quantities to Europe, and sold in all perfumers' shops. The 
odour is most powerful, more so perhaps than that derived from any 
other plant. In its pure state it has a kind of musty odour analo- 
gous to Lycopodium, or, as some say, smelling of '' old coats.'' 
Chinese or Indian ink is scented by some admixture of it. Its 
introduction into Europe as a perfume was singular enough, accounted 
for in the following manner : — 

A few years ago, real Indian shawls bore an extravagant price, an4 
purchasers distiuguished them by their odour — in fact, they were 
perfumed with Patchouly. The French manufacturers had for some 
time successfully imitated the Indian fabric, but could not impart 
the odour. At length they discovered the secret, and began to 
import this plant to perfume articles of their make, and thus palm 
off" home-spun shawls as real Indian ones. From this origin the 
perfumers have brought it into use. The leaves powdered and put 
into muslin bags prevent cloths from being attacked by moths. 

Dr Wallich states that a native friend of his told him that the 
leaf is largely imported by Mogul merchants ; that it is used as an 
ingredient in tobacco for smoking, and for scenting the hair of 
women; and that the essentisd oil ia in common use among the 
superior classes of the natives, for imparting the peculiar &a^ance 
of the leaf to clothes. It is exported in great quantities from 
Penang. The Arab merchants buy it chiefly, employing it for stuff- 
ing mattresses and pillows, asserting that it is very efficacious in 
preventing contagion and prolonging life. For these purpoeee no 



350 POINCIAI^A. 

other pieparation is required, save simply drying the plant in the 
sun, taking care not to dry it too much, lest the leaves become too 
brittle for packing. In Bengal it has cost Bs. 11-8 per maund, but 
the price varies. It has been sold as low as Es. 6. The drug 
has been exported from China to 'New York, and from thence to 
England. The volatile oil is procured by distillation. The Sachets 
de Patchouliy which are sold in the shops, consist of the herb, 
coarsely powdered, mixed with cotton root and folded in paper. 
These are placed in drawers and cupboards to drive away moth and 
insects. The P. Heyneanum (Benth.) is probably merely a variety, 
with larger spikes and more drooping in habit. This plant is figured 
in Wallich, PL As, Res, i. ^. 31. J. Graham states that it is found 
wild in the Concans. Rheede's synonym probably is the P, Hey- 
neanum, which the natives use for perfuming purposes. — Hooker* s 
Joum, of Bot, Pharm, Joum, viiL 674, and ix. 282. Wallich 
in Med, Phys, Soc. Trans. Plant As, Ear. Simmonds. 

(453) Poinciana elata (Linn,) N, 0. LEGUMiNosfi. 

Sooncaishla, Tel. Fade rarrayan, Tam. Neerangi, Can. 

Description. — Arboreous, unarmed ; leaflets linear, obtuse ; 
flower-buds obovate-oblong, acute; calyx more or less pub- 
escent or shortly villous, particularly on the inside ; sepals 
coriaceous, equal, lanceolate, acute ; aestivation valvular ; petals 
fringed ; ovary villous ; legume flat-compressed, several-seeded. 
— Linn, sp, p. 554. — Dec. Prod. ii. 484. — W, & A. Prod, i 
282. Coromandel and Malabar. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — This tree has been extensively and successfully 
used as a protection for the footings of rivers and channel banks, 
where it is not wanted to spread laterally and cause obstructions. 
It should be planted in cuttings in December. It grows quickly, 
and its wood may be used for basket-boats. The tree gives a good 
shade, and for this purpose is planted on roadsides. The leaves are 
much used for manuring indigo-fields in Cuddapah ; and though the 
trees are greatly stripped for this purpose, they quickly grow again 
in great abundance. — Captain Besfs Report to Bomb, Govt, 1863. 

(454) Poinciana pnlcherrima {Linn,) Do. 

Barborloos Flowerfence, Eno. Tsettl mandaram, Mal. Myle konney, Komri, 
Tam. Khorish churin, Hind. ElriBlma choora, Beng. Beyla, Tel. 

Description.— Shrub, 8-10 feet, armed; sepals 5, obtuse, 
unequal, lower one vaulted; Aestivation imbricative; leaves 
bipinnate ; leaflets obovate-oblong, retuse or emarginate ; calyx 
glabrous on both sides ; petals 5, fringed on long claws, the 



POLANISIA — POLYALTHIA. 351 

upper one shaped diflferently from the others; racemes ter- 
minal, corymbiform; style very long; legume 2-valved, 
several-seeded ; flowers orange, variegated with crimson. FL 
nearly all the year.— W, & A. Prod, i. 2^%—Roxb. FL Ind. 
iL 355. — Rheede, vL t, i. Peninsula. Common in gardens. 

Medical Uses. — All parts of this plant are thought to be power- 
fully emmenagogue. The roots are acid and tonic, and are even 
said to be poisonous. A decoction of the leaves and flowers has 
been employed with success in fevers in the "West Indies. The 
wood makes good charcoal. The leaves are said to be purgative, 
and have been used as a substitute for senna. The seeds in powder 
are employed as a remedy in colic pains. — Ainslie, Lindley, Mac- 
fadyen, Browne's Hist of Jamaica, 

(455) Polanisia icosandra {W. S^ A,) K 0. Gapparidaob^. 

Nayavaylie or Nahi Eaddaghoo, Tah. Eat-kuddaghoo, Hal. Hoorhoorya, 
Hind. 

Description. — Small plant, 2-3 feet; stem covered with 
viscid glandular hairs; leaves 3-5 foliolate; leaflets obovate- 
cuneate or oblong, pubescent, scarcely longer than the petiole ; 
siliqua terete, striated, rough with glandular hairs, sessile, ac- 
cuminated ; flowers small, yellow. FL Nearly all the year. — 
W. & A, Prod, i. 22. — Wight Icon. t. 2. — P. viscosa, Dec. — 
Cleome icosandra, Linn. Peninsula. BengaL 

Medical Uses. — This plant has an acrid taste, something like 
mustard, and is eaten by the natives among other herbs as a salad. 
The seeds are pungent, and are considered anthelmintic and carmi- 
native. The leaves bruised and applied to the skin act as a sinapism. 
The root is used as a vermifuge in the United States. The leaves 
boiled in ghee are applied to recent wounds, and the juice to ulcers. 
The seeds are occasionally given internally in fevers and diarrhoea. — 
(Ainslie. Lindley.) It is curious to observe, remarks Dr Royle, 
that the seeds of P. viscosa^ as well as of P. chdidonii, having a 
considerable degree of pungency, are used by the natives as an addi- 
tion to their curries in the same way that mustard is, belonging to a 
family to which the Capparidece are most closely alHed through 
Cleome. 

(456) PolyaltMa cerasoides {Dun.) N. 0. Anonaceje. 

Dudngu, Chilka dudugn, TiL. 

Description. — Tree; leaves oblong or lanceolate, acute, 
pubescent beneath; flower-bearing shoots almost abortive, 



352 POLYGALA — POLYGONUM. 

lateral ones leafless ; peduncles solitary, terminal, with one or 
two bracteas at their base ; calycine lobes nearly as long as 
the corolla ; petals equal, oval, oblong, thick ; carpels globose, 
dark red, size of a cherry, on stalks nearly twice their length. 
Fl, June — Aug. — Dec, Prod, L 93. — Guatteria cerasoides, JFl 

& A, Prod, p. 10. — Uvaria cerasoides, Roxb, Dry forests of 

Central India. 

EooNOMio Uses. — A moderate-sized tree. The timber is whitish, 
close-grained, and of considerable value, much used in the central 
provinces and Bombay Presidency. It is used in carpentry and 
for naval purposes, such as boats and small spars. It is common in 
all the dry forests near the foot of all the mountains on the western 
side of the Madras Presidency and in the Salem and Godavery 
forests. — Beddome Ftor, Sylv, t 1. 

(457) Polygala crotalaroides (Buck,) K 0. Poltgalacelb. 

Description. — Stems branching from the base, shrubby, 
decumbent, hairy ; leaves obovate, cuneate at the base, peti- 
oled; racemes 8-10 flowered, wings ovate-oblong; capsules 
sub-orbiculate, ciliate ; bracts persistent, acute. — Dec, Prod. L 

327. — Wall. PI. As, Bar, Mussooree. Common on the 

Himalaya. 

Medical Uses. — This plant was sent to Dr Royle by Major 
Colvin of the Bengal army, informing him that the root was 
employed by the hill-people as a cure in the bites of snakes. Dr 
Koyle took occasion to remark that the above is a remarkable 
instance of the same properties being ascribed to plants of the same 
genus in widely distant parts of the world, and it is a striking 
niustration of the utility which may attend investigations into the 
medical properties of plants connected by bot^ical analogies. 
Polygala senega, now employed as a stimulant and diuretic, is 
employed in South America as a cure against the bites of venomous 
reptiles. — {Boyle Him, Bot) Both the present species, as well as 
another, the P. telejohoides (Willd.), are used medicinally in catarrhal 
affections by the natives of the localities they respectively inhabit. 
— Phai'm of India. 

(458) Polygonnm barbatnm {Linn) 'S. 0. Poltgonacejb. 

Velutta-modelft-macu, Mal. Aat-alarie, Tam. Kunda-mallier, Tkl. 

Description. — Stems several, erect, slender, smooth, 3-4 
feet, joints slightly swelled ; leaves lanceolar, smooth ; 
racemes terminal, long, short peduncled ; fascicles remote ; 



PONGAMIA — PORTULACA. 353 

flowers rose-coloured, numerous ; seeds triangular. Fl. Aug. 

—Sept.— iJoa*. Fl. Ind, il 289,— Wight Icon. t. 1798. 

Peninsula. Bengal Malabar. 

Medical Uses. — ^The leaves are used in infusion, in colic. The 
seeds are carminative. Cattle eat the plant greedily. — Ainslie, 
Roxh. 

(459) Pongamia glabra {Vent.) N. 0. LEouMTNOSiE. 

Indian Beech, Eng. Pongam, Mal. Poongu marum, Tam. Kanoogoo, Tel. 
Kuning, Hind. Kurunja, Beno. 

Description. — Tree ; leaves unequally pinnated ; leaflets 
opposite, 2-3 pairs, ovate, acuminated, glabrous ; racemes 
axillary, many - flowered, about half the length of the 
leaves ; pedicels in pairs ; vexillum with 2 callosities at the 
base of the limb and decurrent along the claw ; legume 
oblong, nearly sessile, thick and somewhat woody, with a 
short recurved beak, tumid along both sutures ; calyx cup- 
shaped, red ; corolla papilionaceous, white. Fl. April — May. 
— W. & A. Prod. L 262. — Wight Icon. t. 59. — Eobinia mitis, 

Linn. — ^Dalbergia arborea, Willd, — Eheede, vi. t 3. Coro- 

mandel. Concans. Travancore. Bengal. 

Medical Uses. — The seeds yield by expression a fixed oil, which 
the natives use externally in eruptive diseases. — (Roosb.) It holds 
a high place as an application in scabies, herpes, and other cutaneous 
diseases. Dr Gibson asserts that he knows no article of the vege- 
table kingdom possessed of more marked properties in such cases 
than the above. The oil is much used as an embrocation in rlieu- 
matism. Dr CTOBae{Joum. Agri.-Hort. Soc., 1858, x. pt. ii p. 223) 
has made some valuable remarks on the physical characters and 
properties of this oil. — Pharm. of India. 

Economic Uses. — ^The wood, which is light, white, and firm, is 
used for many economical purposes. The oil is used in lamps 
, among the poorer classes. The leaves are eaten by cattle, and are 
valuable as a strong manure, especially for the sugar-cane. — Roxh. 

(460) Portulaca oleracea {Linn.) N. O. Portulacace^. 

Common Purslane, Eno. Puropoo keray, Cone keeray, Tam. Kane cheera, 
Mal. Lonia, Hind. Buro-looniya, Beno. Pedda pail kuni, Tel. 

Description. — Annual, herbaceous, difi'use; leaves scattered, 
entire, cuneiform, fleshy, axils and joints naked; flowers 
sessile ; petals 5, small, yellow ; capsule 1-celled ; seeds 

23 



354 PORTULACA — PREMNA. 

numerous. FL Aug. — Sept. — W, & A. Prod. i. 356. — 
Roxb. FL Ind. ii. 463. — Rheede, x. t 36. Common every- 
where. 

Medical Uses. — ^This plant is common to both Indies, and there 
are varieties in Europe and America. In Jamaica it is given as a 
cooling medicine in fevers. Bruised and applied to the temples it 
allays heat, and such pains as occasion want of rest and sleep. 
— (AinsUe,) It acts as a refrigerant and alterative iu scurvy and 
liver-diseases. The seeds are said to be used as a vermifuge, and to 
be usefvil in mucous disorders and dyspnoea. The native doctors 
use the plant in inflammations of the stomach, and internally in 
spitting of blood. — PowelVa Puvj. Prod. 

(461) Portulaca quadrifida {Linn.) Do. 

Passelie keeray, Tam. Cholee, DuK. Sun pail kura, Tel. Neelacbeera, Mal. 

Description. — Annual, diffuse, creeping ; joints and axils 
hairy ; leaves oblong, fleshy, entire, flat ; flowers terminal, 
nearly sessile, surrounded by four leaves, small, yellow; 
petals 4; stamens 8-12. FL Aug. — Sept. — W. & A. Prod. 
i. 356.— ^a*. FL Ind. ii. i64:.—R}ieede, x. t 31. Pen- 
insula. 

Medical Uses. — ^According to Roxburgh, this species is reckoned 
unwholesome and apt to produce stupefaction. The fresh leaves 
bruised are applied externally in erysipelas, and an infusion of 
them as a diuretic in dysuria; also internally in haemorrhage. 
Wight says that he could perceive no difference between the two 
varieties, except that, according to Roxburgh's statement, the flowers 
of the P. quadrifida expand at noon and continue open till sunset ', 
but that P. meridiana is much used as a pot-herb, and that its 
flo\vers open at noon and shut at two. — Wight Roxb, 

(462) Prenina latifolia (Roxb.) ]^. 0. Verbenacea 

Pedcla-nella-kura, Tel. 

Description. — Tree ; leaves round, cordate, entire, smooth ; 
corymbs axillary and terminal ; throat of corolla woolly ; 
flowers dirty yellow; drupe size of a pea, erect, wrinkled, 

4-celled. — i?0ir6. Fl. Ind. iii. 76.— Wight Icon, t 869. 

Coromandel. 

Economic Uses. — The wood is white and firm, and is used for 
many economical purposes. The leaves have a strong but not dis- 
agreeable odour, and are eaten by the natives in their curries. The 



PKEMNA — PSIDIUM. 355 

leaves of the P. eaculentay a native of Chittagong, are used medi- 
cinaUy by the people of that country. — Roxb. 

(463) Premna tomentosa (WilhL) Do. 

Description. — Small tree; branchlets, young leaves, and 
cymes everywhere tomentose ; leaves petioled, ovate or ovate- 
oblong, long-acuminate, entire, venoso-rugous, stellato-pubes- 
cent on both sides, sparingly above, copiously beneath; 
panicles large, terminal, many-flowered, compact; flowers 

small, white. — Wight Icon. t. 1468. Circar mountains. 

Travancore. 

Economic Uses. — A common shrub, or small tree, flowering during 
the hot season. The leaves have a pale yellowish-green pubescence, 
with which all the young parts are clothed. The wood is hard and 
close-grained, of a brownish-yellow colour, well fitted for ornamental 
j)urposes. — Wight Jury Rep, Mad, Exhih, 

(4G4) Prosopis spidgera {Linn.) N. 0. LEouMiNosiE. 

Parumbay, Tam. Chamee, TXL. Shumee, Beng. 

Description. — Somewhat arboreous, armed with scattered* 
prickles, occasionally wanting ; leaves rarely simply pinnated, 
usually bipinnate with 1-2 pair of pinnae ; leaflets 7-10 pair, 
oblong, linear, obtuse, glabrous; spikes axillary, seveml 
together, elongated, filiform ; legumes cylindric, filled with 
mealy pulp ; calyx 5-toothed ; petals 5, distinct ; flowers 
small, yellow. Fl. Dec.-— Feb.— IT. & A. Prod. i. 271.— 

Rood). Cor. i. t. 63. — Adenanthera aculeata. — Roxb. Coro- 

mandel. Guzerat. Delhi. 

Economic Uses. — In Mysore this tree attains a large size. The 
timber is strong, hard, straight-grained, and easily worked. The 
pods contain a great quantity of mealy sweetish substance, which the 
natives eat. — {Roxb. Jury Rep, Mad. Exhib.) It is common 
throughout the Madras Presidency. The timber is dark red, close- 
grained, hard, and durable, superior to teak in strength, and is much 
used for building and other purposes. It is of very slow growth. — 
Bedd. Flor, Sylv. t. 56. 

(465) Psidinm pomiferum {Linn.) K 0. Mtrtaces. 

Red Guava, Eno. Lal-peyara, BxNO. Malacka pela, Mal. Lal-sufriam, Hind. 

Description. — Arborescent ; branchlets 4-angled ; leaves 
opposite, quite entire, oval or oblong-lanceolate, pubescent 



356 PSIDIUM — PSORALEA. 

beneath; calyx 5-cleft; petals 5; peduncles 3 or many- 
flowered ; fruit globose ; flowers white, fragrant. Fl, Dec. — 
Jan.— TT. & A. Prod. i. 328.— jBoa;&. Fl Ind. ii. 480.— -RAee^, 
iii t, 35. Malabar. Cultivated in gardens. 

Medical Uses. — This is a larger tree than the white guava. 
Many people think the fruit inferior to the latter. . The fruit is 
somewhat astringent ; this is probably improved by proper cultiva- 
tion. The root and young leaves are astringent, and are esteemed 
useful in strengthening the stomach.-^(Z>ow.) During the cholera 
epidemic at the Mauritius a decoction of the leaves, according to 
M. Bouton, was frequently Used for arresting the vomiting and 
diarrhoea. — Bout Med, Plants of Mauritius, 

(466) Psidinm pyrifertun {Unn.) Do. 

White Guava, Emo. Pela, Mal. Peyar»y Beno. Soopseriam, Hdtd. Jam, Duk. 

Description. — Arborescent; branchlets 4 -angled; leaves 
opposite, elliptical, quite entire, slightly acute, marked by the 
prominent nerves, densely pubescent beneath; peduncles axil- 
lary; pedicels 1 -flowered ; fruit turbinate, crowned with the 
calyx ; petals 5 ; flowers white, fragrant. Fl. Nov. — Dec. — 
W. & A. Prod, i. 328,— Roxb. Ft. Ind. ii, 480.— jRA^de, iii t. 
34. Malabar. Cultivated in gardens. 

Medical Uses. — The bark, especially of the root^ is much valued 
as an astringent. Dr Waitz employed it with much success in 
chronic diarrhoea of children. He administered it in the form of 
decoction, in doses of one or more teaspoonfuls three or four times 
daily. He also found the decoction useful as a local application in 
the prolapsus ani of children. — Waitz Dis. of CJiild. in Hot Climates. 
Pharm. of India. 

Economic Uses. — The white guava is the best. The pulp of the 
fruit is sweet, and very grateful to the palate. It is used as a dessert 
fruit, and preserved in sugar — and guava jelly makes an excellent 
conserve. The wood is hard and tough. 

(467) Psoralea corylifoUa (Linn.) K. 0. Leguminos^ 

Eanrkoal, Mal. Earpoogum, Tam. Hakooch, Bemq. Baponga, Tel. Saw- 
clian, Duk. 

Description. — Herbaceous, erect, 2 feet ; leaves simple, 
roundish -ovate, repand- toothed ; racemes dense, spike-like, 
usually short, on long axillary solitary peduncles, pedicels 
much shorter than the calyx, about 3 together from each brae- 



PTEROCARPUS. 357 

tea ; sepals 5 ; legnme the length of the calyx, 1-seeded, inde- 
hiscent ; flowers violaceous or pale flesh-coloured. Fl. July — 
Aug.— JF. A A. Prod. i. 198.— J2oa:6. Fl Ind. iii. Z^l.—Burm, 
Ind, t 49. Peninsula. Bengal 

Uses, &c. — ^The seeds, which are somewhat ovate and of a dark- 
brown colour, have an aromatic and slightly bitter taste. The natives 
prescribe them as stomachic and deobstruent, and also use them in 
cases of leprosy and other cutaneous affections. — Ainslie, 

(468) Pterocarpns marsnpiTiin (Roxb.) Do. 

Red Sanders, Eno. Earinthagara, Mal. Vengay, Tam. Peet-shola, Hind. 
Yegi, Tel. 

Description. — Tree, 40-80 feet; leaves unequally pinnated ; 
leaflets 5-7, alternate, elliptical, usually deeply emarginate, 
glabrous ; panicles terminal ; calyx 5-cleft ; corolla papiliona- 
ceous; petals long- clawed, waved or curled on the margins; 
stamens combined into a sheath, split down to the base on 
one side, and half-way down the other ; legume long-stalked, 
surrounded by a membranaceous wing, 1 or rarely 2-8eeded ; 
flowers pale yellow. FL Aug. — Sept. — W. & A, Prod, i. 266. 
— Roxb. Fl. Ind. iii. 234 — Cor. ii. t. 116. — P. bilobus, Don's 

Mill. ii. 376. — Sheede, vi. t. 25. Neilgherries. Concans. 

Travancore. 

Medical TJsEa — ^A reddish gum-resin exudes from the bark of 
this tree known as one of the gum Kinos* of commerce. It becomes 
very brittle on hardening, and is very astringent. It is exported in 
considerable quantities from Malabar. Its properties are similar to 
those of catechu, but being milder in its operation, is better adapted 
for children and delicate females. — Pharm. of India. 

Economic Uses. — The wood is employed for house-building pur- 
poses, and is Httle inferior to teak. — (Roxb. Ainslie. Dr Gibson.) 
The timber is dark-coloured. Mr Rohde asserts it is the best timber 
for exposed Venetian-blinds and weather-boards. It is attacked by 
the Teredo navalis when used for ships' bottoms, and is apt to warp 
if sawn green. — Bedd. Flor. Sylv. t. 21. 

The tree is singularly local in its distribution, being found only 
in quantity on the gravelly slopes of the rocky hills in North Arcot 
and Cuddapah, and the southern parts of Kumool. It is now com- 
paratively rare in the first of these districts. Some years ago two 
officers of the forest department made various attempts to raise the 

* The origin of £. I. Kino was long unknown ; the history ot the discovery 
will be found in an interesting paper by Dr Royle. See Pharm. Jour. iy. 510, 
and y. 498. 



358 PTEROCARPUS. 

Eed Sanders in the Cuddapah district, but there was no result j the 
curious flat- winged seed appears to have been planted too deep. 
The seeds are washed down in the north-east monsoon, and are 
partially covered with sand in the rocky nullahs. The stem is 
valued for house-posts beyond any other, being impervious to white 
ants. The smaller portions* are carved into images, &c. The leaves 
are the favourite food of cattle and goats, and are much in demand. 
The wood is extremely hard, finely grained, and of a garnet -red 
colour, which deepens on exposure. It is employed to dye a perma- 
nent reddish-brown colour. It communicates a deep red to alcohol 
and ether, but gives no tinge to water. In the cold season, large 
heaps of short billets (2 feet to 3 feet) or gnarled roots may be seen 
on the Madras beach, where it is sold by weight, and being heavy is 
used as dunnage. The North- West line traverses the native habitat, 
and the supply has been diminishing. The seigniorage in Cuddapah 
was raised from 1 rupee to 6 rupees per cartload, to prevent its 
extermination. As the value of a post is not less than 2J rupees, 
and there are often 26 in a cart, the value of the cartload is often 
60 rupees. Price of the roots keeps steadily at £3, 10s., sometimes 
£^ per ton. — (Conservator of Forests Bepmi to Madras Government ^ 
1867.) A very large tree, affording excellent shade and timber. The 
latter is of a dark-brown, and dyes yellow. It cannot be used for 
lintels of doors, windows, &c., as it discolours the white-wash. It 
grows luxuriantly on the Eastern Ghauts, on the hills between 
Velfore and Salem, and on the Malabar and Canara Ghauts, where 
large quantities of the Kino it yields are collected and sent to Eng- 
land. The tree is very plentiftil in the forests of Cuddapah and 
North Arcot. It is indispensable for cart - building, and eagerly 
sought after for that purpose. It is considered unlucky to use it 
for house-building. The estimated number in the Cuddapah forests 
is about 60,000 trees. — Cleghom^s Forests of India. 

(469) Pterocarpus santalinus {Linn.) Do. 

Bed Sandal- voodt £ng. Ooruttali chnndannm, Mal. Segapoo shandanum, Tah. 
Kuchandanum^ Tel. Lalcbundend, DuK. Rukhto chandun, Hind. Ruckta 
chandana, Beng. 

Description. — Tree, 60 feet or more ; leaves unequally 
pinnated; calyx 5 -cleft; corolla papilionaceous; leaflets 3, 
roundish, retuse; racemes axillary, simple or branched; petals 
long-clawed, waved or curled on the margins ; stamens tria- 
delphous (5, 4, and 1) ; legume 1-seeded, slightly membrana- 
ceous, waved; flowers yeUow, streaked with red. — W. & A. 
Prod. i. 266. — Roa3). Fl, Ind. iii. 234. Coromandel. Cudda- 
pah. North Arcot. Godavery forests. 

Medical Uses. — The wood is dark red with black veins, close. 



PTEROSPERM UM — PTYCHOTIS. 359 

capable of good polish, and sinking in water. It is known iji com- 
merce as the Bed Sandal-wood* wliich is used chiefly by dyers and 
colour manufacturers. Also employed to colour several oflS^cinal 
preparations, such as the compound tincture of lavender. This deep- 
red colouring matter is apparently of a resinous nature. It forms 
beautifully-coloured precipitates with many metallic solutions. It 
also yields a kind of dragon's -blood. The wood powdered and 
mixed with oil is used for bathing and purifying the skin. Also 
given internally in haemorrhages in powders ground up mth milk ; 
and externally, is mixed with honey in case of scabies. Also in 
certain cases of ophthalmia and sore eyes, beaten up into a paste and 
applied to the eyes. — Moxb. Aiiislie, Lindley, 

(470) Pterospermum rubigmosani (Heyne), 'S, 0. STEKCULiACEiE. 

Eara-toveray, Tah. 

Description. — Large tree; young branches covered with 
rusty tomentum ; leaves very obliquely ovate, very unequal- 
sided, quite entire, acuminate, upper side covered with fuga- 
cious rusty down, at length glabrous, under side softly downy 
with close brown tomentum; stipules downy, with a broad 
concave base and 1-2 filiform teeth; peduncles axillary, 1- 
flowered, 2-3 times longer than the petioles, furnished at the 
base with a few bracts resembling the stipules ; flower-bud 
angled, stellately downy on the outside ; flowers white, sepals 
and petals narrow-linear, connective of the antlie;rs produced 
into a terminal point ; stigma obscurely 5 - lobed ; capsule 
ovate, pointed, 5 -angled, downy. — W, & A. Prod, L 68. — 
Bcdd, Flor Sylv. t 106. Southern Peninsula. 

Economic Uses. — This tree is common in Tinnevelly, Wynaad, 
the Annamidlays and western forests. The timber is excellent. In 
TinneveUy the wood is much used for bidlding and other purposes. 
— Beddome, 

(471) Ptychotis ajowan {Dec.) N. O. ApiACBiE. 

Bishops-weed Seed, Eno. Ajwan, Hind. Womum, Tam. Boro-joan, Benq. 

Description. — Annual ; stem erect, dichotomous ; calyx 
5 -toothed; leaves few, cut into numerous linear or filifoim 
segments, the uppermost simply pinnate ; umbel 7-9 rayed ; 

* Large quantities of Red Sandal-wood are exported from Madras, the billets 
being brought in from the low hills near Pulicat; in Royle's * Materia Medicu' 
the station is erroneously printed Paulghant, wliere the tree does not occur. 



3G0 PUERARIA PUNICA. 

■ 

involucel few -leaved; leaflets linear, entire; fniit strongly 
ribbed, covered with small blunt tubercles; flowers white. Fl. 
Dec. — Jan. — W. & A, Prod. i. 368. — Wight Icon, t. 566. — 

Ligusticum ajowan, Flem. — Roxb, FL Ind. ii. 91. Cultivated 

all over India. 

Medical Uses. — ^The seeds have an aromatic smell and a warm 
pungent taste; they are much used by the natives for medicinal 
and culinary purposes. They are small plants of the Umbelliferous 
order, and are to be met with in every market of India.^— (jBoxZ*.) 
The virtues of the seeds reside in a volatile- oil. They are stimulant^ 
carminative, and antispasmodic ; and are of much value in atonic 
dyspepsia and diarrhoea. The preparation known as omum-water is 
a valuable carminative, useful in disguising the taste of nauseous 
drugs, and obviating their tendency to cause griping. The fruits of 
the Ptychotis Roxburghianum are valued by the natives as a stom- 
achic and carminative. They partake of the properties of the former, 
but in aroma are undoubtedly inferior. — {Pharm, of India.) The 
wild plant is said to be poisonous. It probably contains apiol, an 
oily liquid used as a substitute for quinine. — PotcelVs Pxmj, Prod. 

(472) Pueraria tnberosa (Dec.) N. 0. Lbguminos^. 

Daree, Goomodee, Tel. 

Description. — Twining shrub ; root tuberous, very large ; 
leaves trifoliolate, leaflets roundish, pubescent above, beneath 
silky-viUous ; racemes simple or branched, the length of the 
leaves ; flowers in threes ; legume very hairy, linear, pointed, 
2-6 seeded, much contracted between the seeds ; flowers blue. 
Fl March— April— ir. & A. Prod. i. 205.— WigJU Icon. t. 

412. — Hedysarum tuberosum, Roxh. Fl. Ind. iii 363. 

Circars. Malabar hills. 

Medical Uses. — A rare species, according to Roxburgh ; a native 
of valleys far up amongst the mountains. Its leaves are deciduous 
about the beginning of the cold season. Cataplasms are made &om 
the large tuberous roots, used by the natives to reduce swellings in 
the joints. — Roxh. 

(473) Tunica granatnin (Linn.) N. 0. Myrtace^. 

Pomegranate-tree, Eno. Madalum or Magilara, Tam. Madala, Mal. Dadima, 
Tel. Anar, Darim, Hind. Dalim or Darim, Beno. 

DEScniPTiON. — Tree, 15-20 feet; leaves opposite, oblong- 
lanceolate ; calyx 5-cleft ; petals 5 ; fruit globose, crowned by 



PUTRANJIVA. 361 

« 

the tubular limb of the calyx ; seeds numerous, covered with 
a pellucid pulp ; flowers nearly sessile, scarlet. Fl. Nearly all 
the year.— ]f. cfe A, Prod. i. Z^l,— Wight III ii. 99.— ^0x6. 
Fl Ind, ii. 499. Cultivated. 

Medical Uses. — ^The pomegranate, according to Pliny, is a native 
of Carthage, as its name would denote. It is now common in 
Barbary, France, and Southern Europe, and has become naturalised 
in this as well as many other countries of the East, to which it has 
migrated. Royle states that it may be seen growing wild in the 
Himalaya. The rind of the fruit and the flowers are the parts used 
medicinally. They are both powerfully astringent, and are employed 
successfully as gargles in diarrhoea and similar diseases. The pulp 
is sub-acid, quenching thirst, and gently l^ative. The bark of the 
root is a remedy for tape-worm given in decoction. It sickens the 
stomach, but seldom fails to destroy the worm. All parte of the 
plant are rich in tannic acid, and act as astringents and anthelmin- 
tics. Besides the above uses, it is used as a local application for 
relaxed sore-throat and cancer of the uterus. — AinsUe. PowelVs 
Punj. Prod, Royle. 

Economic Uses. — The Jews employ the fruit in their religious 
ceremonies. The bark was formerly employed in dyeing leather, the 
yellow morocco of Tunis being still tinted with an extract from it. 
The flowers also were used to dye cloth a light red. The tree is 
easily propagated by cuttings. The longevity of the tree is said to 
be remarkable, some at Versailles being nearly two hundred years 
old. There are several varieties, those with the yellow flowers being 
most rare. — Don. Royle. 

(474) Pntranjiva Bozburghii (Wall) K 0. Eufhorbiace^. 

Wild Olive, Eno. Kuduru-juvee, Tel. Pongolam, Mal. 

Description. — Tree; branchlets and petioles pubescent; 
leaves elliptic, unequal-sided at the base, serrately denticulate ; 
glomerules of male flowers numerous ; segments of male calyx 
densely ciliate-pubescent, sparingly puberulous at the back ; 
ovary tawny-silky ; fruit oblong- ellipsoid, clothed with thick, 
pale, rusty hairs ; flowers small, yellowish white. — Fl March 
— ApriL — Wall Tent. Flor. Nep. p. &1.—Dec. Prod. xv. 8. 2, 

p. 443. — Wight Icon. t. 1876. — Nageia Putranjiva, Roxb. 

Coromandel mountains. Oude. Palghaut. Concans. 

Economic Uses. — This is an ornamental tree, and worthy of being 
planted in gardens. The wood is white, close-grained, and very 
hard. It is used for house-building and agricultural implements. 
The leaves are used as fodder, and the fruits are made into neck- 
laces by the Brahmins. — Roxb. Ainslie. 



3G2 



Q 



(475) Qnisanalis Indica (Linn,) K. 0. Combbetacks. 

Rangoon Creeper, Enq. 

Description. — Shrub, with scandent branches ; young 
branches densely pubescent ; leaves opposite, ovate, quite 
entire, rounded or slightly cordate at the base, when young 
more or less villous or pubescent, afterwards almost glabrous ; 
bracts ovate-rhomboid, acuminated, slightly hairy, particularly 
on the margin-; spikes axillary and terminal ; flowers lax, red ; 
calycine tube slender; stamens 10, protruded, inserted into 
the throat of the calyx, alternately shorter; style filiform, 
exserted ; drupe dry, 5-furrowed, acutely 5-angled ; seed soli- 
tary, pendulous, 5-angled. — Dec, Prod, iii. 23. — W, & A, Prod. 
i. 318.— iJo^A Fl Ind, ii. ^26.— Bumph. Amb, v. t 3S.—BoL 
Mag. 1820, t. 492. Cultivated in gardens. 

Medical Uses. — This is a native of Burmah and the Malayan 
Archipelago, hut thrives well in most parts of India. The oval or 
oblong fruits are about an inch in length, pointed at either extremity, 
aud shortly pentagonal. In the Moluccas the seeds have long been 
in repute as an anthelmintic. In cases of lumbrici, four or five of 
these seeds, bruised and given in electuary with honey or jam, suffice 
for the expulsion of entozoa in children. — {Gale, Med, Phys, Trans, 
vii. 488.) The shrub is known as the Liane Vermifiige in the 
Mauritius. — (Pharm, of India,) The Chinese use the nuts for 
worms. They are boiled or roasted, and the kernels or the water in 
which they are boiled used, and from 6 to 12 a dose, taken three 
times every other day. ^—i>r Iver, 



oh') 



£ 



(476) Bandia dametoram (Lam.) K O. CiNCHONACEiE. 

Marukanmg, Tam. Mangha, Tel. Myn, Hind. 

Description. — Shrub, 6-10 feet, armed; spines opposite; 
leaves almost sessile, oval, cuneate at the base, when young, 
slightly pubescent ; flowers axillary, solitary, terminal on the 
young shoots, on short pedicels ; calyx campanulate, 5-parted ; 
lobes oblong ; corolla hirsute on the outside ; tube with a ring 
of dense hairs inside near the base; fruit usually globose, 
sometimes oblong, crowned with the limb of the calyx, 2- 
celled, many-seeded; flowers white. Fl. April. — W. & -4. 
Prod. L 396. — Wight Icon. t. 580. — Gardenia dumetorum, Reiz. 

— Roxb, Cor. ii. t 136. Coromandel. Mahableshwar. 

• 

!Medical Uses. — Tho fruit is used as an emetic. The bark of the 
root in infusion is used in the southern provinces as U nauseating 
medicine. — Boxb. The fruit is about the size of a crab-apple. It 
lias a pecuhar sweetish sickly smell : it is very commonly used as 
an emetic by the poorer classes in Mysore, and is said to be safe and 
si)eedy in its action. The dose is one ripe fruit, well bruised, which 
may be repeated if necessary. — (Dr Bidie in Pliarm. of India.) It 
is also used externally as an anodyne in rheumatism. — IStewarfs 
PunJ. Plcnds. 

EcoKOMio UsES.-^According to Dr Wight, the habit of this plant 
is extremely variable, as it grows in a poor or rich soil. The size of 
the fruit varies from that of a small cherry to as large as a walnut. 
The shrub is employed for fenoes in the places of its natural growth. 
The fruit bruised and thrown into ponds where fish are, they are 
soon intoxicated and seen floating. Fishermen frequently adopt 
this plan to catch fish; nor are the latter less wholesome to eat 
afterwards. — lioxb, 

(477) Bhinacanthns commnniB (Nees,) K. 0. Aganthace^. 

Nafraniull^', Tam. Pul-coUi, Peelcolue, Mal. NargamoUay, Tel. Palek-jooliie, 
Hind. Jooi-poiia, Beno. 

Description. — Shrub, 4-5 feet ; stem erect, green, shrubby ; 
young shoots jointed ; leaves opposite, broad lanceolate, short- 
petioled, a little downy below, entire ; panicles corymbifonu. 



364 RHODODENDRON — RHODOMYRTUS. 

axillary and terminal, trichotomous ; peduncles and pedicels 
short, round, a little downy; corolla with a long slender 
compressed tube, under lip broad, 3-cleft, upper one erect, 
linear, sides reflected, apex bifid ; flowers small, white; FL 
March— April.— fF^A^ Icon, t 464.— iZoa*. Fl Ind. I 120. 

— Justicia nasuta, Linn. — Rheede, ix. t 69. Travancore. 

Mahableshwar. 

Medical Uses. — ^The fresh root and leaves bruised and mixed 
with lime-juice are reckoned a useful remedy in ringworm and other 
cutaneous affections. — (Ainslie, Roxh.) Royle speaks of the seeds 
being very efficacious in ringworm. — Illustr, L 298. 

(478) Bhododendron arboreum (Smith). N. 0. Ehodorace£. 

Description. — Tree ; leaves very coriaceous, lanceolate, 
acute, cordate at the base, or attenuated into the thick petiole, 
shining green above> glabrous below, silvery or rusty-pubes- 
cent ; flowers densely capitate ; calyx none ; corolla campanu- 
late, white, rose, or blood-coloured ; ovary 7-10 celled. FL 
March — April. — Bee. Prod. vii. 720. — Wight III. ii. t 140. — 
Spicil. ii. t. 131. Neilgherries and other lofty mountain- 
ranges. 

Economic Uses. — The flowers have a sweetish - sour taste, and 
make a good sub-acid jelly. Hoffmeister notes that a snuff made 
from the bark of the tree is excellent. Madden says the young 
leaves are poisonous to cattle. — Stewart Punj. Plants. 

(479) BhodomyrtuB tomentosa (R. W.) K 0. Mtbtacejb. 

HiU Gooseberry, Eno. 

t 

Desobiption. — Small tree ; branches downy ; leaves opposite, 
entire, ovate, 3-nerved, the lateral nerves near the margin, 
upper side when young downy, under hoary and tomentose ; 
peduncles 1-3 flowered, bearing two ovate bracteoles under the 
flower ; calyx downy, 5-cleft ; petals slightly downy outside ; 
berry 3-celled ; seeds compressed, forming two rows in each 
celL — W. & A. Prod. L 328. — Myrtus tomentosa, Ait. — Dec. 
Prod. iii. 240. Neilgherries. 

Economic Uses. — This tree is common on every part of the Neil- 
gherries. The fruit much resembles the gooseberry when ripe, and 
is very palatable. An excellent jelly is made from the berries, very 



RiciNua. 365 

similar to apple-jelly in taste and appearance. The tree equally 
abounds in Ceylon, Malacca, and China, in all of which places they 
eat and preserve the fruit. — Wight 

(480) Bicinns communis {Linn,) IN*. 0. Euphorbiacejs. 

Castor-oil plant, Eno. Sittamunak or Valluk, Tau. Citavanakoo, Avanak, or 
Pandiayanak, Mal. Sittamindi or Amidom, Tel. Erundle, Duk. Areud, Hind. 
Bherenda, Beno. 

' Desckiption. — Height 8-10 feet ; root perennial ; stem 
round, thick, jointed, channelled, glaucous, purplish-red colour 
upwards ; leaves alternate, large, deeply divided into seven seg- 
ments, on long, tapering, purplish stalks ; spikes glaucous, 
springing from the divisions of the branches; the males 
from the lower part of the spike, the females from the upper ; 
capsules prickly ; seeds oval, shining, black dotted with grey. 
FL Nearly all the year. — Boxb, FL Ind. iii. 689. — Rheede, ii. 
t. 32. Cultivated. 

Medical Uses. — There are two varieties of the Castor-oil plant 
which are known respectively as fructihus majoribua and minoribus. 
The oil of the former differs from the medicinal Castor-oil in having 
a heavy disagreeable smell, probably owing to the seeds being toasj;ed 
previous to boiling, for the purpose of extracting the oU. The 
colour, too, is darker, and the nature is more gross. The real Castor- 
oil used in medicine is irom the small-seeded variety. The lamp- 
olL of the former, like the Castor-oil, is of a purgative nature, but 
chiefly employed for lamps and in horse-medicine. The mode of 
preparation is given in the report on the fixed vegetable oils sent 
to the Madras Exhibition as follows : " The seeds having been 
partially roasted over a charcoal fire, both to coagulate the albumen 
and to liquefy the oil, are then pounded and boiled in water imtil 
the oil rises to the surface. The roasting process, however, gives it 
a deeper red colour and an empyreumatic odour. The price of this 
oil varies in different parts of the country from Ks. 1-10-0 to 
3-13-6 per maund of 25 lb." Castor-oil was known in very early 
times to the Egyptians, and is mentioned in the second book of 
Herodotus. The plant is supposed to be indigenous to Barbary. In 
hot countries it is a perennial, in cold ones an annual or biennial 
plant. The skin of the seeds consists of three coverings, and it was 
for a long time believed even by Humb6ldt that the embryo of the 
seeds was the seat of the purgative principle alone, and that if that 
part were removed the seeds might safely be eaten. It has now, 
however, been proved, that although the active principle may exist in 
a greater quantity in the embryo, yet that it is found more or less 
throughout the entire seed. The use of the oil depends in a, great 
degree upon several circumstances, such as the mode of extraction, 



3GG RICINUS. 

the maturity or otherwise of the seeds in the plant firom whence 
they are procured, and so on. Other seeds, too, are ^quently mixed 
with them. The application of heat was formerly resorted to in the 
extraction of the oil, and is still occasionally used, though quite un- 
necessary. The following is the process given by Ainslie for making 
a fine kind of Castor-oil for domestic purposes : ** Take five seers of 
the small Castor-oil nuts and soak them for one night in cold water ; 
next morning strain the water ofif and put the nuts into more water, 
and boil them in it for two hours, then strain off. The nuts are 
then to be dried in the sun for three days, after which to be well 
bruised in a mortar. Add to the nuts thus bruised ten measures of 
water, and put on to boil, stirring it all the time until all the oil 
appears at the top ; then carefully strained off and being allowed to 
cuol, it will be fit for use. The quantity of nuts mentioned in the 
above recipe should yield one bottle of oil. If cocoa-nut water be 
used instead of common water, the oil has a paler and finer colour." 

Another way of preparing the oil is given in the report of the 
Juries on the fixed vegetable oils sent to the Madras Exhibition. 
" The fresh seeds, after having been sifted and cleaned from dust, 
stones, and extraneous matters, are slightly crushed between two 
rollers, freed by hand from husks and coloured grains, and enclosed 
in clean gunny. They then receive a slight pressure in an oblong 
moidd, which gives a uniform shape and density to the packets of 
seed. Tlie * Bricks,' as they are technically called, are then placed 
alternately with plates of sheet-iron in the ordinary screw or 
hydraulic press. The oil thus procured is received in clean tin pans, 
and water in the proportion of a pint to a gallon of oil being added, 
the whole is boiled until the water has evaporated : the mucilage wUl 
be found to have subsided and encrusted at the bottom of the pan, 
whilst the albumen, solidified by the heat, forms a white layer 
between the oil and the water. Great care must be taken on re- 
moving the pan from the fire the instant the whole of the water has 
evaporated, which may be known by the bubbles having ceased ; for 
if allowed to remain longer, the oil, which has hitherto been of the 
temperature of boiling water or 212°, middenly rises to that of oil or 
nearly 600°, thereby heightening the colour and communicating an 
empyreumatic taste and odour. The oil is then filtered through 
blanket, flannel, or American drill, and put into cans for exportation. 
It is usually of a light straw colour, sometimes approaching to a 
greenish tinge. The cleaned seeds yield from 47 to 50 per cent of 
oil, worth in England from 4d. to 6d. per lb." 

In France the fresh seeds are bruised and then put into a cold 
press. The oil thus expressed is allowed to stand some time to 
permit the albumen, mucUage, &c., to subside, or it is filtered to 
separate them more rapidly. The produce is equal to one-third of 
the seeds employed, and the oil possesses all its natural qualities. 
The oils made in France and Italy are much weaker than those 
procured from tropical countries. Another mode of obtaining the 



ROSA. 367 

oil 18 to macerate the bruised seeds in cold alcohol, by which 6 oz, of 
oil are procured from every pound of the seeds. Castor-oil is soluble 
in pure sulphuric ether and alcohol. It also combines easily with 
alkaline leys, by which is formed a test of its purity. It is one of 
the best ways of overcoming the repulsive taste by mixing the oil 
with an alkaline ley, which alters the appearance of the oil, but 
does not destroy its purgative powers. Other ways of rendering 
the oil less unpleasant are by using lime-juice, orange-peel, coffee, 
gin, or an emulsion of the yolk of egg. Castor-oil is a mild laxa- 
tive medicine, and among the Hindoos is used as a remedy in 
cutaneous affections externally applied. It is particularly recom- 
mended in rheumatism, lumbago, and habitual constipation, piles, 
and other diseases of the rectum. Alone or mixed with turpentine 
it is efficacious in expelling worms. Air should always be excluded 
to prevent rancidity, although when rancid it may be purified by 
calcined magnesia. The bark of the root is a powerful purgative, 
and when made into a baU about the size of a lime, in conjunction 
with chillies and tobacco-leaves, is an excellent remedy for gripes in 
horses. In Jamaica the oil is considered a valuable external remedy 
in cramps, pains arising from cold. The leaves heated and applied 
to the breasts, and kept on for 12 or 24 hours, will not fail to bring 
milk after child-birth. The same applied to the abdomen will pro- 
mote the menstrual discharge. The seeds are used by the dyers to 
mix with colours and render them permanent The leaves are a 
favourite food of some silk-worms. — Ainslie, Simmonds. lAndley, 
Jury Rep, Mad, Ex/iib. 

(481) Eosa Damascena {Miller), N, 0. EosACEiE. 

Dsmask Rose, Eng. 

Description. — Shrubby ; prickles numerous, unequal, 
strong, dilated at the base; leaflets 5-7, ovate, stiffish; 
flower-bud oblong, sepals deflexed in flower, tube elongated, 
often dilated at the top, sepals spreading, not inflexed ; fruit 
ovate, pulpy; calyx and peduncles glandulosely hispid, 

viscous. — Dec. Prod, ii 620. — Lindl. Eos, 62. Cultivated 

at Ghazeepore. 

Economic Uses. — ^The roses of Ghazeepore are planted formally 
in large fields, occupying many hundred acres of the adjacent 
country. 

The first process which the roses undergo is that of distillation. 
They are put into the alembic with nearly double their weight of 
water. The Gooldbee pdnee (rose-water) thus obtained is poured 
into large shallow vessels, which are exposed uncovered to the open 
air during the night. The names, or jars,.are skimmed occasionally; 
the essential oil floating on the surface being the precious concen- 



368 ROSTELLARIA. 

tration-of aroma so highly prized by the worshippers of the rose. 
It takes 200,000 flowers to produce the weight of a rupee in atta. 
This small quantity, when pure and unadulterated with sandal-oil, 
sells upon the spot at 100 rupees (£10) — an enormous price, which, 
it is said, does not yield veiy large profits. A civilian having made 
the experiment, found that the rent of land producing the above- 
named quantity of atta, and the purchase of utensils alone, came to 
£5 ; to this sum the hire of labourers remained still to be added, to 
say nothing of the risk of an unproductive season. 

The oil produced by the above-mentioned process is not always of 
the same colour, being sometimes green, sometimes bright amber, 
and frequently of a reddish hue. When skimmed, the produce is 
carefully bottled, each vessel being hermetically sealed with wax, 
and the bottles are then exposed to the strongest heat of the sun 
during several days. 

Kose-water which has been skimmed is reckoned inferior to that 
which retains its essential oil, and is sold at Ghazeepore at a lower price ; 
though, according to the opinion of many persons, there is scarcely, 
if any, perceptible difference in the quality. A seer (a full quart) of 
the best may be obtained for eight annas (about Is.) Rose-water 
enters into almost every part of the domestic economy of the natives 
of India ; it is used for ablutions, in medicine, and in cookery. 
Before the abolition of nuzzurs (presents), it made a part of the 
offering of persons who were not rich enough to load the trays Vith 
gifts of greater value. It is poured over the hands after meals, 
and at the festival of the Hoolee all the guests are profusely 
sprinkled with it Europeans suffering under attacks of prickly 
heat find the use of rose-water a great alleviation. Natives take it 
internally for all sorts of complaints : they consider it to be the 
sovereignest thing on earth for an inward bruise, and eau-de- 
Cologne cannot be more popular in France than the Gooldbee 
pdnee in India. Rose-water also, when bottled, is exposed to the 
sun for a fortnight at least. — joum, of Asiat Soc, 1839. 

(482) Bostellaria procumbens (Nees.) K 0. Acanthacks. 

Nereipoottie, Tah. Nakapootta chittoo, Tel. 

Description. — Shrub, 7-8 feet ; stem spreading, jointed, 5- 
striated, often rooting at the joints ; leaves linear-lanceolate, 
opposite, sub-sessile, entire, a little downy ; spikes terminal, 
erect, 4-sided; flowers opposite, decussate, rose-coloured; 
upper divisions of calyx very minute ; tube of corolla short, 
upper lip erect, 2-cleft, under lip broad, 3-parted; capsule 
4-seeded, seeds 2 in each cell FL Nearly all the year. — 
Wight Icon, t 1539. — Roaib. FL Ind. i. 132. — Justicia procum- 
bens, Linn. Peninsula. 



I 

i 



RUBIA — ^RUNGIA. 369 

Mbdical Uses. — This shrub is very common on pasture-ground 
on the Coromandel coast. The juice of the leaves squeezed into the 
eyes is a remedy in ophthalmia. — Ainslie. Roxb. 

(483) Bubia cordifolia {Linn,) K 0. GiNCHONACBi^. 

Bengal Madder, Eko. Mai^ittee or Sawil codie, Tam. Mandastie, TSL. Muxgith, 
i^roona, Beno. Poout, Mal. Mui\jittee^ HnvD. 

Description. — Herbaceoxis ; stem rough, with prickles on 
the angles, rarely smooth; leaves in fours, long-petioled, 
oblong or ovate, acute, more or less cordate, 3-7 nerved, 
margins, middle nerve, and petioles rough with minute 
prickles ; calyx tube ovate-globose ; panicles in the upper 
axils peduncled, trichotomous ; bracts opposite, not forming 
an involucre ; flowers usually 5-cleft, whitish ; berries red or 
black. — W. & A, Prod, i. 44!2. — R. Munjista, Boai>, Fl, Ind. i 
374. — JVight Icon, t, 187. Neilgherries. DindiguL 

Medical Uses. — An infusion made from the root is prescribed by 
native doctors as a grateful deobstruent drink in cases of scanty 
lochial discharge. — Ainslie. 

I)ooNOMio Uses. — ^Thcre are varieties of this plant with glabrous, 
hairy, narrower or broader leaves, and disposed 8 in a whorl. The 
plant yields a red dye. The plant would appear to be chiefly pro- 
duced in Kuchar, and the root is in great demand in the adjacent 
countries for dyeing coarse cloths aud stuffs red : the !N'epaulese 
barter it for rock-salt and borax. The fibres of the root are exported 
to Europe, but have not been used medicinally except as above 
related. Its use as a dye-stuff is increasing yearly, and it is well 
worth the attention of dyers. It is cultivated in Assam, Kepaul, 
Bombay, and other parts of this country. The price in the London 
market ranges from 20 to 30 shillings the cwt. — Simmonds, 
Ainslie, 

(484) Bnngia repens (Nees). K 0. AcANTHACEiS. 

Kadaga saleh, Tam. 

Descbiption. — Shrub, 2 feet; stems creeping, diffuse, 
smooth, jointed, sometimes rooting at the joints ; leaves 
opposite, lanceolate, on short petioles, entire, acuminated; 
bracts in four rows, ovate, nerveless ; margin broad, silvery, 
Bub-ciliate ; calyx with two minute separate bracts ; spiked 
axillary ; flowers pale rose. Fl, Nearly all the year. — > 

24 



S70 RUNGIA. 

Wight Icon. t. 4^65.— Boxb. Cor. ii. t. 152.— Fl. Ind. 1 132.— 
Justicia repens, Linn. Peninsula. 

Medical Uses. — ^The leaves resemble those of the Thyme in 
appearance and taste ; the fresh leaves, bruised and mixed with 
Castor-oil, are given as an application in tinea capitis. The whole 
plant dried and pulverised is given in doses of from 4 to 12 
drachms in fevers and coughs, and is also considered a vermifdge. 
— Ainslie. 



371 



(485) Sacclianmi mtmja (JRoxb.) K 0. Gramixacejs. 

Munja^ Hun). 

Desokiption. — Culms straight, 8-12 feet, smooth ; leaves 
channelled, long, linear, white-nerved, hispid at the base in- 
side; panicles large, oblong, spreading; ramifications verti- 
cilled; flowers hermaphrodite; corolla 2-valvei — Roocb. Fl. 
Ind. i. 246. Benares. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — ^The leaves twisted into ropes are used for 
Persian wheels, tying up cattle, and as tow-ropes by the boatmen at 
Benares. On the Indus the boatmen always use" them for rigging 
their vessels. Their strength is very great, as proved by being used 
to drag their largest boats against the full force of the stream. It is 
not injured by the action of fresh water. The reed grows abundantly 
on the banks of the river. The upper leaves, about a foot or so in 
length, are preferred and collected ; and having been made up into 
bundles, are so kept for use. — (RoyJe.) The natives make pens of the 
culms of the S. fuscum (Eoxb.), and use them for a screen and light 
fences. The S, procerum (Eoxb. ) is used for the same purposes. — Boxb. 

(486) Sacchanim offidnanun (Linn,) Do. 

Common Sugar-cane, Evo. Earimba, Mal. Earoomboo, Tam. Chenikoo bodi, 
Tel. Ook, Bkno. Ucb, Hnm. 

Desckiption. — Culm 6-12 feet ; panicles terminal, spreading, 
erect, oblong, 1-3 feet long, of a grey colour from the large 
quantity of long soft hairs surrounding the flowers, ramifica- 
tions alternate, very ramous, expanding; flowers hermaphro- 
dite in pairs, one sessile the other pedicelled ; calyx 2-leaved, 
smooth ; corolla 1-valved, membranaceous, rose-coloured. M. 

July — Sept. — Roxb, Fl. Ind. i 237. Cultivated in most 

parts of India. 

Economic Uses. — There is every reason to believe that sugar was 
manufactured from the cane in India in very early ages, and that 
the Greek word Sakcharon was employed for this identical product, 
and not for Tabasheer as formerly supposed. From the Arab Sukkur, 
the Persian Shukkar, and Sanscrit Sarkara,o\}x word sugar is evidently 



I' 



372 SACCHARUM. 

derived. Herodotus certainly alludes to sugar in his fourth book, 
when he talks of " honey made by the hand of confectioners ;"• and 
he is the earliest writer who mentions it. Theophrastus talks of 
honey made from canes ; but Dioscorides, who flourished in the reign, 
of Nero, was the first Greek writer who used the word Sakcharon. 
He says, " There is a sort of concreted honey which is called sugar 
found upon canes in India and Arabia Felix ; it is a consistence like 
salt, and is brittle between the teeth like salt" Pliny also speaks 
of sugar brought from this country. It was certainly an article of 
commerce at the commencement of the Christian era, though tho 
early Greek and Eoman writers seem to have been imperfectly 
acquainted with its origin. Its first appearance in Europe is not 
exactly known, though it was introduced by the Saracens into Sicily, 
and was known at Venice in 990 a.d. From Sicily it soon spread 
to all countries of the Old World. 

The sugar-cane is now cultivated over most parts of India, the 
estimated annual produce of sugar being about a million tons. In a 
report upon the sugar cultivation made by desire of the E. L Com- 
pany some years ago, it was stated that the three following kinds 
were cultivated : — 

1st, The KajooU, or purple-coloured cane. This grows on dry 

lands in Bengal It yields a sweet and rich juice of a darkish 

colour, but sparingly, and is hard to press. 
2d, The Pooree, or light-coloured cane. This is deeper yellow 

when ripe. It grows on richer soil than the former, but the 

juice is less rich, and of a softer nature. 
3d, The Kulloor^ or white cane. This grows in moist swampy 

lands where the other two will not succeed. It yields a less 

strong sugar than the former, and has a more watery juice. It 

is more cultivated than the others. 

According to Dr Buchanan, there are four kinds known in Mysore — 
namely, the Restaliy the native sugar of Mysore, and the PutiaptUH, 
from which alone the natives extract sugar, and which yields the best 
Jaggery. The two others are the Maracaho and Cuttaycabo, 

The season of planting is soon after the commencement of the 
rains, in whatever districts the cane may be ciiltivated, the chief 
requisites being frequent ploughing of the soil, much manuring, care- 
ful removal of weeds ; and in those varieties requiring much moisture 
the land must occasionally be artificially watered. Dr Eoxbuigh 
has given the following account of the cultivation of the Pooree or 
common yellow cane in the Rajamundry Circars : — 

" The land is first well ploughed during the month of April and 
beginning of May. The field is then flooded from the river if there 
is not sufficient rain. The upper part of the cane is then cut into 
two lengths of one or two joints each (the lower part of the same 
canes are employed to make sugar from) ; these are placed over the 
wet fields, at about fifteen or eighteen inches asunder in rows, the 



SACCHARUM. 373 

rows about four feet from one another, and trod under the soft wet 
surface with the foot. In six days after the planting the field is again 
flooded, if there has not been rain. In about eight days more the 
shoots appear ; the land is soon after slightly hoed and weeded. A 
mouth after the planting, some rotten chaff or other such manure is 
scattered about the young plants. Every ten or fifteen days, if there 
be not sufficient rain, the field is watered. Two months from the 
planting somo stronger manure is strewed about the plants ; and 
every fifteen or twenty days the field is slightly hoed, and the weeds 
rooted out. 

" During the wet season, drains must be made to carry off the 
superabundant water. By August or September the cane will be 
from three to five feet high. In each shoot, the produce of every 
cutting, which may contain from three to six canes, a straight 
bamboo is struck into the earth, in the centre ; to this the canc« are 
tied by their leaves. In this country the leaves are never stripped 
from the cane, but as they wither are tied round them. This must 
impede the free circulation of air, which may be conceived hurtful. 
In January — viz., between nine and ten months from the time they 
were planted — the cane, when stripped of its leaves and the useless top 
cut off, wiU be about as thick as a good stout walking-cane, and from 
four to six feet long : they then begin to cut the cane, express the 
juice, and boil the sugar, which is with the natives here a very simple 
process, — a small TniU turned by cattle squeezes the cane, and one 
boiler boils it." 

Either a too wet or too dry season is injurious to the sugar-cane ; 
in the former case the quantity of saccharine juice is much dimin- 
ished. The crops suffer much from the depredations of wild animals, 
particularly elephants, wild hogs, jackeJs, besides caterpillars and 
Worms. White ante are also very destructive. As a remedy against 
the attecks of the ante, the following recipe has been proposed : — 

Assafoetida, 8 chittacks. 

Mustard-seed cake, 8 seers. 

Putrid fish, 4 seers. 

Braised hutch-root, 2 seers ; or muddur, 2 seers. 

Mix the above together in a large vessel, with water sufficient to 
make them into the thickness of curds ; then steep each slip of cane 
in it for half an hour before planting ; and lastly, water the lines 
three times previous to setting the cane, by irrigating the water- 
course with water mixed up with bruised butch-root, or muddur if 
the former be not procurable, 

A very effectual mode of destroying the white ant is by mixing a 
small quantity of arsenic with a few ounces of burned bread, pul- 
verised flour, or oatmeal, moistened with molasses, and placing pieces 
of the dough thus made, each about the size of a turkey's egg, on a 
flat board, and covered over with a wooden bowl, in several parte of 
the plantations. The ants soon take possession of these, and the 
poison has continuous effect, for the ante which die are eaten by 



374 SACX^UARUM. 

those whicli succeed them. They are said to he driyen from a soil 
hy frequently hoeing it. They are found to prevail most upon newly 
hroken up lands. 

In Central India, the penetration of the white ants into the in- 
terior, of the sets, and the consequent destruction of the latter, is 
previ^W^ hy dipping each end into huttermilk, assafcetida^ and 
powdered mustard-seed, mixed into a thick compound. — Simmonds. 

I^egre are different processes for separating the sugar from the cane^ 
juice^i]^. different countries. The following is the method which 
ohtfiuns in the East Indies : " The liquor, after heing strained so as 
to sdpiarate the coarser feculencies, is hoiled down, in a range of open 
hoilers heated hy a long flue, into a thick inspissate juice, the scum 
whl^ rises during the operation heing removed. When it is suf- 
ficien^tly eiyaporated, it is removed into earthem pots to cool, and in 
tl^s^ .it hecomes a dark-coloured, soft, viscid mass, called goar or 
jctgg^vy- Sometimes a little quicklime is added to the juice hefore 
hoiling, which, hy partly clarifying it, renders it capahle of heing 
formed;into cakes or lumps. In general, however, if intended for 
suhsequp^ut clarification, the juice is merely hoiled down, and sold in 
pots, in agranular honey-like state, to the hoilers or refiners. These 
separate much of the molasses or uncrystallisahle part of the juice, 
hy putting the goor into a coarse cloth and suhjecting it to pressure. 
The sugar, which in this state is called ahuckar or khandy is further 
purified hy hoiling it with water, with the addition of an alkaline 
solution and a quantity of milk. When this has heen continued 
untU scum no longer rises upon the liquor, it is evaporated, and 
sometimes strained, and afterwards transferred to earthen pots or 
jars, wide at the top, hut coming to a point at the hottom, which is 
perforated with a small hole, that, at the commencement of the 
operation, ia stopped with the stem of a plantain-leaf. After it has 
heen left for a few days to granulate, the holes in the pots are un- 
stopped, and the molasses drain off into vessels placed to receive it." 
The sugar is rendered still purer and whiter hy covering it with the 
moist leaves of some succulent aquatic plant,* the moisture from 
which drains slowly through the sugar and carries with it the dark- 
coloured molasses. After several days the leaves are removed, and 
the upper part of the sugar, which has heen most purified, is taken 
away and dried in the sun. Fresh leaves are then added, hy which 
another layer of sugar is whitened in like manner ; and the operation 
is repeated until the whole mass is refined. The sugar thus pre- 
pared is called chenee, and is that which is commonly sent to Eng- 
land. 

In regard to quantity and the purity of its sugar, the cane is pre- 
ferred to any other plant containing saccharine juice. Six to eight 
Ih. of the latter yield 1 Ih. of raw sugar; and when properly 

* Vallisneria spiralis and BydriUa vertidllata aie employed by sogftr-itfinen 
for this purpose. 



SAGCHARUM. 375 

ripe, 1 6 to 20 bandy-loads of canes onght to yield a hogshead of sugar. 
Sugar when simply sacked from the cane is highly nutritious. In 
the West Indies immense quantities of the cane are consumed in this 
way ; and it has often been remarked how singularly the condition 
of the negroes becomes changed during the cane harvest, when 
they become far more . plump and healthy than they are at other 
seasons. The alimentary properties of sugar are much lessened by 
crystallisation. The common brown sugar is more nutritious than 
what has been refined. To persons disposed to dyspepsia and 
bilious habits, sugar in excess becomes more hurtful than otherwise ; 
and, as Dr Prout observes, " the derangement or partial suspension of 
the power of converting the saccharine principle in man into the 
albuminous or oleaginous not only constitutes a formidable species 
of dyspepsia, but the unassimilated saccharine matter in passing 
through the kidneys gives occasion to the disease termed diabetes.'' 
Now in the blood of a person in perfect health scarcely any sugar 
exists, whereas during the disease above named it will be found 
abundantly in the system. Sugar, therefore, whether in the shape 
of fruit or in whatever form, should be entirely avoided by persons 
in that condition, and only taken in moderation by persons suffering 
from bilious habits. 

Sugar when concentrated is highly antiseptic, and from a know- 
ledge of its possessing this principle, it is frequently employed in 
the preservation of vegetable, animal, and medicinal substances. 
Dried firuits are often preserved a longer time by reason of the 
sugar contained in them. In cases of poisoning by copper, arsenic, 
or corrosive sublimate, sugar has been successfully employed as an 
antidote ; and white sugar finely pulverised is occasionidly sprinkled 
upon ulcers with unhe^thy granulations. The Hindoos set a great 
value upon sugar, and in medicine it is considered by them as 
nutritious, pectoral, and anthelmintic. 

The average annual quantity of cane-sugar imported into the 
markets of the civilised world at the present time may be taken at 
1,500,000 tons, exclusive of what is made for consumption in the 
seversd countries where the canes grow, and this would probably 
amount to another million. — SimmoncU, Lindley, 



(487) Sacchamm sara (Roxb.) Do. 

Penreed Grass, Eno. Shnr or saro, BxNO. 

Description. — Culms perennial, erect, 6-16 feet, smooth, 
very strong ; lower leaves 4-8 feet long, narrow, upper ones 
shorter, broader, tapering from the base to a fine acumination, 
concave above, with hispid margin; sheaths 12-18 inches 
long, with a tuft of hair above their mouths on the inside ; 
panicles dense, open when in flower, condensed when in seed ; 



376 SACCHARUM. 

Tamification decompound, the inferior ones alternate, superior 
ones sub-verticilled, generally with their sharp angles armed 
with stifiF bristles and covered with white silky hairs ; flowers 
pjdred, one sessile, the other pedicelled; calyx 2-valved, 
clothed with long silky hairs ; coroUa 3-valved, fringed. — 
Eoxb, Fl. Ind, I 244. Bengal. 

EooNOMio Uses. — Ropes made from the leaves are employed by 
the boatmen about Allahabad and Mirzapore as tow-lines. These 
ropes are reckoned very strong skud durable, even when exposed 
to the action of water. They are first beaten to a rough fibre and 
then twisted into ropes. The pens made from these reeds are 
exported to & small amount from Madras, and are sent chiefly to 
Bomba;y. — (Royle. Comm, Prod, Mad, Pres,) The leaves are made 
into mats, and bundles of the stems are used for floating heavy 
timber on rivers. The stems are made into blinds, chairs, and 
basket-work, and are laid down on san^y roads in default of 
macadamising. The tops, just before flowering, are reckoned good 
fodder for increasing the supply of milk ; and in the southern parts 
of the Punjaub the deUcate part of the pith, in the upper part of 
the stem, is eaten by the poor. When burnt, its smoke is considered 
beneficial applied to burns and scalds. — JStetoarfe Punj, Plants, 

(488) Saccharam spontanenm {Linn,) Do. 

Thatch Grass, Eno. Belloogadd/, Tkl. Kagara, Hdid. Eash, Bkvo. 

Description. — Root perennial ; culms annual, erect, leafy, 
round; leaves sheathing, remarkably long and narrow, 
margins hispid; mouths of the sheaths woolly; panicles 
terminal, spreading, erect, 1-2 feet long, composed of verti- 
cilled, filiform, simple ramifications (except the lower verticil 
or two), spiked as racemes ; flowers paired, one pedicelled and 
the other sessile ; calyx 2-leaved, margins ciliate, surrounded 
with soft silvery hairs; corolla 1-valved, ciliate, mem- 
branaceous ; stigma feathery, purple. — Boxb. Fl, Ind, i 235. 
Peninsula. Bengal. 

EooNOMio Uses. — The leaves of this species make good mats for 
various purposes, and are also used for thatching houses. Buflaloee 
are fed on the grass. It grows on the banks of rivers, in hedges, 
and on moist uncultivated lands. The immense quantity of long 
bright silver - coloured wool which surrounds the base of the 
flowers gives this species a most -conspicuous and gaudy appearance. 
On the banks of the Irrawady this tall grass is very abundant, and 
forms a striking object in the landscape. — Rox^, 



SALICORNLA. — SALSOLA. 377 

(489) Salicomia brachiata (Roxb.) K 0. Chenopodiacils. 

Quoiloo, Tel. 

Descbiption. — Perennial; stems erect; branches numer- 
ous, decussate ; joints clubbed ; spikes cylindrical ; flowers 
greenish, conspicuous, 3-fold, opposite. FL All the year. — 

Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 8i.— Wight Icon, t 738. Coromandel. 

Sunderbunds. 

Economic Uses. — This plant grows plentifully on low wet ground, 
generally such as is oveid^owed by the spring- tides. It yields a 
Barilla for soap and glass. This species grows so abundantly on the 
coasts of India, that by incineration the plant might supply Barilla 
enough for the whole world. The sejjie muttie of the bazaars, a 
coarse kind of Barilla, is a mineral product, obtained from Moughir 
and other parts of Bengal. — (Royle, Roxb,) Sir W. O'Shaugh- 
nessy expresses a doubt whether Indian prepared Barilla could com- 
pete in point of cheapness with that manufactured in Europe. 
Another species, the S. Indica (Willd.), yields a similar Barilla for 
soap and glass. It abounds on the western coast, but is not so 
frequently met with in the south. It is pickled by the natives. — 
Roxb. 

(490) Salix tetrasperma {Roxb.) N. 0. Salic ACEiB. 

Description. — Small tree; leaves alternate, lanceolate, 
entire ; stipules leafy ; catkins lateral, peduncled, male long, 
lax, and few-flowered, female cylindric, rather dense, elon- 
gated ; peduncle 3-6-leaved ; scales oblong, spathulate, 
puberulous ; capsule long-pedicelled, ovoid, glabrous. Fl. — 
March — July. — Boxb. Flor. Ind. iii. 753. — Dec. Prod, xvi 
s. 2. p. 192.— S. ichnostachya, R. W.— Wight Icon, t 1953.— 

Roxb. Cor. i. t. 97. Eivulets on the Ghauts and similar 

places in the Peninsula. Neilgherries. Ehasia hills. Oude. 

Medical Uses. — The bark is stated to be valuable as a febrifuge. 
— (Dalz. Bomb. Flor.) Under the Hindustani names of Khilaf 
and Bed-i-musk is included Salix caprea (Linn.), the flo^vers of 
which yield, on distillation, an aromatic water which has valuable 
stimulant properties assigned to it, and is held in high repute in a 
variety of diseases. The ashes of the wood are also prescribed in 
haemoptysis. — Joum. Agri.-Hort. Soc. Punj. Feb. 1852, p. 161. 

(491) SalBola Indica {Willd.) K 0. CHENOPoniACKfi. 

Yella-kura, Tjel. 

Descbiption. — Steins perennial, erect, branching out into 






378 SALSOLA — 8ALVAD0RA. 

many diffuse, alternate ramifications ; leaves scattered round 
the branchlets,^ erect, approximate, sessile, linear, semi- 
cylindric, coloured in the older plants ; spikes terminal, 
erect, compound or panicled, leafy ; flowers minute, greenish, 
aggregate in the axils of the floral leaves; calyx 5-clefb; 
segments concave within, with a slightly membranaceous 
margin. Fl. Nearly all the year. — Roxb. Fl. Ind, ii. 62. — 

Wight Icon, t 1797. Coast of CoromandeL Salsette. 

Sunderbunds. 

EooNOMio Uses. — ^The leaves are eaten by the natives where the 
plant grows, and considered very wholesome. This species is found 
in moist situations on the sea-coost. — (Roxb.) An impure soda 
is described by Irvine (Mat Med. of Patna), under the name of 
Kharsujiy imported from Scinde, employed in the manufacture of 
soap and glass, and applied locally to tumours with the view of 
causing their resolution. This is the plant named as yielding this. 
— Pharm, of India, 

(492) Salsola nndiflora {WUld), Do. 

Bawa-kada, Tbl. 

Desckiption. — Stems perennial, many, spreading close upon 
the ground, and often rooting; extremities of the branches 
ascending, young parts smooth and coloured reddish ; leaves 
alternate, sessile, linear, fleshy; spikes terminal, erect, very 
long, compound, leafless ; flowers very small, greenish, 
numerous, fascicled. Fl. Nearly all the year. — Roai), Fl. 

Ind, ii 60.i Shores of CoromandeL Sunderbunds. Tra- 

vancore. 

Economic TJsBa — This species yields a kind of Barilla used for 
making soap and glass. It is common in salt barren land near the 
sea. The natives gather it for fuel, but do not appear to eat it, from 
its very saline taste. — Moxb, 

(493) Salvadora Persica (Linn,) N. 0. Salvadoraoe;b. 

Ooghai, Tax. Ghoonia, Pedda-warago-wenki, Til. 

Description. — Tree, 15-20 feet ; bark very scabrous ; 
branches numerous, spreading, pendulous at their extremities ; 
leaves opposite, petioled, oval or oblong, entire, very smooth, 
shining on both surfaces, veinless ; panicles terminal, and from 
the exterior axils ; flowers small, numerous, greenish yellow ; 



SALVADORA. 379 

berry minute, smooth, red, juicy, 1 -seeded ; calyx 4-tootlied, 
corolla 1-petalled. Fl^ Nearly all the year. — Roxb, FL Ind. 
i. 389.— Cor. i. 26— S. Indica, B. W.— Wight Icon, t 161.— 
Eivina paniculata, Xmw.— ^Circars, near the sea. Both 
Goncans. 

Medical Uses. — ^This is not a conxmon tree. The bark is recom- 
mendod by the Yytians in decoction in cases of low fevers, and as a 
tonic and stimulant in amenonhoea. The bark of the root, which 
is very acrid, when fresh bruised acts as a vesicatory. The berries 
are aromatic, and taste like garden-cress. It grows equally well in 
any soil, and produces flower and fruit all the year round. — Roxh. 
Ainalie. 

In Dr Imlach's Eeport on snake-bites in Scinde {Bombay Med, 
Trans, iii. N. S. p. 80), several cases are mentioned in which the 
fruit of this tree was administered internally with good effect. It is 
likewise said to be a favourite purgative. Eoxburgh considered 
that the tree promised to be valuable as a medicinal agent. The 
S. oleoides (Decaisne in Jacq. Yoy. Bot. t. 144) partakes, though in 
a less degree, of the properties of this species. It is known by the 
name of Miswdk or tooth-brush tree, from the fact of the younger 
branches being in common use among the natives of Northern India 
for the purpose of cleansing and strengthening the gums. — {Pharm, 
of India.) The fruit is sweetish, and much eaten. Aphrodisiac 
qualities have been attributed to it. It is often dried and kept like 
currants. Pieces of the wood are carried to long distances for sale, 
as it is much favoured for tooth-sticks by the Mohammedans, who 
use theirs for numbers of times, the Hindoos only once. The em- 
ployment of it is said to be good for digestion, and speedily to cure 
bleeding gums. — {Steioarfs Funj. Plants.) In Scinde and the 
northern parts of India it grows to be a very large tree. Dr Eoyle 
considered it to be the mustard-tree of Scripture, and Sir Emerson 
Tennent was of the same opinion. He says the Salvadora Persica 
was the mustard-tree alluded to by our Saviour. The Greek term 
Sinapis (Matt. xiiL 31) is the name given to mustard, for which 
the Arabic equivalent is Chandul or Khandul. The same name is 
applied at the present day to a tree which grows freely in the neigh- 
bourhood of Jerusalem, and generally throughout Palestine, the 
seeds of which have an aromatic pungency, which enables them to be 
used instead of the ordinary mustard (Sinapis nigra) ; besides which, 
its structure presents all the essentials to sustain the illustrations 
sought to be established in the parable, some of which are wanting 
or dubious in the conmion plant. It has a very small seed ; it may 
be sown in a garden ; it grows into a " herb," and eventually be- 
comes a " tree," so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the 
branches thereof. The Khandul grows abundantly in Syria, Egypt, 
Arabia, on the Indus, and throughout the north-west of India.-— 
Tennenfs CeyUm^ L 61, note. 



380 SALVIA — SAMADERA. 

(494) Salvia plebeia (R. Br,) K 0. Labiate 

Dbscription. — Stem herbaceous, erect, branched, pubescent ; 
leaves petioled, oblong, wrinkled ; verticels lax, about 6- 
flowered, racemose ; racemes paniculate ; calyx campanulate, 
upper lip quite entire, teeth of the lower lip obtuse ; corolla 
scarcely longer than the calyx ; flowers purple. Fl, Nov. — 
Jan. — A Br. Prod. p. 50L — Dalz. Bomb. Flor. p. 209.— 

S. brachiata, Boxb, Hindostan. Oude. Silhet. Bengal. 

Kandalla. 

Medical Uses. — ^The seeds are officinal. They are much used 
by the Hindoos as mustard, and in gonorrhoea and menorrhagia. 
The stalks of another species, the Salvia lanata (Roxb.), are peeled 
and eaten, and the roots used in coughs, the seeds as an emetic, and 
the leaves applied in cases of guinea-worm. The latter are also 
made into poultices and applied to wounds. The seeds are ad- 
ministered internally for haemoiThoids, and at Lahore in colic and 
dysentery, and externally to boils. — Steicarfs Punj, Plants, 

(495) Samadera Indica (Goertn.) K 0. SiMARUBACSiE. 

Karmghota, Mal. 

Description. — Tree, 30-35 feet; leaves alternate, oblong, 
elliptical, very long ; calycine segments 4-5 each, marked with 
an external gland ; petals 5, longer than the calyx ; flower- 
bearing peduncles longer than the leaves, pendulous, com- 
pressed, axillary or terminal, divided at the apex into a small 
umbel ; drupe with a thick pericarp ; flowers yellowish white. 
Fl. Dec. — Feb. — W. & A. Prod. i. 151. — Niota tetrapetala^ 

Wall, (not Lam.) — Bheede, vi. t 18. Concans. Balghotty, 

in Cochin. Travancore. 

Medical Uses. — This tree grows abundantly in Travancore and 
Cochin, and is propagated easily from seeds. The bark has febrifu- 
gal properties, and is used by the natives for this purpose. An oil is 
extracted from the kernels of the fruit which is extensively used in 
rheumatism on the western coast, and ia procurable in the bazaars. 
In erysipelas the leaves bruised are externally applied. — (Bheede, 
Pets. Obs.) The seeds are strung together and tied round children's 
necks as a preventive of asthma and affections of the chest The 
following directions for the use of Karinghoia bark are given in the 
* Technologist : * Decoction as a febrifuge — Take 6 oz. of rasped 
wood, three pints of water, boil over a slow fire until reduced to one 
pint, and strain. Dose — Two ounces to be taken three times arday. 



SANSEVIERA. 381 

It may be given in all stages of fever. When taken during a febrile 
paroxysm, it should be given in three-ounce dosea It abates the 
severity of the symptoms, shortens the paroxysm, and hastens the 
cure. Sometimes nausea and vomiting occur after taking the dose. 
This will rather favour the recovery of the patient than otherwise. 
In such cases the dose should be lessened to one ounce, and repeated 
at greater intervals, or it may be given during the paroxysm only. 
In recent cases the fever is generally speedily subdued by the de- 
coction. 

An infusion of the wood may at all times be used as a general 
tonic, and is a perfect substitute for the infusion of Quassia in the 
following form : Take two drachms of the rasped wood, one pint of 
boiling water ; infuse for two hours in a covered vessel, and strain. 
Dose — One ounce as a bitter tonic to improve the appetite and in- 
vigorate the system. It is of a light lemon colour, and a good 
vehicle for the administration of Iron, Iodide of Potash, &c. — {Tech- 
nologiift.) Among plants of this order may be mentioned here the 
Brucea (Nima) Quassioidea (Ham.), which grows in Himalaya, the 
root of which, according to Koyle (Illtistr. p. 158), is as bitter as the 
Quassia of the West Indies. The bark is imported into Bengal 
from the hills, and is sold under the name of BharangL It par- 
takes of the bitterness of the root. — Pharm. of India, 

EcoNOMio Uses. — The wood is light but durable, and is used for 
shoes and other articles. It takes a good polish. 

(496) Sanseviera Zeylanica {Willd.) K 0. Liliacejs. 

Bowstring Hemp, Eno. Marool, Tam. Moorgalie, DuK. Chaga, S^, Tel. 

Description. — Stemless ; roots perennial ; leaves radical, 
exterior ones shorter, spreading, and more broad, interior ones 
nearly erect, 1-4 feet long, semi-cylindric, grooved on the upper 
side, sharply acuminated at the apex, somewhat striated, 
smooth ; scapes rising from the centre of the leaves, 1-2 
feet long, erect, with four or five alternate sheaths between the 
raceme or flower-bearing part and the base ; racemes erect, 
about as long as, or longer than, the scape below the flowers, 
striated, smooth ; flowers greenish white, erect, fascicled, 4-6 
together; pedicels short, 1-flowered; corolla 1-petalled, funnel- 
shaped ; calyx none. Fl, Aug. — Sept — Roxb, Fl. Ind. iL 161. 
— Cor, ii. 184. — S. Eoxburghiana, Schvit Bengal. Penin- 
sula. Dindigul hills. 

Economic U8E8.-^This species is probably not different from the 
8, Roxburghianay though some botanists have separated the two 
species. The present one is well known for the excellent fibres it 



382 8ANSEVIERA. 

yields. It is easily propagated by cuttings, and thrives in almost 
any soil, throwing up abundance of fresh root-shoots, and thus 
extending itself in every direction. 

The method of preparing the fibres usually adopted by the natives 
is to steep the leaves, which are 3 or 4 feet long, in water for several 
days, in order that the pulpy part may rot The fibres are then 
easily separated, but putting them in water is apt to discolour them. 
In other cases they are first beaten to separate the fibres more easily, 
and placed on a board and scraped with a piece of rough stick or iron 
till all the pulp is removed. For every 40 lb. of the fresh leaves, Dr 
Boxbuigh obtained about 11 lb. of the clean fibre; and he reckoned 
that two crops might be easily calculated upon where they are 
planted for the sake of these fibres. In 1831 the plant was dis- 
covered in the neighbourhood of Cuttack by the Rev. Mr Garrow, 
and its fine qualities brought to light, as will be seen by the follow- 
ing notice quoted by Dr Eoyle : ^' In the course of a short time 
afterwards he discovered a short species of Aloe, growing wildly 
and profusely in all the moist woods of the neighbourhood, which 
the natives called Moorgahhee, On experiment, this plant produced 
a most beautiful fibre, as soft and as fine as human hair, but possess- 
ing, notwithstanding, extraordinary strength and tenacity. He 
derived a great quantity of flax from this plant, which, when por- 
tioned off in hanks, bore a strict resemblance to raw sUk ; indeed, 
side by side, the difference could not be distinguished. It was this 
article that first induced the writer to turn his attention to the 
manufacture of cloth. He engaged two native weavers to construct 
a narrow loom for this purpose. They at first found some difficulty 
in the undertaking, but in the course of four or five days they pro- 
duced as fine a piece of cloth as was ever beheld." 

The Moorva fibre is very soft, silky, and pliant, especially if well 
prepared, more resembling that of the pine-apple than any other. 
The fibres are used for ropes, twine, thread, bowstrings, and cord. 
They are considered valuable for the manufacture of paper, and are 
used for that purpose at Trichinopoly. Begarding the comparative 
strength of the Moorva fibre, Dr Roxburgh had a line 4 feet long, 
which bore a weight of 120 lb., a cord of similar size, made of Rus- 
sian hemp, breaking at 105 lb. In other experiments the fibre in an 
untwisted state bore 280 lb., and Agave fibre only 270 lb. 

This is certainly a plant deserving every attention for the sake of 
its fibre. Its easy propagation, its general distribution over the 
country, the simple process of preparing the fibre, and the variety of 
uses to which it can be applied, whether for rope, paper, cloth, or 
other purpose, render it valuable in every way. — Royle Fih. Plants. 
Boxb. Ainalie. 



SANTALUM. 383 



(497) Santalnm albnm. (Linn.) K. 0. SANXALACEiE. 

Sandal-wood. Eno. Chandanum, Taic. Tsjandana-nuinun, Mal. Chandanum, 
Tkl. Sundel, DuK. Chundoie. Himd. 

Description. — Tree, 20-25 feet ; branches mimerous, much 
dividing and spreading, and forming nearly spherical heads ; 
leaves opposite on short petioles, oblong, smooth, entire, glau- 
cous below ; thyrse axillary and terminal, shorter than the 
leaves ; pedicels opposite, lower pair of each thyrse usually 3- 
flowered ; flowers numerous, small, first straw-coloured, after- 
wards deep ferruginous purple, inodorous; calyx campanulate, 
4-cleft ; corolla none ; berry round, smooth, black when ripe, 
succulent, crowned with the caljrx, 1-celled ; nut solitary. Fl, 

Nearly all the year. — Boxb. Fl. Ind. i. 442. Border of 

Wynaad. Peninsula. Mysore. 

Medical Uses. — The wood ground up with water to the con- 
sistence of paste is a conmion application among the natives to 
erysipelatous and local inflammations, to the temples in fevers, and 
to allay heat in cutaneous diseases. In remittent fevers it acts as 
a diaphoretic. It yields by distillation a pale-yellow volatile oil, 
which is stated to be a remedy in gonorrhoea, and from the use of 
which the most satisfactory results have arisen. It has been reckoned 
superior to Copaiba and Cubebs, and has succeeded where these 
latter have failed.* — Pharm. of India. 

Economic Uses. — This tree yields the Sandal-wood of commerce, 
which is usually cut into billets and disposed of in that state. It is 
burnt to perfume temples and dwelling-houses. Eeduced to powder, 
it is taken in cocoa-nut water, and the natives us6 it in bathing to 
cool the body. The Mohammedans express a precious oil from the 
moist yellow part of the wood, which they value as a perfume. The 
same tree yields both the white and yellow Sandal-wood, the last 
being the inner part of the tree, and is very hard and fragrant, 
especially near the root. Large quantities of Sandal-wood oil are 
annually exported from Madras. — J. Graham, Comm. Prod. Mad. 
Pres. 

In Mysore an experimental attempt has. been made to cultivate 
the Sandal-wood tree. The revenue derived from its sale forms the 
principal item of forest revenue in Mysore. In 1866-67, 74,698 
rupees were realised, the value of stock being 156,321 rupees. The 
natural habitats of the tree, it is said, have been reduced with the 
spread of cultivation. An increased production of the tree, either 
by cultivation or by aiding its natural growth and regeneration, 

* For the mode of extraction of this oil, see Appendix F. For the growth 
and management of the Sandal-wood tree, see Buchanan's Jour., passim. 



384 SAPINDUS. 

would therefore be most useful, and would produce a largely-ex- 
panding revenue. The tree is said to attain the age of maturity in 
about twenty-five years. — {Govt Letter to Comm, of Mysore, Sept. 
1867.) Though found all over Mysore, it grows very unequally in 
different parts of the country. The tree attains its greatest bulk and 
height in talooks with a moderately heavy rainfall, but the perfume 
of the wood grown in such localities is not so strong as of that grown 
in more arid spots, especially where the soil is red and stony. It 
will thrive among rocks where the soil is good ; and trees in such 
places, though small, are generally fuller of oil The bark and sap- 
wood have no smell, but the heartwood and roots are highly scented, 
and rich in oil. The heartwood is hard and heavy. The best parts 
are used for carving boxes, album-covers, desks, and other useful 
and ornamental articles. The roots (which are richest in oil) and 
chips go to the still ; while Hindoos who can afford it, show their 
wealth and respect for their departed relatives by adding sticks of 
Sandal-wood to the funeral pyre. The wood, either in powder or 
rubbed up into a paste, is used by all Brahmins in the pigments 
used in their distinguishing caste-marks. The oil forms the basis 
of many scents, and is sometimes used for disguising with its scent 
articles which, being really carved from common wood, are ptissed 
off as if made from the true Sandal-wood. The greatest portion of 
the wood sold yearly in Mysore goes to Bombay. — ( Van SomererCs 
Report on Mysore Forests, 1869-70.) A fine quality is said to grow 
at the foot of the AnnamuUays. A large revenue from the sale of 
the wood from the forests of South Ganara and others on the western 
coast is realised ; this amounted to 3^ lakhs in eight years. Great 
attention is here paid to the preparation and classification of the 
billets and roots, and also the distillation of the oil from the chips, 
which operation is carried on in South Canara by Mr Gadell. Be- 
production of th& tree by planting is attended with great difficulty. 
— Conservator's Report to Mad, Govt. 1867. 



(498) Sapindns detergens {Roxh.) X. 0. Sapindacea. 

Reetha. Hind, and Benq. 

Description. — Tree, 20 feet; bark smooth, ash -coloured; 
leaves alternate, about the ends of the branchlets alternately 
pinnate; leaflets 4-6 pail's, obliquely lanceolate, oblong, smooth 
on both sides ; petioles flexuose, smooth ; panicles terminal, 
and from the exterior axils, diffuse, with compound ramifica- 
tions ; calyx 5-cleft ; petals 5, equal, regular ; drupes solitary, 
1-celled, sub-globular, very smooth, yellow, with a large margin 
round the base on the outside ; flowers small, white. FL 
March— April— Uoa*. Fl Ind. ii. 280. BengaL 



SAPINDUS — SARCOSTEMMA. 385 

EcoNOMio Uses. — The Hindoos use the pulp of the fruit for 
washing linen. Several of the species are used for the same purpose 
instead of soap, owing to the presence of the vegetable principle 
called eaponine. The root and bark, too, of many species are said to 
be saponaceous. — Roxb. Rayle. 

(499) Sapindns emarginatus {Vahl), Do. 

Soapnut-tree, Eko. Poovandie or ponnanga, Tam. Ritah, DuK. Konkoodoo, 
Tel. Buro-reetha, BssfQ. Rarak. Mal. Aratavala, Can. 

Description. — Tree, middling size; petiole pubescent; leaves 
abruptly pinnate ; leaflets 2-3 pairs, oblong, retuse or emargin- 
ate, entire, upper side glabrous, under very downy ; racemes 
in terminal panicles ; calyx segments 5, oblong ; petals 5, 
oval, outside densely hairy, margin very woolly, with a small 
woolly appendage on each side about the middle, inside nearly 
glabrous, or with a few scattered hairs about the middle; ovary 
densely hairy ; fruit 1-4, generally 3-lobed, lobes very hairy 
on the inside at the insertion of the seeds ; flowers small, 
white. FL Oct.— Nov.— IT. <fc A. Prod, i. 111.— Wight HI i. 

t 51. — Roxb, FL Ind, ii. 279. Bengal. Northern Circars. 

Mysore. Bombay. AnnamuUays. 

Medical Uses. — ^The capsule is considered by the Vytians to be 
expectorant, and is prescribed in humoral asthma. It also has a 
detergent quality when bruised, forming suds if agitated in hot 
water. The natives use this as a soap for washing the hair, silk, &c. 
The seeds are said to be applied to the mouth of persons in epileptic 
fits with success. Dr Wight had never seen the tree in the Penin- 
sula, and remarks that it is only distinguishable from 8, detergens 
(Roxb.) by the leaflets being glabrous on both sides, and from four 
to six pair. — AinsUe. Wight 

Economic Uses. — The wood is yellow, hard, and prettily grained, 
and is used for ordinary work, but not very durable. — (Beddome 
Flor. Sylv. t 154.) The wood of the S, rubiginosus (Roxb.) is useful 
for various purposes, being strong and durable. It is of a chocolate 
colour towards the middle. The leaves resemble those of the ash, 
and are very soft to the touch. — /. Chraham, Roxb. 

(500) Sarcostemma brevistigxna (R, W.) N. 0. Asclepiacea 

Tiga tshomoodoo, Tel. Bramee, Shomluta, Beno. 

Descbiption. — Twining ; leafless ; umbels terminal or ter- 
minating the short lateral branches ; calyx and pedicels glab* 
rous; outer stamineous corona 10-plicate, 10-crenale; leaflets 

25 

s/ f 



^ r 



386 SARCOSTIGMA — SOHLEICHEKA. 

of inner corona gibbous on the back, equal to the gynostegium; 
flowers small, white. FL June — Aug. — W, & A. Contrib, p. 
59. — Wight Icon, t 595. — ^Asclepias acida, RoxK Fl, Ind. IL 
31. Coromandel. 

Economic Uses. — Bundles of this plant put into the trough of 
the well from which a sugar-cane field is watered, together with a 
bag of common salt, will extirpate white ants ; and the water so im- 
pregnated will destroy the ants without injuring the sugar-cane. 
The plant yields a quantity of milky juice, but of such a mild 
nature that travellers will often suck the tender shoots to allay 
thirst. — Moxb, Gibson, 

(501) Sarcostigma Kleinii (W. ^ A,) X. 0. HEBNANDiACEis. 

Description. — Climbing shrub, branched ; leaves alternate, 
short-petioled, oblong-oval, acuminate, coriaceous, glabrous; 
racemes usually paired, axiUary, very long, interrupted ; 
flowers forming numerous sessile fascicles, without pedicels ; 
fruit an oval somewhat flattened nut, about an inch long and 
half an inch broad. — Wight Icon, t, 1854. Travancore. 

Medical Uses. — This plant yields a highly-esteemed medicinal 
oil {Advl or Odul), much used on the western coast for rheumatism. 
— Jury Rep. 

(502) ScUeichera trijuga {Willd.) K 0. Sapindacks. 

Poo-marum, Tak. May, Roatangha, Tel. Poovnm, Mal. 

Description. — Tree, 50 feet; leaves abruptly pinnate; 
leaflets opposite, about 3 pairs, oblong or broadly lanceolate, 
quite entire, nearly glabrous ; calyx 5-cleft ; petals none ; 
racemes axiUary or below the leaves round the base of the 
young shoots, solitary, simple or compound; drupe globose, 
pointed, with a dry pericarp ; seeds 1-2, rarely 3, covered with 
a pulpy aril; flowers small, greenish. Fl, Feb. — March. — 

W. &A, Prod, i. 114— ifoaj&. Fl. Ind, ii. 277. Coromandel 

CJommon on the Ghauts. Travancore. 

Medical Uses. — ^The bark is astringent ; powdered and rubbed 
up with oil, the natives use it as a remedy in itch. — Rozh. 

Economic Uses. — Lamp-oil is expressed from the seeds in Mala- 
bar, and the fruit is eaten by the natives. The wood is hard, and 
is employed for various useful purposes. — J, Oraham. 



SCHMIDELIA — SCHREBERA. 387 



(503) Sdunidelia serrata (Dec,) Do. 

Taualikoe^ Tel. Rakhal-phul, Hind. 

Descrxption. — Tree, 12 feet; leaves trifoliate; leaflets 
stalked, ovate or oblong, acute, serrated, younger ones glab- 
rous, or pubescent beneath and on the nerves, older ones with 
a glandular tuft of hairs in the axils of the nerves ; calyx 
5-parted, segments unequal; petals 4, cuneate, with a scale 
bearing a tuft of hairs above the unguis ; racemes axillary, 
solitary, simple; flowers white; ovary hairy, 2-lobed; fruit 
baccate. Fl. Aug. — Oct. — FT. & A, Prod, L 110. — Orni- 
trophe serrata, Roxb, Cor. L t 61. — FL Ind, ii. 266. — (Var.) 
CoromandeL Bengal. • 

Medical UsEa — ^There are several varieties of this species, which 
have apparently given rise to some difference of opinion among 
botanists The fruit is small and red, and is eaten when ripe by 
the natives. The root is astringent, and is given by the Telinga 
doctors in diarrhoea — Eozb, 



(504) Schrebera swietenioides (Roxb,) N. 0. BiaNONiACEjE. 

Weaver^s-beam tree, Eno. Mogalinga mamm, Tak. Mnccadi-chettoo, Tel. 

Description. — Large tree; leaves nearly opposite, imparl- 
pinnate, about a foot long, leaflets 3-4 pairs, opposite, obliquely- 
ovate or cordate, entire, pointed, smooth on both sides, the 
lower ones largest; calyx tubular, bilabiate; corolla salver- 
shaped, with cylindrical tube, and three times larger than the 
calyx ; segments 5-7, curved, tnincated ; capsule large, pear- 
shaped, scabrous, very hard, 2-celled, opening from the apex ; 
seeds 4 in each cell, compressed, and with a long membran- 
aceous wing ; panicles terminal, trichotomous ; flowers small, 
white and brown variegated, very fragrant at night. FL 

March — ^April. — Roxb, FL Ind. i. 109. — Cor. ii. t. 101. 

Circar mountains. 

Economic Uses. — A large timber-tree. The wood is of a grey 
colour, close-grained, hard, and durable. It is used for a great variety 
of purposes, being less Hable to warp than most other woods. It is 
employed by weavers chiefly for the beams of the loom, not being 
liable to bend or warp.-7-i?ox6. 



388 SCINDAPSUS — SEMECARPUS. 

(505) Scindapsns officinalis (Schotf). K 0. Aracea. 

Attie-tippilie, Tam. Guj-pippul, Beng. Auna tippilie, Mal. 

Description. — Perennial, epiphytic, stems rooting; leaves 
alternate, sub-bifarious, oblong-cordate, entire, smooth on both 
sides ; petioles sheathing, channelled ; peduncles terminal, 
solitary, smooth, erect when in flower; spathe sub-cylindric, 
greenish without, pale yellow within ; apex filiform ; spadix 
sub-cylindric, equalling the spathes, pale greenish, dotted, 
with the dark-coloured stigmas ; berries seeded, arillate at the 
base. Fl. July — Aug. — Wight Icon, t 778. — ^Pothos ofl&cin- 
alis, Roxb. Fl. Ind. i. 431. Bengal Calicut 

Medical Uses. — ^At Midnapore this plant is cultivated for its 
fruit, which is cut into transverse pieces, dried, and used medicinally. 
— (Roxb,) It is reputed to have stimulant, diaphoretic, and anthel- 
mintic virtues. — Pharm, of India, 

(506) SemecarpuB Anacardium (Linn.) N. 0. Anacardiacsjc. 

Marking-nut, Eno. Shayng-cottay, Tam. Kampira, Mal. Neela jeedie, Jeedi- 
ghenzaloo, Trl. Bheela, Hind. Bhilawa, Duk. . 

Description. — Tree, 50 feet ; leaves entire, cuneate-obovate, 
rounded at the apex, whitish beneath, but not downy ; calyx 
flat, 5-cleft; petals 5, sessile, spreading; flowers panicled, 
terminal, branched ; fruit sessile, cordate-ovate, with a slight 
notch on one side under the apex ; flowers small, green. FL 
May— July.— ^. & A, Prod. i. 168,— Wight Icon, t 558.— 

Roxb. Cor. i. t 12. — Fl. Ind, ii. S3. Concans. CoromandeL 

Courtallum. Guzerat. Bengal. Travancore. 

Medical Uses. — The receptacle of thefruit when ripe is yellow, 
about the size of the nut, which is blacl^^I^Jho lattwr contains the 
black, corrosive, resinous juice so well knowri^ This juice is employed 
by the natives to remove rheumatic pains, aches, and sprains ; in 
tender constitutions it often produces inflammation and swelling. 
It is employed by the Telinga physicians in the cure of almost every 
kind of venereal complaint It is also given in small doses in leprous 
and scrofulous affections. An oil is also prepared from the kernels, 
used externally in rheumatism and sprains ; undiluted it acts as a 
blister. The juice of the nut should always be cautiously handled. 
— (Ainslie. Roxb.) Bhilawa is the nut of a large forest-tree, which 
is common throughout Ihdia. The acrid viscid oil which the nut 
contains is used as an escharotic and counter-irritant It leaves a 



SESAMUM. 389 

mark for life. It creates great pain, and often very intractable 
sores; but ignorant natives, unacquainted with the blisters of 
Europe, have a greater dread of them than of the Bhilawa. It is 
given medicinally in small doses, and is considered a stimulant and 
narcotic, and is much used in the Maaalehs of elephants. Given in 
large doses, it renders these animals furious. The farina of the 
anthers of the flowers is very narcotic and irritating ; people of a 
peculiar habit accidentally sleeping under the tree when in blossom, 
or even going near the flowers, are stupefied, and have their faces and 
limbs swollen. The use of the Bhilawa as a counter-irritant fre- 
quently causes the whole body and face to swell with erythematous 
inflammation and much constitutional disturbance. The mature 
corolla and receptacle are fleshy and of a sweetish-sour taste, and are 
eaten roasted. — Irvine Med. Tap. of Ajmere. 

EcoNOMio Uses. — The wood of the tree is of no use, not only on 
account of its softness, but also because it contains much acrid juice, 
which renders it dangerous to cut down and work upon. The 
kernels are rarely eaten. The green fniit, well pounded into a pulp, 
makes good binl-lime. The juic